The Prevalence of Cattle Diseases

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: April 7, 2019

Kindalem Bayew
Animal Health Department Head in Janamora Wereda Livestock Development Office
Janamora, Ethiopia

Journal Full Text PDF: The Prevalence of Cattle Diseases (Study in Janamora Wereda Veterinary Clinic).

Abstract
A study was conducted from October 2018 to February 2019 on cattles presented to Janamora veterinary clinic for any health problems with the aims of identifying common cattle disease in the study area. The overall prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease is 123/384 (32.03%), 91/384 (23.70%), 87/384 (22.66%), 45/384 (11.72%) 27 (7.03%) and 11/384 (2.86%) respectively. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in male animals are 51 (41.46%), 39 (42.86%), 38 (43.68%), 35 (77.78%), 2 (7.4%), and 6 (54.55%) respectively. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in female animals are 72 (58.54%), 52 (57.14%), 49 (56.32%), 10 (22.22%), 25 (92.6%) and 5 (45.45%) respectively. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in young and adult animals are 78 (63.41%), 64 (70.33%), 48 (55.17%), 16 (35.56%), 18 (66.67%), 4 (36.36%) and 45 (36.59%), 27 (29.67%), 39 (44.83%), 29 (64.44%), 9 (33.33%), 7 (63.64%) respectively. Higher prevalence has been observed of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency in poor body conditioned animals 57 (46.34%), 47 (51.65%), 39 (48.83%), 21 (46.67%), and 24 (88.89%) respectively. In this study higher prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency has been observed in extensive management system 89 (72.36%), 53 (58.24%), 50 (57.47%), 34 (75.56%), and 19 (70.37%) respectively.

Keywords: Cattle, Janamora, Veterinary Clinic, Bacterial infection, Mekane Birhan & Deresgie.

1. INTRODUCTION
Ethiopia has the largest number of livestock in Africa, approximately 53.99 million cattle, 25.5 million sheep and 24.06 million goats, 1.91 million horses, 6.75 million donkeys, 0.35 million mules, 0.92 million camels, 50.38 million poultry and 5.21 million bee hives [1]. The proportion of total population in agricultural sector is 82.4% [2]. Among livestock, cattle play a significant role in the socio-economic aspects of the life of the people of Ethiopia. In addition to the products like meat and milk, cattle provide draught power for cultivation of the agricultural lands of many peasants. Skins and hides are also important components of the livestock sector in generating foreign export earnings [3].
A complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle production and productivity [4]. Control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Tick control is a priority for many countries in tropical and subtropical regions [5]. Among the animal diseases that hinder the animal health, parasitic infections have a great economic impact, especially in developing countries. Out of these parasitic problems of farm animals, internal parasite is a major disease, which imposes direct and indirect economic impact on livestock production, particularly of sheep and cattle [6, 7].
Though Ethiopia has huge livestock resources in Africa, it is the untapped resource. The reasons of under-utilization are multi-factorial. These include wide spread infectious and parasitic diseases, poor management system and unimproved genetic makeup coupled with poor nutrition and malnutrition and absence of well developed market infrastructure [8].
There is no study conducted in the current study area to identify common health problems in cattle. Therefore the objective of this paper is;
a. To asses common cattle diseases in Janamora Wereda veterinary clinic.
b. To identify the risk factors for the occurrence of the most common disease.
c. To know the severity of disease in the study area.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Study area
Janamora Wereda is located in North Janamora Zone of Amhara region, at the latitude and longitude of 12o59’N 38o07’E at a distance of about 180km from Janamora town. Janamora Wereda is well-known with Semien mountain National Park, Ras Dashen i.e the highest point in Ethiopia and it is a home to a number of endangered species including the Ethiopian Wolf, waliya ibex, and a wild goat which no found in elsewhere in the world. The area has an altitude range of 2900 meters above sea level. The region is marked by numerous mountains, hilly, and sloppy areas, plateaus, rivers, and many streams. Livestock population of the area comprises 100,386 cattle, 32,975 sheep, 131,041 goats, 2,540 horses, 634 mules, 7758 donkeys, 119,347 poultry. The farming system of the study area is characterized by a mixed crop-livestock production system. Transhumance, from the highlands to western lowlands, is practiced as an important strategy to secure grazing resources for the highland livestock during the dry season of the year. In the case of the lowlands, crop farming is not as intensive as high and mid-highland areas and livestock has larger contributions to the farmer’s livelihoods [9].

2.2. Study Design
Cattles are presented to the veterinary clinic for any health problems during the study period was thoroughly examined for disease condition(s) according to Kelly [10]. Personal interview, observation of disease records (case record book of the Janamora veterinary clinic), clinical examination and detailed examination performed by taking the sample into Gondar University Veterinary Medicine department laboratories was identified the disease. Different kinds of samples have been taken from the diseased cattle that have been brought to veterinary clinic. Those samples are blood, nasal discharge, skin scrape, fecal sample, tick and lice. Different risk factors that may have influence on the occurrence of the most common disease, pneumonia, GIT parasites, ectopaasites, wounds, bloat, actinobacillosis, abcess, payogenic bacteria, food toxins, dstocia, nutritional difficiency,uterine prolapsed and other factors such as sex, age, body condition scores, feed type, sudden feed change and origin of the animals were also assessed through clinical examination interviews of the owners and reading the case book. Finally, the different disease can be grouped under bacterial infctions, internal parasites, ectoparasites, skin lesion, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease.

2.3. Study population
The study subjects were cattle of different breed, age, origin and sexes. The origins of these animals were from Enchet Kab, Weyna, Denkoako, Liga, Sabra, Asenga, Serebar, Rob Gebeya, Dorona, Gasha Jagrie, Deresgie, Mekane Birhan, and Sakba, kebeles. A total of 384 animals (local and cross breed) were randomly selected and examined. The age, sex, breeds and body condition scores of each animal were also recorded. Categorizing system of cattle were categorized into two age groups young and adult, management system divided as extensice and semi intensive and the body condition score divide as poor, medium and good [11].

2.4 Sample size determination
The sample size required for this study was determined according to Thrusfield [12]. Since there was no previous work done in this study area, 50% prevalence has been taken as expected prevalence for sample size determination. The other determinants considered in sample size determination have been 95% confidence interval and 5% desired absolute precision. Hence the sample size is estimated as
From the confidence interval d=5%=0.5
Using the above formula, the minimum sample size will be about 384.

2.5. Data management and analysis
The data obtained from history, clinical examination, case record book, samples that has been sent to Gondar University veterinary medicine department laboratory and observations was entered to Microsoft worksheet excels. Then descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 20. Chi-Square test (x2) with computed p-value of less than 0.05 was used to determine the statistical significance association of disease prevalence rate with sex, ages, management system, body condition score and origin.

3. RESULTS
3.1. Prevalence
In this study, 384 animals were examined. Among these 171 animals were males and 213 were females. The overall prevalence was calculated by dividing the number of positive samples by the total sample size and multiplied by 100. Then the overall prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease is 123/384 (32.03%), 91/384 (23.70%), 87/384 (22.66%), 45/384 (11.72%) 27 (7.03%) and 11/384 (2.86%) respectively. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in male animals are 51 (41.46%), 39 (42.86%), 38 (43.68%), 35 (77.78%), 2 (7.4%), and 6 (54.55%) respectively. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in female animals are 72 (58.54%), 52 (57.14%), 49 (56.32%), 10 (22.22%), 25 (92.6%) and 5 (45.45%) respectively see table 2. The prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency and miscellaneous disease in young and adult animals are 78 (63.41%), 64 (70.33%), 48 (55.17%), 16 (35.56%), 18 (66.67%), 4 (36.36%) and 45 (36.59%), 27 (29.67%), 39 (44.83%), 29 (64.44%), 9 (33.33%), 7 (63.64%) respectively see table 3. Higher prevalence has been observed of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency in poor body conditioned animals 57 (46.34%), 47 (51.65%), 39 (48.83%), 21 (46.67%), and 24 (88.89%) respectively see table 4. In this study higher prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite, ectoparasite, skin disease, nutritional deficiency has been observed in extensive management system 89 (72.36%), 53 (58.24%), 50 (57.47%), 34 (75.56%), and 19 (70.37%) respectively see table 5. In this study higher prevalence of bacterial infection, internal parasite and ectoparasite, has been observed in Deresgie kebele 41(33.33%), 32(35.16, and 29(33.33) respectively when we compared to Weyna, Liga, Enchet Kab, Sabra, Serebar, Asenga, Denkolako and Rob Gebeya Kebeles see in table 6.