The Problem of Artificial Insemination

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: April 2, 2019

Kindalem Bayew
Animal Health Department Head in Janamora Wereda Livestock Development Office
Janamora, Ethiopia

Journal Full Text PDF: The Problem of Artificial Insemination (Study in Janamora Wereda).

Abstract
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2018 to January, 2019 in Janamora. From 384 respondents data was collected by questionnaires survey in five selected kebeles found in Janamora. A total of 22 (20.56%) were born from the total inseminated cows, and 17/22 (77.27%) calves were male from the tatal born calves. Female calves were accounted 5/22 (27.73%) due to this reason farmers do not want to use this artificial insemination, because they use artificial insemination to get female calves and to improve their milking quantity. As the table 3 shows that the ratio of prevalence of No. of cows that conceived to No. of cows that Inseminated are 23.36%. This means that the unsuccessful prevalence of cows is 83.64%. This shows that a high economically crisis. This crisis is occurred due to different condition like disease, problem of artificial insemination, unable to heat of the cow, and problem of the professional. As the table 5 results shows that the prevalence of male calves and female calves are 77.27% and 22.73% respectively. Rob Gebeya and Mekane Birhan Kebeles have the better prevalence (18.18%) of male calves next to Deresgie (31.82%). The least encountered kebeles in male calves are Enchet Kab and Denkolako with equal prevalence of 4.55%. The prevalence female calves of Deresgie, Denkolako, and Enchet Kab Kebeles have equal prevalence 4.55% next to Mekane Birhan with the prevalence of 9.09%. As the table 7 study shows that from 361 non satisfied farmers 85 (79.44%) are passes through breeding from artificial insemination and 276 (99.64%) non satisfied farmers do not pass through breeding from artificial inseminations. From the 23 satisfied farmers 1 (0.36%) do not passes through breeding from artificial insemination and 22 (20.56%) passes through breeding from artificial insemination.

Keywords: Artificial insemination, Janamora, Mekane Birhan, Cattle.

1. INTRODUCTION
In Ethiopia, dairy cattle breed improvement belonging with long history, through crossbreeding of local stock with exotic breed. In line with this, different initiatives have been made to promote crossbreeding. These include, establishment of national artificial insemination centre (NAIC), cattle, sheep and poultry breed improvement and multiplication centre, with the major aim to distribute improved animals to smallholder [1].
Ethiopia has an estimated cattle population of about 41.5 million heads. Around 99.45 are indigenous breeds, with very few hybrids 0.5%, and exotic 0.1%. Cattle production together with the production of other livestock sectors has been known to be an important component of the agricultural sector. Livestock contributes much by providing meat, milk, cheese, butter, export commodities (live animals, hides and skins), draught power, manure, and near-cash capital stock [2]. It is known that no enough selection and improvement for productivity has been performed on the indigenous cattle. Nevertheless, the indigenous cattle are known to have special merit of coping with the harsh environments of the country. On the other hand, the high performing exotic cattle cannot cope with the harsh environments of the country. Therefore, improvement on the indigenous cattle for productivity without losing traits, which are essential for survival, has been proposed [3].
Artificial insemination is a technique by which semen is introduced artificially into the body of the uterus at the time of heat in an attempt to cause pregnancy. Artificial insemination (AI) has been defined as a process by which sperm is collected from the male, processed, stored, and artificially introduced into the female reproductive tract for the purpose of conception [4, 5]. Artificial insemination has become one of the most important techniques ever devised for the genetic improvement of farm animals. It has been widely used for breeding dairy cattle as the most valuable management practice available to the cattle producer and has made bulls of high genetic merit available to all [4, 6].
Hence, the objectives of this research Is:
a. To identify the problems of artificial insemination services in Janamora Wereda.
b. To give promotion about the advantage of artificial insemination
c. To attract the farmers and introduce this technology while interviewing.
d. To generate information for the better application on the sector
e. To recommend and give feedback to decision makers to take appropriate majors on it.

2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
2.1 Study area
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2018 to January, 2019 in Janamora. Janamora Wereda is located in North Gondar Zone of Amhara region, at the latitude and longitude of 12o59’N 38o07’E at a distance of about 180km from Gondar town. Janamora Wereda is well-known with Semien mountain National Park, Ras Dashen i.e the highest point in Ethiopia and it is a home to a number of endangered species including the Ethiopian Wolf, waliya ibex, and a wild goat which no found in elsewhere in the world. The area has an altitude range of 2900 meters above sea level. The region is marked by numerous mountains, hilly, and sloppy areas, plateaus, rivers, and many streams. Livestock population of the area comprises 100,386 cattle, 32,975 sheep, 131,041 goats, 2,540 horses, 634 mules, 7758 donkeys, 119,347 poultry. The farming system of the study area is characterized by a mixed crop-livestock production system. Transhumance, from the highlands to western lowlands, is practiced as an important strategy to secure grazing resources for the highland livestock during the dry season of the year. In the case of the lowlands, crop farming is not as intensive as high and mid-highland areas and livestock has larger contributions to the farmer’s livelihoods [7].
A cross-sectional study was conducted in five kebeles (the five kebeles were selected from Janamora Wereda. Hence Mekane Birhan, Denkolako, Enchet Kab,Deresgie and Rob Gebeya Kebeles were selected. All the study areas were purposively selected because it was believed that these areas are the ones where an Artificial Insemination service is exercised.

2.2. Study animal
The study was conducted on indigenous cattle breeds.

2.3. Study design
A cross-sectional type of study was conducted by questionnaire survey was carried out from November 2018 to January 2019 in five randomly selected kebeles dairy owners and Artificial Insemination live in Janamora Wereda.

2.4. Sample Size Determination and Sampling Procedures:
The sample size was determined based on the expected prevalence of 50% and absolute desired precision of 5% at confidence level of 95% according to the formula provided by Thrusfield [8]. This is calculated by using the following formula:
n= 1.962 x P exp (1-Pexp)/d2
Where! n= required sample size
P exp= expected prevalence
d2= desired absolute precision (5%)
Based on this formula, the total numbers of respondents were 384.

2.5. Data Collection Methods
2.5.1. Questionnaire survey
Structured questionnaires were prepared to interview dairy cattle owners, Artificial Inseminaion (AI) technicians to collect data on the status of AI services and constraints associated with the service. In questionnaire survey, 384 respondents (378 dairy farmers, 4 animal health and production professional and 2 artificial insemination technicians) were interviewed and during the interview process, every respondent included in the study was briefed about the objective of the study before starting presenting the actual questions.

2.6. Data Management and Analysis
The data collected were entered and scored in Ms excel worksheet and coded and entered to SPSS version 16.0 statistical packages for windows and analysis were made. The data was summarized using descriptive statistics analysis such as percentages, tables and chi square.

3. RESULTS
3.1. Results of assessment of Artificial insemination problems
From 384 respondents data was collected by questionnaires survey in five selected kebeles found in Janamora. A total of 22 (20.56%) were born from the total inseminated cows, and 17/22 (77.27%) calves were male from the tatal born calves. Female calves were accounted 5/22 (27.73%) due to this reason farmers do not want to use this artificial insemination, because they use artificial insemination to get female calves and to improve their milking quantity.