Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: December, 2019
Angela Nkiru Nwammuo & Gideon Uchechukwu Nwafor
Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria
It is a public knowledge that some changes occur in the environment globally which results to increased disease, food shortages, and extreme flooding at various localities during certain periods of the year. A lot of farmers keep lamenting about how their crops were washed away by floods. These farmers suffer from this disaster every year but do not have the solution to their problems except finding a way to adapt and mitigate against this global phenomenon known as climate change. This study therefore evaluated the level of awareness and information diffusion of climate change adaptation strategies among formers in Anambra State. The survey method was adopted in carrying out the study and Diffusion of Innovation Theory was the theoretical anchorage. The population of the study was drown from members of the registered agricultural cooperative societies in Anambra State which is 13,466 with a sample size of 370 which was determine using the Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table. The study found that farmers in Anambra State level of awareness to information on climate change adaptation strategies is high as they get information through periodic meetings, seminars and workshops even though radio and television have not been effective in disseminating such information especially to farmers in the rural areas. The study therefore recommended that various channels of communication, especially radio, should be employed to disseminate information on climate change adaptation strategies in order to reach a broader audience.
Keywords: Level of Awareness, Information Diffusion, Climate Change, Adaptation Strategies, Farmers.
Several studies have shown a positive relationship between an increased flow of information and agricultural development (Raju 2010; Cash 2011; Manda 2012; Kalusopa 2015; Elia, 2017). Notwithstanding their potential for agricultural development, majority of African countries have failed in informing the population in the rural areas about agricultural practices (Adomi, Ogbomo and Inoni 2013). Despite the agricultural information generated by research institutions, government agencies, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community-Based Organizations (CBOs), only a limited information on various innovations is known to the majority of smallholder farmers in Africa (Laizer 1999). Tarhule (2017) observes that, despite notable advances in climate research and climate forecasting, many African countries have not experienced the benefits of climate research for mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change and variability. As a result, most African countries continue to suffer the highest level of climate change impacts which in turn, has severe implications for economic growth and development.
It is evident that access to timely information on climate change is of paramount importance, if adaptation and development are to be sustained (Chikozho, 2010). A number of studies have revealed that, despite other factors which influence adaptation to climate change, information heavily triggers and enhances farmers’ ability to adapt. Such studies, especially, that of Mengistu (2011) in Ethiopia, found that accessibility and availability of timely information on climate change was a prerequisite to adaptation and mitigation of the adverse impact of climate change and variability. Kandji and Verchot (2017) in East Africa found that information on climate change was a critical factor for local communities in making the right decisions in agriculture and other socio-economic activities including adaptation to climate change.
Nigeria like all the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (IPCC 2007; Apata, Samuel and Adeola, 2009). Though climate change is a threat to agriculture and non-agricultural socio- economic development, agricultural production activities are generally more vulnerable to climate change than other sectors. This is because agricultural production in most sub-Saharan African countries (Nigeria inclusive) is dependent on weather and climate. It is clear that the combination of high climatic variability, poor infrastructure and a range of other problems associated with climate variability will constitute important challenges for African countries and Nigeria in particular.
A study of farmer’s perception of impact of climate change on food crop production in Ogbomosho Agricultural zone of Oyo State identified the significant effects of climate change on crop production as; low yield of crop, stunted growth of crop, ease spread of pest and disease attack on crops, drying of seedling after germination and ineffectiveness of agricultural chemicals due to delay of rainfall. This agrees with the statement of Ozor (2009) that variations in rainfall pattern will affect crop production in varying ways depending on the location. This study therefore sought to evaluate the accessibility to information on climate change adaptation and diffusion of the innovation by crop farmers in Anambra state as an enhancement of communication for development.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Consequently, adaptation was seen as a viable option in reducing vulnerability associated with anticipated negative impacts of climate change (Jones, 2016). Adaptation methods are those strategies that enable the individual or the community to cope with or adjust to the impact of climate in the local areas (Jones, 2016). Such strategies will include the adaptation of early maturing crops, drought resistant varieties and selective keeping of livestock in areas where rainfall declined. Recent years have seen adaptation come to the international climate debate. The focus is centered largely upon enhancing the capacity of developing countries such as Nigeria to adapt to the impacts of climate change (Jones, 2016). Concerns about adapting to climate change are now renewing in the impetus for investments in agricultural research and emerging as additional innovation priorities. It is not known whether farmers in Anambra State have access to information on climate change adaptation and if they use this information to develop adaptive strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were designed for this study
1. To ascertain the level of awareness of farmers in Anambra to information on climate change adaptation strategies
2. To find out the respondents’ sources of information on climate change adaptation strategies in Anambra State
3. To determine the level of adoption of information on climate change adaptation strategies by farmers in Anambra State
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated for the study
1. What is the level of awareness of farmers in Anambra State to information on climate change adaptation strategies?
2. What are the respondents’ sources of information on climate change adaptation strategies in Anambra State?
3. What is the level of adoption of information on climate change adaptation strategies among farmers in Anambra State?
2. Theoretical Framework
In this study, the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) was used as the theoretical framework. The applicability of DOI model in agricultural innovation is evident in the works of Longo (1990) and Manda (2002), Gundu (2009) and Sell (2010). Rogers (2003:20-21) points out that the innovation-decision process is an information- seeking and information-processing activity in which an individual seeks information at various stages in the innovation-decision process in order to decrease uncertainty about an innovation’s expected consequences. These innovation adoption stages are knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation. DOI outlines attributes which influence the adoption of an innovation in a society. These include complexity, relative advantage, trialability, observability and compatibility. The Diffusion of Innovation theoretical framework classifies members of a social system on the basis of their innovativeness. These include five adopter categories, which are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. The DOI model presents communication channels, time, attitude, social systems variables and perceived characteristics of innovation as independent variables which determine whether a new innovation will be adopted or rejected.
Rogers (2003:12) defined an innovation as any idea, object or practice that is perceived as new by members in a social system. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels, over time, among the members of a social system (Rogers 2003:5). Innovation in this study is perceived in the context of climate adaptation measures which have been introduced to farmers as a result of climate change. Using DOI, the study investigates how information on climate change adaptation is disseminated to farmers in Anambra state to enable them to mitigate the negative impact of climate change.
DOI theory is relevant to this study because it assisted in explaining how information on climate change adaptation can be packaged and disseminated to farmers in Anambra state to enable them to mitigate the adverse impact of climate change and variability. It also helped to investigate farmers’ rate of adoption of new techniques for coping with climate change as well as seeking answers on how farmers access and use information on climate change adaptation.
3. Literature Review
3.1 Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture in Nigeria
Climate change, an evident change in the average weather conditions is a challenge experienced globally. Global warming driven by natural and anthropogenic activities is responsible for changes in mean temperatures, evaporation rates, and rainfall pattern. IPCC observed that though uncertainties exist in predicting how future climate change will be, the likelihood of warmer climates, higher evaporation rates and longer periods of dry spells are expected (Solomon, 2007). By 2013 it was predicted that for every degree centigrade rise in temperature there will be 7% increase in evaporation and between 1-2% increases of precipitation (Allen, 2015). Subsequently predictions made are now reality as recent records reveal irregular rainfall patterns characterized by sporadic rains, shifts in the onset and cessation dates of rains, and extended periods of dry spells around the tropics (Eruola, Bello, Ufeogbune, & Makinde, 2013; Salack, Giannini, Diakhaté, Gaye, & Muller, 2014).
Nigeria is not left out in this record as hotter and drier conditions are becoming common. Abiodun, Lawal, Salami, and Abatan (2013) observed rising temperatures across the country, less rainfall towards the extreme north and higher rainfalls along the coast due to high evaporation and ocean currents. These changes in the climate system drives changes in rainfall patterns and subsequently determines the occurrence of climate related hazards such as floods or droughts (Fuwape, Ogunjo, Oluyamo, & Rabiu, 2016).
Floods are common during the rainy season for example, in 2012, continuous heavy tropical rains during the rainy season caused flooding in Nigeria affecting about seven million people and causing huge damages. About 200 hectares of farmlands were destroyed, leading to a loss of livelihoods for farming households as well as physical damage to agricultural infrastructures such as transport and irrigation systems. Frequent floods from sea level rise are threatening human and economic activities along coastal towns (Adeagbo, Daramola, Carim- Sanni, Akujobi, & Ukpong, 2016). The presence of water bodies naturally attracts economic activities like irrigation, power generation, and water supply schemes as well as the growth of human settlements. Transportation systems are interconnected to the aforementioned sectors as they depend on it for the effective flow of goods and services (Gajigo & Lukoma, 2011). As such poor transportation system raises costs of inputs for production, and reduces accessibility of produce to points of demand.
Climate change affects water demand and supply of irrigation systems. Rising temperatures and high evaporation rates will demand more water for agricultural and other agrarian purposes. Climate change will affect the yield of water sources thereby an inability to meet water demand. Agriculture is currently the largest consumer of the water sector and with future climate variability water demand for irrigation will likely be higher than what it is now (Ashofteh, Bozorg-Haddad, & Loáiciga, 2016). Goyol and Pathirage (2017) note that agriculture in Nigeria is rainfall dependent and climate change will make rainfall patterns highly unpredictable and cause stresses on agricultural production. Consequently, irrigation has the potential to reduce the risks of agricultural shocks from water shortages. The inadequacy of structured dams to store water for irrigation purposes is a factor of vulnerability in times of water shortages (Goyol and Pathirage, 2017).
Water shortages and consequent droughts commonly experienced during dry seasons does not only extend the fight against hunger but is triggering conflicts among agrarian communities (Nyong, Dabi, Adepetu, Berthe, & Ihemegbulem, 2008; Rindap, 2015). Crop production and livestock rearing require water for their survival, often procured from the same source. Rising temperatures and high evaporation rates places higher water demands for both user groups. Hotter and drier conditions driven by climate change is lowering water levels and shrinking water bodies (Klein, Dietz, Gessner,et al., 2014). Overcrowding and competition for available water sources is leading to unprecedented circumstances (Goyol & Pathirage, 2017).
3.2 Adaptation to Climate Change: An Overview
IPCC (2007) defined adaptation to climate change as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. It also refers to all adjustments in behaviour or economic structure that reduce the vulnerability of society to changes in the climate system including its current variability and extreme events as well as longer-term climate change. Obayelu, Adepoju, Idowu (2014) noted that the goal of adaptation to climate change is neither to prevent its negative impacts nor merely clean up after its adverse effects. Rather, it is a long-term resilience, to create the conditions in which the society is largely able to absorb the impacts, such that any residual impact beyond the coping capacity of the society remains within a socially defined acceptable limit of risks. They also noted that adaptation to climate change necessitates that farmers first notice the change, and then identify useful adaptations and implement them.
According to Wisner, Blaikie, Cannon and Davis(2004), the nature and extent of environmental stresses such as climate change do not necessarily determine agriculture’s vulnerability, rather what matters is the ability of the society to cope and/or recover from such environmental change. The coping capacity and the extent of exposure are related to both changes in the environmental and changes in the societal aspects like cultural practices and land use (Aye and Akpan, 2013). Early efforts to deal with the challenges of global warming focused mainly on mitigation, with the aim of reducing and possibly stabilizing the GHG concentrations in the atmosphere (Odjugo, 2010). However, had this stabilization been achieved to some extent, global warming would continue to increase in different countries over time. Accordingly, adaptation is considered a feasible option in reducing vulnerability and associated negative climate change effects (Jones, 2016).
Okpe and Aye (2015) therefore, see adaptation as the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities while in some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects (Wisner et. al., 2014). In other words, adaptation is the process by which ecological, social or economic systems adjust to actual or expected stimulus and their effects or impacts (De Chavez and Tauli-Corpuz, 2018). Adaptation methods are those strategies that enable the individual or the community to cope with or adjust to the impact of climate (Jones, 2016; Nyong, Adesina and Osman, 2017; Mustapha, Undiandeye and Gwary, 2012). Such strategies include the adoption of drought resistant varieties, early maturing crops, mulching, and selective keeping of livestock in areas where rainfall declined, irrigation, crop diversification, adoption of mixed crop and livestock farming systems, and changing planting date, among others (Aye and Akpan, 2013; Onyeneke and Madukwe, 2016).
Numerous studies have been conducted on climate change impact on agriculture while also considering adaptation to climate change (Onyeneke and Madukwe, 2016). These studies showed the importance of adaptation measures in substantially decreasing potentially adverse impacts of climate change and in strengthening the benefits associated with changes in climate. For instance, Rosenzweig and Parry (2014) showed that if adaptation is taken into account, there is great potential to increase food production under climate change in many regions of the world. Downing (2011) indicated that with adaptation, it is possible to reduce food deficits in Africa from 50 to 20 percent. Further, Mendelsohn and Dina (2012) showed that in Indian agriculture, the potential damages from climate change can be reduced from 25 to 15-23 percent under adaptation.
Bradshaw, Dolan and Smit(2014) used data from over 15000 operations in Canadian prairie agriculture for the period 1994- 2002, reported that individual farms have become more specialized in their cropping patterns since 1994 and that this trend is unlikely to change in the immediate future, despite expected climate change and the known risk- reducing benefits of crop diversification. Based on this they recommended that there is a need to assess and understand the wider strengths and limitations of various ‘suitable’ and ‘possible’ adaptations to changes in climate. Mendelsohn and Dinar (2013) used the Ricardian model to examine the role of irrigation as an adaptation measure against unfavourable climatic conditions and found that irrigation significantly reduces the negative impacts of climate change. Seo, Mendelsohn and Ricardian (2018) used multinomial logit models to analyze crop and livestock choice as adaptation options, respectively. They found that farmers switch crops as a measure of climate change adaptation while they choose goats and sheep as opposed to beef cattle and chicken for adaptation given that goats and sheep can do better in dry and harsher conditions (warmer temperatures) than beef and cattle.
While these studies have shown the possibility of reducing the effect of climate change using the various adaptation strategies, it is equally noted that some socioeconomic, policy and institutional factors may constrain the farmers’ ability to adopt these strategies (Odjugo, 2016; Hassan and Nhemachena, 2018; Baethgen, Meinke and Gimen, 2013; Kandlinkar and Rirbey, 2015). Hence, the need to understand the constraining factors to climate change adaptation cannot be overstressed.
3.3 Access to Information on Climate Change Adaptation by Farmers in Nigeria
Elia (2013) explains that dissemination of information refers to the sending of agricultural information to farmers, while access refers to the ability of farmers to receive information from sources. Information on adaptation to climate change is being disseminated in a number of ways to farmers. These include agents such as non-governmental organizations, researchers, extension services and social networks, who use leaflets, posters, workshops, demonstrations, such as those at Farmer Field Schools (FFS), radio and television (TV) stations to disseminate the information (Elia, 2013). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of these information and communication media differ between developed and developing countries.
Pounds (2015) found that knowing where people look for information tends to partly solve the problem but knowing where one can find the information is another part which ensures usage of the disseminated information. Cartmell, Orr and Kelemen (2014) explained that for information to be used, it must suit their needs and be disseminated in a manner which ensures its reception. The authors furthermore point out that it is always essential to know the users, and the study methods used to disseminate information to them, for effective information delivery. As pointed out by Rogers (1995), for effective adoption and use, information disseminated to farmers should address issues such as complexity, compatibility and should be relatively better when compared with conventional innovations.
In the USA, Orr (2013) noted that, although extension officers still disseminated information through meetings, on-farm visits and field days, there was a shift by farmers to other means of accessing information such as the Internet, video and computer software packages. Cartmell, Orr and Kelemen (2014) support this observation. They found that most limited- scale landowners used the Internet to access information. The authors observed that demographic factors such as age and education status did not influence the limited-scale landowners’ information access and usage positively.
Agwu, Ekwueme and Anyanwu (2018) explored the adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via radio by farmers in Enugu state, Nigeria. The study revealed that radio farmer programmes enhanced the extent of farmers’ adoption of new technologies such as modern land preparation and planting of early season crops, improved early maize cultivation, yam harvesting and storage of the crops in barns. The programmes also helped farmers on site selection, processing of cocoyam into chips and flour, weeding and fertilizer application in yam, cassava, maize intercropping and pest and disease control in food crops. These findings corroborate those of Ingram, Roncoli and Kirshen (2012), who observed that radio was the preference of the majority of farmers in Burkina Faso in disseminating forecast information.
The study by Agwu, Ekwueme and Anyanwu (2018) identified broadcasting time and language barriers and feedback as major constraints which hindered effective access to, and use of, information prepared for farmers. The programmes were explicitly described as too short and as being inappropriately scheduled. It was observed that the radio programmes were scheduled at a time when farmers were busy with farming activities and thus could not listen. Agwu, Ekwueme and Anyanwu showed that the language used in presenting the programmes, the inability of farmers to ask relevant questions and poor feedback from radio presenters affected farmers’ access to, and use of, information. Since most farmers in the rural areas rely on the radio for awareness and knowledge of various socio-economic issues, including agricultural development, poorly structured radio programmes and inadequate feedback deny farmers the opportunity to access and use information to enhance their knowledge. Inadequate knowledge reduces farmers’ confidence in introduced innovations and develops a negative attitude towards trialability and observability, knowledge, persuasion, decision and application attributes as described by the Diffusion of Innovations theoretical framework (Rogers 2003).
The role of extension officers in disseminating information on climate change and variability is exceedingly important. Despite the crucial role played by extension officers, Agwu, Ekwueme and Anyanwu (2018) found that they were not disseminating agricultural information to farmers effectively. They thus hindered farmers’ information sharing and usage of information about innovations. Ingram, Roncoli and Kirshen (2012) found that, although government extension officers were disseminating information to farmers, they were faced with financial challenges, as the budget from the government was not sufficient. In addition Mutekwa (2009), in Zimbabwe, observed that extension workers lacked accurate information and knowledge on climate change and variability, which is a prerequisite tool in adaptation strategies for enhancing the agricultural production of farmers.
Ofuoku and Agumagu (2018) concluded that learning and adoption of innovations are more effective when audio and visual methods were used. The study suggested that extension teaching should be supported by adequate and appropriate visual aids for quick understanding and adoption of innovations. The authors stressed a need for training extension officers to enhance their skills in information dissemination by developing new communication mechanisms for use with farmers. Hassan, Shaffril, Ali, Ramli (2010) discovered that the print material which stored agricultural information for farmers was distributed to farmers through major events such as exhibitions, staff in district offices and meetings with department of agriculture officials and through the department’s website. The study further showed that, despite the fact that farmers knew that there was information being posted on agricultural websites, they did not access information on the websites.
For this study, the survey research method was adopted to evaluate information diffusion of climate change adaptation among farmers in Anambra State. Survey was chosen because of its appropriateness in studying the attitudes and opinion of a large populationof people hence its relevance to the study.This study was carried out in Anambra State using the various agricultural zones of the state as clusters. Anambra State is a state in South-Eastern Nigeria deriving its name from ‘Oma Mbala’ which is the native name of the Anambra River.Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil, bauxite, ceramic and has an almost 100 percent arable soil. The State has manyother resources in terms of agro-based activities like fishery and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry. Currently, Anambra state has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria (WHO, 2018).
The population of the study is made up all the agricultural cooperatives societies in Anambra State who are members of Anambra State Farmers Association. According to Cooperative Department, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Awka, Anambra State (2018), Anambra State has a total of two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven (2,787) registered agricultural cooperative societies with membership strength of thirteen thousand four hundred and sixty-six (13,466). It is, therefore, the total number of members of the registered agricultural cooperative societies, which is 13,466, that was adopted as the population for this study.
A sample of 370 farmers in Anambra state who are members of registered agricultural cooperative societieswas selected for the study. This sample was arrived at using a table of sample size determination developed by Krejcie and Morgan (1970). The table establishes sample sizes against their corresponding population. The sample size in this study is established at 95 percent confidence level and 5 percent sampling error.
The sample of 370 was drawn through purposive sampling technique. Nwodu (2006) notes that purposive sampling technique is often called judgmental sampling because respondents are selected on condition that they meet certain criteria. This means that the researcher was at liberty to meet the purpose of the research. According to Michael, Oparaku and Oparaku (2012), judgment sampling makes use of typical cases among the population to be studied, which the researcher believes will provide the result needed.Thus, purposive samples tend to represent a section of the population that meets specific objectives prescribed by the researcher. The researcher includes in the sample only elements that can be reached (Ohaja, 2003). The reason for the use of purposive sampling techniques is the appropriate strategy the researcher can use in other to get the samples of members of registered agricultural cooperative societies in Anambra State.The accidental sampling techniques were useful in this study because the researcher got most members of registered agricultural cooperative societiesin Anambra State during their monthly meetings and administered the questionnaire to them in order to get information.
5. Data Presentation
Table 1: Return rate of Questionnaire
Table one shows that the return rate of questionnaire is 96% (n = 355) while the mortality rate is 4% (n = 15). The return rate is higher than the mortality rate. The mortality rate of 12% does not affect the study because it is insignificant compared to the return rate of 96%. Thus, the copies were considered good enough to represent the population. The presentation and analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire were therefore based on the 355 copies that were returned and found usable.
Research Question One:
What is the level of awareness of farmers in Anambra State on climate change adaptation strategies?
Table 2: Provision of information on respondents’ access to information on climate change adaptation
Table two shows respondents’ responses to research question one. Data reveals that majority of the respondents (90%, n=320) agreed that there is high level of awareness of farmers on climate change adaptation strategies.The implication of data on table two is that majority of the respondents are very much are of climate change adaptation strategies.
Research Question Two
What are the respondents’ sources of information on climate change adaptation?
Table 3: Provision of information on Respondents’ Sources of information on climate change adaptation
Table three provides information on the respondents’ sources of information on climate change adaptation in Anambra State.Majority of the respondents 90% (n=320) identified seminars and workshops as their major source of information on climate change adaptation in Anambra State. The import of the data on table three is that out of the 355 respondents that have access to information on climate change adaptation in Anambra State, majorityare exposed to the information through seminars and workshops other than radio, television and newspaper.
Research Question Three
What is the level of adoption of information on climate change adaptation by farmers in Anambra State?
Table 4: Provision of information on the level of adoption of information on climate change adaptation by farmers in Anambra State
Table 4 shows respondents’ responses to research question three. Data reveals that majority of the respondents (69%, n=245) believe that majority of registered farmers in Anambra State adoption of information on climate change adaptation is very high. The implication of data on table four is that majority of the registered farmers in Anambra State have adopted climate change adaptation and mitigation information like the adoption of drought resistant varieties, early maturing crops, mulching, and selective keeping of livestock in areas where rainfall declined, irrigation, crop diversification, adoption of mixed crop and livestock farming systems, and changing planting date, among others.
6. Discussion of Findings
Findings from research question one revealed thatthere is high level of awareness about climate change adaptation strategies among registered farmers in Anambra State. This finding contradicts the assertion of Adomi, Ogbomo and Inoni (2013) who aver that majority of African countries have failed in informing the population in the rural areas about agricultural practices despite having high potential for agricultural development.
Finding from research question two revealed that there is high level of awareness to information on climate change adaptation strategies among farmers in Anambra State through periodic meetings, seminars and workshops even though radio and television have not been effectiveindisseminating such information especially to farmers in the rural areas. This finding supports the position of Orr (2013) who noted that extension officers still disseminated information through meetings, on-farm visits and field days even though there was a shift by farmers to other means of accessing information such as the Internet, video and computer software packages. The finding however, contradicts the conclusion of Roncoli and Kirshen (2012), who posit that radio was the preference of the majority of farmers in Burkina Faso in disseminating forecast information and Agwu, Ekwueme and Anyanwu (2018) who found that radio farmer programmes enhanced the extent of farmers’ adoption of new technologies such as modern land preparation and planting of early season crops, improved early maize cultivation, yam harvesting and storage of the crops in barns.
Finding from research question three revealed thata majority of the registered farmers in Anambra State have adopted climate change adaptation and mitigation information like the adoption of drought resistant varieties, early maturing crops, mulching, and selective keeping of livestock in areas where rainfall declined, irrigation, crop diversification, adoption of mixed crop and livestock farming systems, and changing planting date, among others. Some who do know about climate change adaptation strategies have been adversely affected by climate change factors. This finding confirms that effectiveness of meeting, seminar and workshops as observed Hassan, Shaffril, Ali, Ramli (2010) who discovered that print materials which stored agricultural information and distributed to farmers through major events such as exhibitions, staff in district offices and meetings with department of agriculture officials and through the department’s website can induce diffusion of information on climate change adaptation strategies. Although, Ofuoku and Agumagu (2018) concluded that learning and adoption of innovations are more effective when audio and visual methods were used and suggested that extension teaching should be supported by adequate and appropriate visual aids for quick understanding and adoption of innovations.
Climate change is likely to exacerbate existing problems for farmers in Nigeria and create new risks if it is not mitigated timeously. The reasons for the greater vulnerability of Nigeria to climate change lie in widespread poverty; limited access to information on climate change adaptation; dependence on the natural environment and agriculture for the majority of people; complex governance and institutional systems; limited access to capital including markets, infrastructure, technology, ecosystem degradation; and complex disasters and conflicts. The adverse impacts of climate change in developing countries are caused by the low levels of adaptive capacity, and limited use of technology and innovation. Hence, vulnerability to climate change exacerbates poverty in the agricultural sector of many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria, which cannot be eliminated without proper packaging and dissemination of appropriate information to farmers.
Based on the research findings, the researcher made the following recommendations:
1. Efforts should be made by the government, nongovernmental organizations and the media to educate more farmers and provide more information on climate change adaptation strategies especially in the rural areas
2. All the channels of communication should be employed to disseminate information on climate change adaptation strategies in order to reach a broader audience.
3. Diffusion of innovations and new technologies designed to enhance adaptation and mitigation of effects of climate change should be monitored by Ministry of Agriculture to track progress and growth in the Agricultural sector.
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