Appraisal of Non-Motorized Intra-City Transport

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Published on International Journal of Earth Science
Publication Date: December, 2019

Esuabanga, William E.; Osuorji, Gideon C.; Sodangi, Ahmed A.; Igbokwe, I. E.
Research Officers, Nigerian Building and Road Research Intitute
KM 10, Idiroko Road, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

Journal Full Text PDF: Appraisal of Non-Motorized Intra-City Transport (Studied in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria).

Abstract
Non-motorized transport (NMT) which has to do with all means of transport that are human powered has remained one of the most neglected mode of transport in most developing countries despite it potentials. It has been observed that motorized transport (MT) have always enjoyed massive support at all levels of transportation planning at the detriment of NMT. Due to this imbalances in transport planning and implementation, our urban road have been turned into a nightmare of incessant road accidents, environmental pollution, traffic congestions etc. This study was aimed at appraising the non-motorized urban transport in Calabar metropolis. The following objectives were used in guiding the study: to assess the challenges faced by NMT commuters; to determine NMT commuters purpose of trip; to examine NMT commuters’ reason for adopting it as intra city transport; to estimate distance covered by NMT commuters: to evaluate those condition that will influence the willingness to adopt NMT by potential commuters in the study area. Hypothesis set for the study was: There is no significant relationship between reasons and challenges of adopting NMT by commuters. Data for the study were generated through questionnaire administration on a sample size 3165 at all the wards through Taro Yamane sample formular.2006 population census was used and projected to 2019.190 NMT commuters were randomly sampled at major roads and streets within a week duration. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The results showed that provision of pedestrian/bike lane; provision of adequate street light; elimination of stigma; motorized traffic control as having the highest willingness rating with 0.83; 0.81; 0.80 and 0.73 respectively. The result also revealed a strong correlation coefficient(r) of 0.64 between challenges affecting NMT as well as those reasons that influence its adoption, therefore the null hypothesis (HO) was rejected while the alternative (H1) was upheld. The findings from the study showed that most potential commuters have interest in embracing NMT as intra-city transport if certain constraints are eliminated. It was recommended that department of NMT should be established in all the Ministries and Agencies that are in charge of transportation policy formulation and implementation.

Keywords: Non-motorized, Intra-city, Commuters, Cycling and Walking.

1. INTRODUCTION
Non-motorized urban transport has become one of the most neglected modes of transport mostly in developing countries. Despite its promising potentials as one of the remedy in coping with the ever increasing challenges of traffic congestion, environmental pollution, road accidents, etc. in our urban centers. Today the world is confronted with increasing level of urbanization which is tilted in favour of motorized means of urban transport. Non-motorized transport (NMT) which has to do with those means of transportation powered by human efforts need to be given due pride of place to thrive along with motorized transport (MT) thereby bringing about a balance as well as creating room for multi-dimensional urban transport system. This is because the yearning for a sustainable means of urban transport can only be achieved if non-motorized transport is embraced at both policy formulation and implementation stage of our intra-city transport system. According to Ken et al (2004), motorized transport account for 50% of carbon monoxide and nitro-oxide emission globally. In Lagos, it is reported that the 82% in the volume of motorized traffic generates 41% emission of the greenhouse gases through automobile usage (Aderamo and Atomode, 2012).
There is need to pay more attention to NMT sector in terms of ensuring that numerous issues militating against its adoption is addressed. This forms the basis of this study in ensuring that challenges and conditions working against the willingness for its adoption are identified as this will make room for possible elimination. While some studies have been carried out on NMT sector across the world, none have considered it fit to look at those conditions that influence the willingness of potential commuters to adopt NMT. A study carried out by Abraham, (2010) revealed that the provision of the needed facilities is the major factors affecting the willingness to adopt NMT without specific identification of these facilities. Other researchers have supported this assertion such as Aultman-hall and Baetz, (2000), Dillard and Voros, (2007). According to Odu, (2014) in his study of NMT in Calabar metropolis, a factor such as weather was identified as a key factor affecting cycling and walking. The study further revealed that socioeconomic characteristics of commuters affect their willingness to adopt NMT. This study takes a step further in ensuring that conditions which influence the decisions of potential commuters to adopt NMT are exposed. It is with this that efforts and strategies needed to improve on the willingness to adopt NMT by potential commuters can easily be achieved by all the stakeholders in urban transport management.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to appraise the non-motorized transport (NMT) sector as intra-city transport. In order to achieve this aim, some objectives were put forward as follows:
1. To assess the challenges face by NMT commuters;
2. To determine NMT commuters purpose of trip;
3. To examine reasons for adopting NMT as intra-city transport;
4. To estimate the distance covered by NMT commuters in the study area;
5. To evaluate those conditions that will influence the willingness to adopt NMT as intra-city transport by potential commuters

Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis was put forward for the purpose of this study:
H0: There is no significant relationship between challenges and reasons for adopting NMT by commuters in Calabar metropolis
H1: There is significant relationship between challenges and reasons for adopting NMT by commuters in Calabar metropolis.

STUDY AREA
Calabar metropolis lies between Lat. 4o 4’ 00’’N and 5o 5’ 00’’N and Long. 8o 35’ 00’’E and 8o 50’ 00’’E. At the North-West is bordered with Odukpani Local Government Area while to the South-East by Akpabuyo Local Government Area. It is drained in-between two rivers, the Calabar River and the Kwa River. It is the administrative headquarters of Cross Rivers State. It occupies a total surface area of 157.6sqkm.
According to the 2006 national population census figure, the population of Calabar metropolis was 371,090. With 2.5% rate of projected population, the projected population figure would be estimated at 519,283. The reason for this increase in population apart from birthrate is as a result of increase in rural -urban migration in search of better opportunities. The management within the urban center is predominately serviced by road transport through private taxi, mini buses, and tricycle (Keke Napep). Buses and taxi services are along the major roads while tricycles are mostly restricted within minor routes and streets. The major roads are the Muritala Mohammed highway, Marian road, Ekpo Abasi road, IBB Way, Ndidem Usang Iso road, Mary Slessor road, Mayne Avenue, MCC road, Odukpani road, Hawkins road, Old Ikang road etc. Walking by pedestrians is commonly seen along the major roads but cycling is quite scanty.

Fig 1: Map of study area

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Global Positioning System (GPS) was used in obtaining coordinates of the study area. Primary data for the study was obtained through questionnaire administration while secondary data was obtained from text books, journals, magazines etc. Types of primary data obtained and used for the study were: challenges, reasons, and types of trips, distance covered and conditions that influence willingness to adopt NMT.
The head of households or their representatives in all the localities that made up the study area were target population. For this to be achieved, 2006 population figure was used and projected to 2019. Taro Yamene (1967) population sampling technique was used to achieve the needed sample size of seven hundred and eighty-two (782) for respondents in the study area based on their willingness to adopt NMT. The sample population for NMT commuters was one hundred and ninety (190), ninety-five (95) for cycling and ninety- five (95) for walking. This was done through the support of ten (10) research assistants who were daily stationed along major streets/roads to administer questionnaires to NMT commuters long the major roads and streets. Data obtained was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The descriptive statistics were percentages, tables, charts, etc. Willingness rating by respondents was analyzed using the five (5) point likert scale and relative importance index (RII), Tonidandel and Lebreton, (2011). Relative importance index (RII) of five points likert scale is given as:
RII =
Where fx = weight given to each performance measured by the respondents
∑f = total number of samples.
Pearson product moment correlation was used as an inferential statistical tool in analyzing the relationship between reasons to adopt NMT and challenges faced by NMT users.

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Table 1: Projected population from 2006 -2019 and their samples
Calabar Metropolises 2006 population Census 2019 projected population Taro Yamane sample size

Source: Authors computation, 2019

Table 1 above shows how the population size (798) that was used for the study was obtained.

Fig.2. Chart showing 2016 and 2019 projected population size.

Table 2: Questionnaire distribution

Source: Authors field survey, 2019

Table 2 shows that 8 questionnaires were not completed but returned and 8 were not returned bringing it to a total of 16 voided questionnaires. The total number of questionnaires valid for the study was 782.

Table 3: Challenges of adopting NMT by respondents

Source: Authors field survey, 2019

Fig. 3: chart showing the leading challenges faced by NMT users

Table 3 above shows that lack of pedestrian/ bike lane was one of the leading challenges with 28.4%, followed by stigma (20.0%). This is evidence in the neglect of road infrastructure needed to support NMT as well as the prestige attached to motorized ownership at the detriment of NMT. Other major challenges were motorized traffic (13.2%), insecurity and weather (11.1% each).

Table 4: Commuters purpose of trip

Source: Authors field survey, 2019

Table 4 above shows the purpose of trip by NMT commuters. This shows that the leading reasons for trip are both leisure/exercise and get around with 21.1% each. This reveals a strong indication for NMT to be used for leisure /exercise and short distances within the city than motorized means of transport thereby reducing road congestion in cities. Other purposes of trips were shopping and social/visitation with 18.4% and 10.5% respectively.

Fig. 4 Trip by NMT Commuters

Table 5: Commuters reasons for using NMT

Source: Authors field survey, 2019

Table 5 above shows reasons for using NMT in the study area. The findings shows that health/exercise was leading with 23.7% as well as high cost of motorize transport with 20.0%.Other strong reasons were leisure and reliability with 13.2% and 9.5% respectively. This agrees with the fact that NMT has the capacity to improve health and alleviate poverty through transport cost reduction.

Fig 5: chart showing commuters reasons for using NMT

Table 6: Distance covered by NMT commuters (in kilometers)

Source: Authors field survey, 2019

Table 6 above shows that 5 – 10kms was majorly covered by NMT users with 47.2%. This reveals the effectiveness of NMT usage in short distance intra-city transport if well developed. This was followed by 5 km (26.3%), 11 – 15 km (15.8%) and 16 km (10.0%).

Fig. 6: chart showing distance covered by NMT users

Table 7: Conditions that influence willingness to adopt NMT using Relative Importance Index (RII)

Source: Authors data analysis, 2019

Table 7, above shows the rating of those conditions that influence the willingness of respondents to adopt NMT as intra-city means of transport in the study area. Provision of pedestrian/bike lane and motorized traffic control were the leading conditions that most respondents agreed will influence their decisions. This shows that when adequate pedestrian walk way and bike lane are built within our city centres the tendency to adopt NMT will be high. Another conditions put forward by respondents was elimination of stigma. This revealed the need to sensitize and create more awareness on the citizens to stop perceiving NMT usage as a sign of poverty. Other conditions were provision of security, street lights and subsidized gear bikes with 0.7, 0.69 and 0.63 respectively. This goes on to prove that dealing with some of the key conditions that will influence willingness of respondents to adopt NMT for intra-city transport is vital in achieving lesser traffic congestions in our cities as well as making our roads safer.

Table 8: showing relationship between challenges and reasons in adopting NMT with Pearson product moment correlation

Source: Authors data computation, 2019

r = (Udofia, 2005)
Where r = correlation coefficient
X and Y = variables of interest which are challenges and reasons of using NMT by their users
= standard deviation

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant relationship between the challenges and reasons for using NMT in Calabar metropolis.
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant relationship between the challenges and reasons for using NMT in Calabar metropolis.
According to table 8, substituting for the equation above, we have a pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) of 0.64.
With a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.64, it indicates a strong relationship between challenges and reasons for using NMT in Calabar metropolis. Therefore the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is upheld. With this result, it is expected that in order to increase more reasons to adopt NMT by their users, there is need to work on those challenges that affect NMT users in Calabar metropolis.

4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study assessed the non-motorized transport for intra-city transport in Calabar Metropolis and focused on the reasons and challenges of adopting NMT by respondents within the study area. It also examined the purpose of trip made by NMT users as well as the distance in kilometers covered by the respondents. Conditions that influence decisions of respondent willingness to adopt NMT were also evaluated. Field study together with questionnaire administration was carried out. Different analysis were conducted using different statistical tools such as relative importance index (RII) rating, product moment correlation, percentages, tables and charts. It was discovered that most respondents are willing to adopt NMT only if certain conditions/facilities are provided. The study revealed a strong relationship between challenges and reasons for adopting NMT in the study area. This revealed that if the challenges faced by NMT users are dealt with, there will be more reasons to adopt NMT as intra-city transport.
The study recommends the following;
1. That NMT should be allowed to co-exist with motorized transport (MT) through the creation of enabling environments for both as a means of intra-city transport.
2. That more awareness and education should be conducted for most urban residents to appreciate the positive impact of NMT on our environment, health and traffic management in our urban centres.
3. That urban transport planning policies formulation and implementation should always incorporate NMT from the on-set as a sustainable urban transport system.
4. That legislation and regularization be made so as to strengthen and enforce the right of NMT users on urban roads.
5. That the needed facilities/infrastructure required to encourage increased usage of NMT be put in place by concerned agencies and authorities such as speed bumps, walkways, pedestrian crossings, bicycle lane, etc.
6. That department of pedestrian and cycling be created in every Ministry of Transport at the Federal, State and Local/Municipal Government.

5. REFERENCES
Abraham, B.E. (2010). Systematic overview of non-motorized transportation for developing countries. Journal of Advanced transportation. 37(3),273 – 293.
Aultman-Hall, L. & Baetz, B.B. (2000). Analysis of bicycle commuters routes using geographic information systems: Implications for bicycle planning. Transportation research record. Journal of transportation research board, 25 (11), 102 -110.
Dill, J & Voros, K. (2007). Factors affecting bicycle demand. Initial survey findings from the port land,
Oregon region. Journal of the transportation research board, 21 (1), 9- 17.
National population Commission(2006).Population and housing census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria-priority tables(vol.1)
Gerrard, J., Rose, G., & Lo, S.K. (2008). Promoting cycling and walking for women: the role of NMT infrastructure. Journal of preventive medicine, 46 (1), 55 – 59.
Odu, D.A. (2014). Assessment of commuters’ willingness to adopt non-motorized alternatives for intra-city transport in Calabar, Nigeria, unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Science,University of Calabar,Calabar-Nigeria.
Udofia, P.E .(2005). Fundamental of Social Science Statistics. Immaculate publications Ltd., Enugu.
Tonidandel, S. &Lebreton, J.M. (2011). Relative Importance Analysis: A useful supplement to regression analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26 (1), 1 – 9.
Yamene , T. (1967). Statistics: An introductory Analysis (2nd edition). Harper and Row publishers, New York.