School Input Factors and Their Impacts on Teachers Performance

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 209 – 217
Date: 28 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Syeda Najma Fatima & Muhammad Imran Yousuf

Syeda Najma Fatima
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Muhammad Imran Yousuf
Chairman, Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi Pakistan

Abstract
The study was designed to identify the school input factors and their impacts on teachers performance at elementary level in District Bagh (AJ&K). The research was descriptive and quantitative in nature. All the teachers at elementary level of public sector in District Bagh (AJ&K) constituted the population of the study. A total 300 teachers from District Bagh (AJ&K) were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-developed structured questionnaire was used for gathering information from teachers. Descriptive statistics i.e., mean, frequency, percentage and inferential statistics i.e., chi square test were employed for statistical analysis of the data through SPSS. The findings revealed that the school input factors have great impacts on the performance of teachers. A motivated and trained teacher is able to develop creativity in students and motivate them to enhance their academic performance. Chi-square test analysis shows that there is significant relationship between school input factors and they have great impact on the teacher’s performance. Based on findings, it was recommended that teacher’s performance may be improved to provide better quality of school facilities to teachers according to their needs.

Keywords: Input Factors, Impacts, Teachers Performance, Elementary Level.

1. Introduction
Education is the greatest legacy a nation can give to her youth. This would suggest that the development of any nation or community depends to a great extent on the nature of training of such a country (William et al., 2004). Teaching is a great job and teacher is the backbone for the society. Using Internet advancements to assigns the teachers where they are required is a progression that could be examined and assists with in developing countries (Droste, 2000). Organization is the essential system theory which is comprise of five elements: inputs, feedback, a process of transformation and the environment. Inputs are the resources, financial, human and information resources used to produce services and goods. In the system of elementary education, the material information sources consists of infrastructural offices provided that the school to educating and learning process. Human inputs are the different blends of the educating and non instructing staff. The process of transformation is the school administration and instructors, utilize of the most recent instructing techniques to change the inputs to output (Draft, 2008).
There are two sorts of the aspects that influence the performance of the educators, the internal aspect and the external aspect. There are the lots of outer aspects about the teachers effecting that how a teacher makes conversation in the classroom whereas it’s tough to add on any distress demand to these aspects because every teacher is different, they are consists of different level, expectations from the society, precise school system where they do job and every school has own promotion policies. The importance desires to these outer aspects will appear conflicting and its classroom teacher who have to link to these into a workable structure whereas managing scope of internal factors. The viewpoint of individual educator’s regarding how students learn most efficiently, how to teach pupils in good manners and how to create good learning environment. Strong coordination among in individual educator’s beliefs regarding the good presentation performs and certainly they can individually meet these desires into the classroom. Classroom have important for meet these desires. Teachers argue superior ways of thinking …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Motivation
Mcshane & Von-Glinow (2003) studied about motivation that is “A factor that exists a person which can possibly influence the way, quality and enthusiasm of carrying on towards work”. Motivation is very important for the success. According to Infinedo (2003) teacher motivation is a mind boggling and troublesome term to characterize; in this way an exact meaning of this idea is tricky as the thought includes the attributes of individual and circumstance and in addition the view of that circumstance by the person. Herzberg cleanliness factors make a reasonable workplace however couldn’t enhance in fulfillment. For example low salary can cause occupation disappointment that will influence on the workers performance. Cleanliness aspects are necessary to make sure that the office does not form into a displease situation. Normal cleanliness factors (likewise called outward factors) are compensation, working condition, grades, organization strategies and management (Saiyadain 2009).

2.2 Effective Instructions in School
Musungu and Nasongo (2008) stated that in the school the leader is a director, he is all rounder in which many characteristic of the school rotate, he knows about every detail that is running in the school may be its academic or administrative. The director is a decision maker, leader and a good thinker; therefore it’s important for the principal that they involved making decisions about school. A good leader will always motivate to the employs perfectly and they have adopted new work strategies for the employs satisfaction ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: School Input Factors and Their Impacts on Teachers Performance (Case at Elementary Level in District Bagh (AJ&K)).

Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 178 – 188
Date: 28 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
This study examined and assessed the empirical link on the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on the Economic Growth of Nigeria. Establishing financial stability and economic growth entails conscious actions by regulatory agencies to stem wide fluctuations in the key macroeconomic indicators. The high point of economic growth of any country include, strengthening the Financial Stability Committee within the its financial institutions, establishment of macro-prudential rules, developing capital markets, development of directional economic policy and of course most importantly the monetary and fiscal policies. The objectives were to determine factors of fiscal and monetary policy that contributed to the growth of Nigeria economy. It made use of data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Bulletin, journals and employed the ordinary least squares method of statistical analysis. In the research work we he have understood that monetary policy is implemented primarily by the monetary authorities, particularly the central bank, while fiscal policy is implemented by the fiscal authorities, particularly the Ministry of Finance or Treasury. Although monetary and fiscal policies pursue the same ultimate objective, i.e. the attainment of high, stable and sustainable economic growth, they employ different instruments. The research study has noticed that the objectives of monetary policy are ultimately similar to the objectives of fiscal policy and they play crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment fast economic growth. The research recommends that policy makers should pay attention to monetary and fiscal variables in their attempt to maintain fiscal stability.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Governments all over the world formulate and implement policies for taxation and public spending. These policies can have major impacts on economic growth, income distribution, and poverty, and thus they tend to be at the centre of economic growth and development. Essentially, monetary policy refers to the combination of discretionary measures designed to regulate and control the money supply in an economy by the monetary authorities with a view of achieving stated or desired macro-economic goals. Another point of view posits that monetary policy refers to any conscious action undertaken by the monetary authorities to change or regulate the availability, quantity, cost or direction of credit in any economy, in order to attain stated economic objectives (Nwankwo, 2000).
Fiscal Policy is the process by which Government uses public expenditure, debt, taxation and other revenues to influence economic activities with a view to achieving the set macroeconomic objectives of full employment, favourable balance of payment, price stability and output growth among others. Okunrounmu (2003) described fiscal policy as the deliberate changes in the levels of government expenditure, taxes and other revenue as well as borrowing with a view to achieving national goals or objectives such as price stability, full employment, economic growth and balance of payments equilibrium.
Macroeconomic policy plays crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment for fast economic growth. This task is primarily achieved through monetary and fiscal policies as its fundamental components …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the per cent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP, (Joseph Schumpeter). While economic development is the growth of the standard of living of a nation’s people from a low-income (poor) economy to a high-income (rich) economy. When the local quality of life is improved, there is more economic development. When social scientists study economic development, they look at many things. As observed by Akpakpan (1999), economic development is used to describe the process of improvement in the various aspects of the economy and the society it supports. The improvement is usually shown in the kinds of desirable changes such as reduction in the level of unemployment, degree of personal and regional inequalities, level of absolute poverty and increase in the real output of goods and services. Others areas of desirable changes include improvement in literacy, housing, health services and in the production capacity. The primary reason for desiring economic development or growth is to raise the general standard of living within the economy. Thus, Economic growth has received much attention among scholars.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. Historically, there has been a wide divergence of opinions about the effect of monetary and fiscal policies on the economy. These theories were developed on observed economic trend in both developed and ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Nigeria’s Economic Growth.

Perception in Improved Seed Utilization for Potato Production from Perspective of Smallholder Farmers

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 225 – 236
Date: 23 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati Bukul

Beriso Bati Bukul
Department of Agricultural Economics, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre
Adami Tulu, Ethiopia

Abstract
In Ethiopia, potato crop is produced in different agro-ecological zones through commercial as well as smallholder farmers both as a source of income and food. However, due to perishable nature and biological nature of production process, potato production is risky investment activities. In this context, risk perceptions play a key role in the production and investment behavior of farmers in potato production decisions. However, in Shashemene district, only limited attention has been paid to understand the producers’ risk perceptions in potato production. Therefore, in this study, analysis of the major sources of risks in potato production, on the basis of farmers’ perceptions, was conducted. For the study, Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 sample households from four sample kebeles. Primary data collected through structured questionnaire and secondary data sources were used. A Likert scale, based on farmers’ perception, was used to rank the various sources of potato production by using improved seed varieties. The mean scores results, derived based on Likert scales, indicated that attributes such as, high productivity, early maturity, quality grain/fruit, disease resistance, pest resistance and profitability were positive perception/advantage of utilization improved potato seed for potato production which take the average score of 4.5, 3.28, 4.27, 4.21, 4.18 and 4.52, respectively While, labor demanding, high seed cost and unavailability of quality seeds at the right time were some of the disadvantages. Therefore, increasing access to quality improved potato seed for farmers increases its utilization.

Keywords: Perceptions, Improved Potato Seed, Potato Production, Likert Scale, Shashemane District.

1. Introduction
Ethiopia is one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. In the last decade, the Ethiopian economy registered a growth of 11 percent per annum on average in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (MoFED, 2014) compared to 3.8 percent in the previous decades (World Bank, 2015). This growth has largely been supported by a relatively high growth in the agricultural sector. The importance of agriculture in Ethiopia is evidenced by its share in GDP (43%), its employment generation (80%), share of export (70%) and providing about 70% raw material for the industries in the country in 2012/13 (UNDP, 2013).
Despite such policies focus on the sector over the last two decades, its productivity is constrained by lack of appropriate and affordable agricultural technologies, inefficiency in production, poor infrastructure, inefficient marketing systems, land degradation, rapidly expanding population, and inaccessibility to agricultural inputs such as improved/hybrid seeds, fertilizers and agro-chemicals (Yu and Nin-Pratt, 2014).
Ethiopian diversified agro‐climatic condition makes it suitable for the production of a broad range of fruits, vegetables and herbs. The wide range of altitude, ranging from below sea level to over 3000m above sea level, gives it a wide range of agro ecological diversity ranging from humid tropics to alpine climates, where most types of vegetable crops can be successfully grown. Holders living near to urban centers largely practice vegetable farming. Most vegetables are not commonly practiced by the rural private peasant holders, hence the small volume of production recorded as well evidenced by the survey results (CSA, 2015).
Vegetable production is practiced both under rainfed and irrigation systems. The irrigated vegetable production system is increasing because of increasing commercial farms and development of small scale irrigation schemes (Baredo, 2013; cited in Bezabih et al., 2014). Ethiopia has a variety of vegetable crops grown in different agro ecological zones by small farmers, mainly as a source of income as well as food. The production of vegetables varies from cultivating a few plants in the backyards, for home consumption, to large-scale production for the domestic and home markets. Oromia National Regional State in general and West Arsi zone in particular is known by its potato production and supplying it to different market centers ………

2. Research Methodology
2.1. Description of study area
This study was conducted in Shashemene district, West Arsi zone of Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. Shashemene district is located at 250 km from Addis Ababa towards South direction. The district is located at 7° 12′ North and 38° 36′ east having an altitude of 1600-2800 meters above sea level with a total area of 467.18 km square. The district has 37 rural kebeles and 8 sub cities. The total rural population of the district was 248,093 was 28, 306 (males 23, 627 and females 4,679) of which more than 83% depend on agriculture for their livelihood and majority of them are smallholders owning a plot of less than 0.5 hectares having featured a crop livestock mixed farming system (DOA, 2016). According to DOA, (2016) the major agro-ecologies of the district were mid-land (51.4%), high land (29.6%) and low land (19%) having clay loam soil type for highland and sandy soil for mid-land and low land soil types. The district receives an annual rainfall ranging from 800 mm to 1200 mm raining twice a year. The district has bi-modal rainfall distribution with small rains starting from March/April to May and the main rainy …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Perception in Improved Seed Utilization for Potato Production from Perspective of Smallholder Farmers (The Case of Shashemane District, West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia).

“How Are Role-Players in the School Nutrition Programme Trained, Monitored and Supported?” A Qualitative Analysis

International Journal of Food & Nutrition
ISSN: 2311-357X, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 1 – 19
Date: 20 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Tafirenyika Mafugu & Cosmas Maphosa

Tafirenyika Mafugu
Kwantebeni Comprehensive High School
Pinetown, South Africa

Cosmas Maphosa
University of Eswatini
Eswatini

Abstract
The study sought to examine training, monitoring and support provided to NSNP stakeholders in Pinetown district in South Africa. Underpinned by the interpretivist research paradigm, the study followed a qualitative research approach which utilised a grounded theory research design. A purposive sample of thirty-two different stakeholders participated in the study. The qualitative data were categorised into themes which were presented in tables and text. The study found that some of the key stakeholders of NSNP were not adequately supported and trained and that monitoring was only done regularly by the teacher coordinators. District field officers lacked adequate expertise to train stakeholders. Training stakeholders and early payment of the suppliers could significantly improve learners’ benefit from the programme. The study’s proposed framework for the implementation of the school nutrition programme recommends ways to improve the implementation process.

Keywords: Training, Monitoring, Support, Interpretivist Research Paradigm, Stakeholders, Grounded Theory Research Design, & Implementation.

1. Background to the Problem
Approximately 368 million school children in the world receive food at school every day (World Food Programme (WFP), 2016). In countries with the highest poverty rates, the school meal is the only regular nutritious meal that the child receives but few children benefit from school meals due to lack of funding (WFP, 2016). School meals improve attendance in schools, fill the gaps of various nutrient deficiencies and promote the health of children so that the children develop into productive adults. They also help children to focus on their studies and improve their performance (Darko, 2014; Hayes & Berdan, 2013; WFP, 2016). The fact that some learners in these poverty-stricken countries do not access school meals is unfortunate considering the benefits that are derived from such feeding programmes. It is critical to ensure that stakeholders are well trained and supported and the programme is well monitored so as to meet set standards.
United States of America (USA) and Brazil have school feeding programmes that follow specific dietary guidelines and the programmes are successfully implemented as they are well monitored to ensure that all problems in the programme are identified timeously so as to find immediate solutions (Hayes & Berdan 2013; Medeiros, Lima, de Almeida Maffi, de Lima Abadia, Martins, Dalamaria & Ramalho, 2015; Otsuki, 2011). Due to its successful school feeding programmes, Brazil is now playing an important role of sharing lessons learned and best practices with other countries (African Union, 2015; Bundy, Woolnough, Burbano, & Drake, 2016). In sub-Saharan Africa, among low and middle-income countries, food programmes are usually available only in certain geographical locations where problems such as conflicts, food insecurity, low enrolment rates or a combination of factors have been identified (African Union, 2015). Sometimes the food programmes fail to provide food significantly in areas with intense hunger and poverty and the countries concerned need to improve their feeding programmes in such areas (African Union, 2015). It is amazing to note that Ghana school feeding programme had no control or checks on the quality and safety of food served, lack of personal hygiene among caterers, Low quality and quantity of food due to inadequate funding, inefficient monitoring, absence of infrastructure and food suppliers and cooks were not paid on time (Darko, 2014; Okae-Adjei, Akuffo & Amartei, 2016; Sulemana, Ngah & Majid, 2013; WFP, 2016).

1.1 School feeding programme in South Africa
The NSNP was introduced by the government of South Africa in 1994 to address problems of poverty and inequality (Kallman, 2005). The constitutional rights that are addressed by the NSNP are the right of access to sufficient food; section 27 (1), (b) the right to basic nutrition section 28 (1), and (c) the right to basic education; section 29(1) (a) (Kallman, 2005; Lacey, 2012).
Providing meals at school may have a significant impact on the nutritional status and achievement of a learner since the majority of the people in South Africa live in poverty (Lacey, 2012). The programme was introduced in poor community public schools in quintiles 1, 2 and 3 in (Department of Basic Education, 2009; Lacey, 2012). The quintile system is a grouping of schools according to the severity of poverty in a geographical area with the poorest being in quintile 1 and the schools in rich geographical areas like low-density suburbs being in quintile 5. Targeting schools for the school feeding programme was also based on the nutritional status of the learners ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: “How Are Role-Players in the School Nutrition Programme Trained, Monitored and Supported?” A Qualitative Analysis.

Analysis of Head Cabbage Market Performance

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 215 – 224
Date: 20 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati Bukul, Yassin Esmael Ahmed, & Asfaw Negesse Senbata

Beriso Bati Bukul, Yassin Esmael Ahmed, & Asfaw Negesse Senbata
Department of Agricultural Economics
Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension Research
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre
Adami Tulu, Ethiopia

Abstract
The study analyzed market performance of head cabbage in Kofale and Kore districts with the objective of identifying actors involved in head cabbage markets and examining market performance of head cabbage. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select sample households. A total of 120 head cabbage producers, 50 traders and 50 consumers were randomly selected and interviewed using structure questionnaires and checklist. The descriptive statistics and market margin model were applied to analyze head cabbage market performance. The result of the study shows that farmers used three market outlet to sell their product. These are collectors, wholesalers and consumers. However, they earn low/little market margins from the large volume of head cabbage they sold to collectors and wholesaler compare to consumers. This is due to brokers who have the power to determine prices paid by the traders and thus extract huge marketing margins. Therefore, this study suggests that it shall be better to improve the farmers’ market margins from collectors and wholesalers by strengthening farmers-traders linkage through reducing brokers’ exploitation and solving related production and marketing problems in the study area.

Keywords: Actors, Head Cabbage, Market Margin, Market Performance, Kofele, Kore.

1. Introduction
Head cabbage belongs to a class of vegetables called Brassica, also known as cruciferous vegetables because their flowers are cross-shaped (Anonymous, 2012). It has 90% water and an excellent source of minerals, Vitamin A and C and the B vitamins. According to Anonymous, (2012) head cabbages are mostly produced for and marketed through informal market. Head cabbage grows best under cool conditions. Ethiopia is one of the top five African countries producing head cabbage (Anonymous, 2012). Head cabbage is a major economically important vegetable in Ethiopia (Bezabih et al., 2015). Agricultural marketing is conducted mainly through the informal sector through traders. Poor marketing services, facilities and transport in rural areas affects agricultural commercialization (MoARD, 2010). The Ethiopian government attempts to promote production and marketing of economically important vegetables to increase competitiveness in domestic, regional, national, and international markets through improving market performance (MoARD, 2010).
Head cabbage is widely produced in Kofele and Kore districts due to its suitable environmental condition (DoA, 2013). It is also one of the cash crop vegetable produced and marketed by farmers in the districts. However, market incentive gained from head cabbage products supply to market is very low due to poor market performance, in adequate market infrastructure, facilities, and perishability of the product (DoA, 2013). Poor performance of market chain (that is if market performance is not efficient, sufficient and price signal arising at consumers level are not adequately transformed to farmers) places farmers at a disadvantage (Bosena et al, 2011). Therefore, this study was initiated to identify and indicate factors affecting head cabbage markets and improve output market performance in the study areas.
Objectives of the Study;
a. To identify actors involved in head cabbage markets;
b. To examine market performance of head cabbage in the study areas

2. Research Methodologies
2.1. Description of the study Area
This study was conducted in Kofale and Kore districts, West Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Kofale and Kore are located at 275 kilometer and 305 kilometer from capital Addis Ababa towards south Ethiopia. The major agro-ecology of Kofale and Kore districts are high land which cover 90% and 88% respectively (DoA, 2013). The annually rain fall and temperature received by both districts are 1500 mm-2100 mm and 1200mm-1800mm, 5oC-17oC, and 19oC-23oC respectively. Kofale and Kore districts are found within the attitude of 2400-2700 and 2650-3000 meter above sea level having clay loam soil which is the dominant soil type in the areas (DoA, 2013). The districts have bi-modal rainfall distribution which the main rainy season starts from June to September/October and short rainy season from March/April to May (DoA, 2013). The districts feature a crop-livestock mixed farming system. Barley, Potato, Wheat, Maize, Enset, Cabbage and Head Cabbage are widely grown in the districts both for food and marketing purposes. Head cabbage is a major cash crop vegetable produced in is the districts to earn income ……..

Journal Full Text: Analysis of Head Cabbage Market Performance (Case Study in Kofele and Kore Districts, Oromia Region, Ethiopia).

Affordability and Willingness to Pay for Private Sector Participation in the Provision of Portable Water in Urban Areas of Benue State, Nigeria

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 187 – 194
Date: 18 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ogebe, F.O, & Idoko, D.A.

Ogebe, F.O, & Idoko, D.A.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Education, College of Education Oju, Benue State, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the willingness to pay among households for provision of quality drinking water by private sector participation in three urban areas of Benue State, Nigeria. A survey method was used for the study and primary data were collected using well-structured questionnaire. The population of the study consisted of head of households. Random sampling technique was used in selecting 100 households each from the three major towns in Benue State. The study utilized the contingent valuation method to survey the views of the consuming public in order to estimate their willingness to pay in a bid to evaluate a policy of providing better water supply with improved quality and reliability among different socio- economic groups in the urban areas of Benue State, Nigeria. Descriptive and Probit regression model were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the major sources of water supply were hand dug wells (27.33%), private bore holes (23.33%) and water tankers (16.67%). Improved water provision was viewed as a national goal by the households. On the average, household spent N13000 as monthly water bill in the State. Majority (40%) hold the view that private sector participation (PSP) in the water sector would improve water provision. The results of the probit regression model showed that the variables that significantly influenced willingness to pay for water improvement programme (WIP) in the State are household size (P<0.05), income level of household head (P<0.1), private sector involvement (P<0.01) and the level of education of the household head (P<0.1). The study concludes that although the consuming households believe that private sector engagement is likely to improve water quality, the same policy measure will marginalize the poor in terms of access to water. The study therefore, recommended privatization with some social programmes so as to deliver the double dividends of quality and universal access that characterized the debate on private sector engagement in water provision in Nigeria.

Keywords: Probit Model, Willingness to Pay, Contingent Valuation, Nigeria

1. Introduction
Access to portable water is a fundamental human right and also a big stake in the economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development (World Development Report, 2004). All over the world, there is increased pressure on public water supplies and other utility services as a result of rapid urbanization. Lack of portable water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally (Sobsey, 2006). The most susceptible to water borne diseases are children, and the elderly, pregnant women and immune-compromised individuals, making water borne diseases one of the five leading causes of death among children under age five (Gerba et al., 1996) Diarrhea diseases, attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and hygiene, accounts for 1.73 million deaths each year and over 54million Disability Adjusted Life Years, a total equivalent to 3.7% of the global burden of disease (WHO, 2003).
In most parts of Africa, universal access to portable water remains a mirage because of the high population growth rates and the lack of funds by the government to provide the necessary facilities to boost water supply. Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.1 billion people in the world (Mintz et al., 2001). Public water supply is inadequate and in most cases inaccessible, the supply is intermittent and unreliable, thus resulting in high dependency on unsafe supplementary sources such as ponds, wells and streams (Olajire and Imeppeoria, 2001, Nnodu and Ilo, 2002).As population grows and urbanization increases, human activities including indiscriminate refuse and waste disposal, and the use of septic tanks, soak-away pits and pit latrines are on the increase. According to Longe and Balogun (2010), ground water pollution has been attributed to the process of urbanization which has progressively developed over time without any regard to environmental consequences. This eventually results in the deterioration of physical, chemical and biological properties of water (Isikwue et al., 2011).
In Nigeria, the most secure sources of safe drinking water is pipe-borne water from municipal water treatment plants which often do not deliver or fail to meet the requirement of the served communities due largely to lack of maintenance or increased population (Orebiyi et al., 2010). Currently, there is a challenge of lack of supply of pipe-borne water in Benue State, Nigeria and hence households are forced to use unreliable and unsafe sources of water like water vendors, small streams and shallow wells. This is insufficient to supply adequate water for rapid population increase. In Benue State, the water supply is ……….

2. Empirical Model and Method
The study was conducted in three urban areas of Benue State, Makurdi, Nigeria. Namely Makurdi, Otukpo and Gboko. These towns having varying systems of water supply and would help the respondents to correctly react to the use of private sector participation in improving water supply. Benue state lies within the lower river Benue in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria. Its geographic coordinates are longitudes 70 47 and 100 0E, and latitudes 60 25 and 80 8N. The State shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroun to the South East, and occupies a total landmass of 32,518km2 with a population of ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Affordability and Willingness to Pay for Private Sector Participation in the Provision of Portable Water in Urban Areas of Benue State, Nigeria.

Trigonometric Fourier Series with Characterization of Weighted Hardy Spaces

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 135 – 147
Date: 12 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ali Mohamed Abu Oam

Ali Mohamed Abu Oam
Department of Mathematics and Computer, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences
International University of Africa
Suand (Sudan)

Abstract
We introduce p-quasilocal operators and show that, if a sublinear operator T is p-quasilocal and bounded from L_∞ to L_∞, then it is also bounded from the classical Hardy space H_p(T) to L_p (0 < p ≤ 1). As an application it is shown that the maximal operator of the one-parameter Cesaro means of a distribution is bounded from H_p(T) to L_p(3/4< p ≤ ∞) and is of weak type (L_1, L_1). We give a characterization of weighted local Hardy spaces h_ω^1 (R^n) associated with local weights by using the truncated Reisz transforms. Then we established a result for each case.

Keywords: P-atom, Interpolation, Decomposition, P-quasilocal Operator, Characterization, Hardy Spaces, Local Weights.

1. Introduction
We discuss in section two it can be found in Zygmund [1] that the Cesaro means σ_n f of a function f ∈ L_1(T) converge a.e. to f as n → ∞ and that if f ∈ L 〖log〗^+ L(T^2) then the two-parameter Cesaro summability holds.
Analogous results for Walsh–Fourier series are due to Fine [2] and Moricz, Schipp and Wade [3].
The Hardy–Lorentz spaces H_(p,q ) of distributions on the unit circle are introduced with the L_(p,q ) Lorentz norms of the non-tangential maximal function. Of course, H_(p ) = H_(p,p ) are the usual Hardy spaces (0 < p ≤ ∞). In the one-dimensional case it is known (see Zygmund [1] ) that the maximal operator of the Cesaro means 〖sup〗_(n∈N) |σ_n | is of weak type (L_1, L_1), i.e. 〖sup〗_(γ>0) γλ(〖sup〗_(n∈N) |σ_n |>γ)≤C‖f‖_1 (f ∈ L_1 (T) )
( for the Walsh case see Schipp[4] ). Also, for Walsh–Fourier series, the bounded-ness of the operator 〖sup〗_(n∈N) |σ_n | from H_p to L_p was shown by Fujii [5] (p = 1) and by Weisz [6] (1/2 < p ≤ 1).
The theory of local Hardy space plays an important role in various fields of analysis and partial differential equations, Bui [15] studied the weighted version 〖 h〗_ω^p of the local Hardy space 〖 h〗^p considered by Goldberg [16], where the weight ω is assumed to satisfy the condition (A_∞) of Muckenhoupt.
The main purpose of section 3 is to give a characterization of weighted local Hardy spaces h_ω^1 (R^n) associated with local weights by using the truncated Reisz transforms.

2. Summability of One and Two-Dimensional
In this section we generalize the results for trigonometric-Fourier series with the help of the so-called p-quasilocal operators. An operator T is p-quasilocal ( 0 < p ≤ 1 ) if for all p-atoms a the integral of 〖|T_a |〗^p over T\ I is less than an absolute constant where I is the support of the atom a. We shall verify that a sublinear, p-quasilocal operator T which is bounded from L_∞ to L_∞ is also bounded from H_p to L_p ( 0 < p ≤ 1 ). By interpolation we find that T is bounded from H_(p,q) to L_(p,q) as well (0 < p < ∞, 0 < q ≤ ∞) and is of weak type (L_1, L_1).
It will be shown that 〖sup〗_(n∈N) |σ_n | is p-quasilocal for each 3/4 < p ≤ 1. Conseque-ntly, 〖sup〗_(n∈N) |σ_n | is bounded from H_(p,q) to L_(p,q) for 3/4 < p < ∞ and 0 < q ≤ ∞ and is of weak type (L_1, L_1). We will extend this result also to (C,β) means.
For two-dimensional trigonometric-Fourier series we will ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Trigonometric Fourier Series with Characterization of Weighted Hardy Spaces.

Investigation of Affective and Cognitive Charactertics of Student Teachers in the Teacher Training Institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 183 – 186
Date: 16 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Amina Ejaz & Muhammad Arshad Dahar

Amina Ejaz & Muhammad Arshad Dahar
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Pir Mehr Ali Shah – Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
Objective: The study seeks to analyse the affective and cognitive traits of student teacher in the teacher training institute of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The present study was quantitative in nature. The survey research design was used to conduct the study. Delimitation: The universe of the study is very large, and it is impossible for the researcher to approach and collect the data from them, which is why the study delimited to the teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Population: of the study was all the student teachers who are currently in teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The sample was selected from this population. Students, teachers of section 2018 of B.Eds. (Hons) in Rawalpindi. Sample: The whole population was selected of the study. Sample of the study was selected through the simple random sampling technique. Male and female students were taken according to the proportion of population. Tool of the study: The tool used for research was the questionnaire. A questionnaire of favourable numbers of questions was designed. It was containing the indicators of affective and cognitive characteristics of student’s teachers. Pilot study: The piloting of the study was done through testing the research tools on selected student teachers from the teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The results from those questionnaires was analysed and checked for the validity (coherence with the objectives of the study) Discussions with the experts was also be conducted and suggestions for improvement or administration of the tools was collected and implied. Data collection: The data was collected through questionnaire that was administered to the participants selected in the sample. The researcher herself was administers the questionnaire. Data Analysis: Descriptive analysis technique was used to analyse the data. Simple percentage and frequency distribution analysis was implied on the data using SPSS. The results drawn from the collected data was also be tabulated and was interpreted in the results section. Graphs and charts were also being formed and were added in the results section. Results of the Study: This table shows that Demographic characteristics Age of the respondent’s maximum is 29 and its frequency is 67 and percentage is 16.8%, and minimum ages of the respondents is 19 and its frequency is 22 and percentage is 5.5%. This table shows that Demographic characteristics of the respondent’s maximum frequency are 323 of female and percentage is 80.8 and minimum frequency of the male is 77 and percentage is 19.3. maximum qualification B.Ed. and its frequency is 162, and minimum frequency of M.Ed. is 84 and its percentage is 21.0 and maximum frequency is 200 of 4year experience of teacher and minimum frequency 79 of 5 year of experience of teacher and its percentage is minimum 19.8%. This table shows that besides my teaching subject. I can teach other needed subjects like current events, general knowledge etc. of the respondent’s maximum frequency of strongly agree is 225 and minimum frequency of Agree is 145 and mean is 1.36 and S.D is .481.

Keywords: Affective, Cognitive, Characteristics, Teacher Education, Framework.

1. Introduction
This is with the view to develop an effective teacher education framework by using inputs from the trainees, in-service teachers and teacher educators and to incorporate their ideas into the structuring and organization of not only the educational programmers but also the admission processes into such programmers. Using inputs from classroom teachers, teacher trainees, teacher educators as well as basic education students, a compilation of the personal and professional characteristics of an effective teacher was drawn. These were then developed into a comprehensive open and close-ended questionnaire covering trainees’ perception of and attitude to teaching, their belief systems, measures of cognitive and affective characteristics as well as a test of personality trait. The main sample for the study comprised four hundred student teacher trainees drawn from three universities and one college of education from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The findings showed that student teacher trainees possessed varied and widely spread cognitive and affective behaviour some of which is suited for the teaching profession. However, the study could not determine if these attributes are reflective of their personality types prior to exposure to teacher education or not.

2. Discussion
To meet the growing demands of teachers at various levels, the teacher education system in Pakistan has gone through significant quantitative expansion, yet the quality of teachers’ preparation has been overlooked and compromised. The preparation of teachers is critically important because a country’s modernization and development depend on the quality of its education system that is indebted to the quality of teacher education. There is a direct link between education and national development. For this, educational programs have to be reorganized and teachers are the main actors in this reorganization and transformation. It is, therefore, essential that teacher education programs be designed in such a way that the prospective teachers acquire all the relevant skills (Yackulic and Noonan, 2003).
In Pakistan, it suffers from three major shortcomings. Firstly, it tends to imitate American teacher education, which, according to their own standards is under criticism for being deficient in developing teacher abilities for effective practice. Secondly, fragments of periodic experiments of American teacher have seeped into Pakistan’s teacher preparation programs. It has resultantly become an amalgam of incompatible ingredients which forces it to become too theoretical. Thirdly, Pakistan teacher education is woefully oblivious to the ground realities of schools and offers no answers to the problems posed by inhospitable conditions in which the teacher is required to work ……

Journal Full Text PDF: Investigation of Affective and Cognitive Charactertics of Student Teachers in the Teacher Training Institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

Integrating Information and Communication Technologies in Instructional Delivery in Eswatini Schools

International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
ISSN: 2317-3793, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 139 – 149
Date: 15 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Sithulisiwe Bhebhe & Cosmas Maphosa

Sithulisiwe Bhebhe
Faculty of Education
University of Eswatini
Kingdom of Eswatini, Swaziland

Cosmas Maphosa
Institute of Distance Education
University of Eswatini
Kingdom of Eswatini, Swaziland

Abstract
Integrating Information and Communication Technologies in instructional delivery is vital in the modern day school. This study sought to establish teachers’ perceptions on integrating Information and Communication Technologies in teaching and learning. The study was located in the interpretivist research paradigm and followed a qualitative research approach which applied a case study design. Individual interviews and focus group discussions with a purposive sample of 32 practising teachers, doing a professional development course at one university in Eswatini, was used to collect data. Data were analysed for content and conclusions were drawn. The findings of the study reveal that there are benefits in integration literacy in instructional delivery. The study found that some teachers had limited knowledge of digital tools and hence integrating information and communication technologies was lacking. The study also found that digital facilities were limited in schools and that learners’ exposure to digital tools was very low. The study revealed that integration literacy made teaching and learning more interesting. The main conclusions of the study were that schools still lack digital tools to ensure that there is the integration of information and communication technologies in lesson delivery. It was also concluded that teachers lacked digital skills and knowledge to use ICT tools in the classrooms. The study recommends that schools should provide the appropriate teaching and learning digital tools and facilities. It is also recommended that teachers be equipped with integration literacy and knowledge to use ICT tools in the classrooms to improve teaching and learning

Keywords: Integration Literacy, Digital Skills, Digital Literacy, ICT Utilisation, Digital Teaching and Digital Learning.

1. Introduction
Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) requires teachers to have effective curriculum ICTs integration methods and strategies that will maximise the design and delivery of lessons in the classroom (Ghavifekr, 2014). Integrating Information and Communication Technologies is the ability to use computers and other technology devices with a variety of well selected and suitable teaching and learning strategies in enhancing students’ learning to attain the learning objectives, goals, and outcomes (Canaan, 2010). Teachers require extensive, on-going exposure to technological devices to be able to evaluate and select the most appropriate resources. However, the development of appropriate pedagogical practices is seen as more important than the technical mastery of digital devices. Guzey and Roehrig (2012) note that in some cases teachers have challenges in properly integrating technology in teaching and learning.
Technology use has become an important and necessary part of our personal and professional lives. Using technology has made many of our routine chores easier and faster (Sabzian & Gilakjani, 2013). Thus, integrating educational technology in teaching and learning in the classroom is essential and this can only happen through integrating technology into teaching and learning. In schools nowadays, digital literacy is incorporated into the school curriculum through the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into schools (Johnson & Sadaf, 2017). Integrating technology in the curriculum means moving beyond trivial uses of instructional technology to uses that advance student learning of the technology in the curriculum that prepares learners’ for the future work environment (Januszewsk, 2008).
In the 21st-century schools’ new and innovative approaches in computer technology have challenged traditional approaches to teaching and learning. Computers have been used to provide many resources and opportunities that have brought about new tools, approaches, and strategies for teaching and learning (Sabzian & Gilakjani, 2013). According to Liam (2011), Integrating Information and Communication Technologies in teaching and learning is the ability to use modern technology in order to help reinforce ideas and attain the desired educational goals. It involves showing learners how to find information, and explaining how the information is relevant to a particular subject. Thus, Information and Communications Technologies integration literacy is essential for the teacher to be in a position to find and organize information from the internet as the existence of the internet is slowly replacing the textbook in the classroom (Oxford Learning, 2016).
Background of the study;
Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) may have a great impact on student learning when teachers are digitally literate and understand how to integrate ICTs into the curriculum. Schools use various sets of ICT tools to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information. ICT has also become integral to the teaching and learning interaction. Technology is taking over and replacing chalkboards with interactive digital whiteboards, using students’ own smartphones or other devices for learning during class time, and the “flipped classroom” model where students watch lectures at home on the computer and use classroom time for …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Investing in technology for integration literacy
Globally, schools are making all efforts to invest in technology and computer labs (Januszewsk, 2008). Teachers’ and learners’ access to digital devices, in schools, is growing from country to country though some countries, especially those that are developing, still have challenges that hinder them from having and utilising digital devices. In other developing countries the government or some organisations have donated digital devices to schools to ensure that there is increased accessibility to learners and teachers. It is not enough to just fill our classrooms with technology, ICTs integration literacy is essential to assist the teacher to create innovative and purposeful learning opportunities for the learners by integrating technology into learners’ daily practice in teaching and learning ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Integrating Information and Communication Technologies in Instructional Delivery in Eswatini Schools.

Impact of Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 170 – 177
Date: 14 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, United State of America – USA

Abstract
This paper examines and assesses the effects of Central Bank of Nigeria’ (CBN) economic growth. The traditional functions of a central bank include formulating and implementing monetary policy, determining interest rates and directing money supply – to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. The empirical works of King and Levine (1993) who, in a cross country study comprising data from 77 countries over the period 1960-1989, found that the level of financial development stimulates economic growth. Consequently, the Central Banks of Nigeria (CBN) have considered ways by using both traditional and unconventional monetary policy instruments to foster growth in Nigeria. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with extent of the growth and development of the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Development finance. According to R.S. Sayers ‘The Central Bank is the organ of Government that undertakes the major financial operations of the Government and by its conduct of these operations and by other means influences the behaviour of financial institutions so as to support the economic growth. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with the roles the Central Bank of Nigeria’s plays in promoting economic growth and development.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Instruments, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
It is well acknowledged in economics literature that Central Bank of a country irrespective of the country’s economic or political policies play a major role in promoting economic development through trying to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. In this regard, for an economy to grow, it should have a well-developed and stable banking system that is resilient to external shocks, which will effectively play the role of financial intermediation. However, enabling healthy financial sector evolution entails the CBN reviewing the basic one-size-fits-all model of banking. This has made possible the emergence of international, national, regional, mono-line and specialized banks such as non-interest banks, etc., with different capital requirements commensurate to the depth of their operations.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. One of the earliest works on banking performance and economic growth was ……

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The current liquidity issue and the inadequate lending to the real sector that could result to economic growth have generated considerable discussions. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has risen up to these challenges by ensuring that liquidity in the banking system is adequate and that sectoral credit allocation to the sensitive sectors of the economy (Agriculture, Power, Aviation and SMEs) that will impact on the real sector for growth are handled with all the attention required. In Nigeria, empirical works that focused explicitly on banking sector performance and economic growth have yielded mixed results. Some of these works suggest that banking sector performance has affected positively and significantly on economic growth (see; Adelakun, 2010) while others reported an insignificant relationship between banking sector performance and economic growth ……..

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
In Nigeria, the financial system is the hub of productive activity, as it performs the vital roles of financial intermediation and effecting good payments system, as well as assisting in monetary policy implementation. According to Ofanson et al. (2010) the process of financial intermediation involves the mobilization and allocation of financial resources through the financial (money and capital) markets by financial institutions (banks and non-banks) and by the use of financial instruments (savings, securities and loans).
This paper adopts classical theory of political economy and development in evaluation the relationship between Central Bank and economic growth and development ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Impact of Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s Economic Growth.