Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
Publication Date: March 22, 2019
Asma Irfan & Qaisara Parveen
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Journal Full Text PDF: Cross Expectations of Parents and Teachers in Character Building of School Children.
Character building is need of the hour. The present research was aimed to examine the common expectations of parents and teachers in character building of school children at secondary level and to know about their perception about character. The study was conducted in secondary schools of Tehsil Rawalpindi and through proportional startified sampling technique schools were selected. From selected schools available 283 SST (General, Science, Bio) teachers and same number of parents were selected as a sample. Questionnaire for parents and teachers was developed. After pilot test, reliability and validity of the questionnaires were distributed by the researcher. Collected data was analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 using T-Test. The researcher concluded that there was a difference between the expectations of parents and teachers regarding different characteristics of child`s character and in all given characteristics parents expectations were more positive and high as compared to teachers. Overall in most of cases both parents and teachers were hoping good from child`s character. Regarding character both are agreed that character is more influenced by social interactions of daily school life than the content taught through a formal curriculum and character is negatively affected by internet and TV. It was recommended that time to time meetings of parents and teachers should be arranged so that the gap between the expectations of parents and teachers can be reduced and both can work on same grounds. It was recommended that parents and teachers should look at the child social interactions and take care that child is surrounded by good people as well as there should be a checked on child while using internet or TV.
Keywords: Character building, Parent`s and teacher`s expectations & Factors affecting character.
A child’s mind is like a clear slate whatever the surroundings write on it he/she acts according to it. So it is important to decide what to write on it and parents and teachers are the main persons to develop child’s character. As Bennett, (1988) says “If we want our children to possess the traits of character, we must admire and need to teach them what those traits are and why they deserve both admiration and allegiance. Children must learn to identify the forms and content of those traits.”
Nowadays children are being more exposed to adult oriented materials at younger age due to watching TV more than the past; consequently children mixed the messages about value of moral character and have reduced chance of learning community through social interaction. Another change is in the parent’s desire to change their role from model and authoritarian to child’s friend (Brannon, 2008). Similarly Opuni, Washington & Giddings (2012) referred to youth gangs, bullying, more fight incidence, suspensions, low achievement level and generalized display of respect as symptoms of character decline. This emphasizes to train and teach good character to students that change their attitudes. To lay the stress on need of the character Crider (2012) stated that good character is not formed automatically, it is developed over time through a sustained process of teaching, example, learning, and practice – it is developed through character education. Character development is a process of continual education that starts at a very young age and continues through adulthood.
Begum (2016) desceibe that as expectations of parents begins from the child’s birth but these expectations change, when child with their age do specified activities. Parental expectation is the act or looking ahead or an example of expectation or a hope for something from child. Parents’ shares three major goals that guide them to have expectations from their child these are survival, cultural and economic goals. Some private factors point out parent’s expectation toward children. Parent’s believes knowledge, judgment, understanding, and strategy, their interaction with the child and home environment influence expectations of parents. Nature and degree of expectations are different among parents. Similarly according to Bandura et al. (1996) child`s judgements and perceptions of teachers inflenced by expectations of parents. Teachers have high expectations and pay special attention to those children, whose parents involved in child’s schooling and have high expectations for their child because teachers believe that their efforts are being reinforce at home. Benigni (2006) said if character building of children is an expectation then it is important that society participate, to help give children the chance to be welfare workers and positive leaders.
1.1 Objectives of the Study
• To examine the common expectations of parents and teachers in character building of school children at secondary level.
• To analyze the perception of parents and teachers regarding character of school children.
1.2 Hypotheses of the Study
• Ho1: There is no difference between the expectations of parents and teachers regarding different characteristics of child`s character.
• Ho2: There is no difference between the perception of parents and teachers regarding child`s character.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Vessels (1998) explained that to have character means to show right and moral acts, thoughts and feelings. Hill (2005) concludes that private thoughts and actions of individual is character, while good character is to do right in every situation with good behavior. In this regard (Battistich, 2008) argued that good character does not always obey the predetermined and existing rules instead break them if demanded by conscience. Character is not merely avoiding socially objectionable behaviors but it is a gathering of such abilities, attitudes, actions and motivations which makes person distinct. Character also includes making efforts to bring positive changes in society and raise a democratic way of life based on fairness, equality and respect. Battistich (2005) indicates that when a person grows holistically and positively in the regions of morality, intellect, emotions and social interactions, he would be supposed as a person of good character. Lickona (1996, 2004) described eleven necessary virtues that give someone a good character are self control, justice, love, fortitude, hard work, positive attitude, humility, gratitude and integrity. Barman & Bhattacharya (2012) would also include kindness, forgiveness, respect for others, compassion and cooperation to this list of virtues.
Formation of character starts long before child’s school life begins and childhood’s learning lays the base for later character development (Garfinkle, 1998). According to (Borba, 2001) achieving moral intelligence is far from guaranteed although it can be learned. It must be formed and bring up consciously, therefore Battistich (2005) says character is developed throughout one`s lifetime, through interactions and experiences which promote moral functioning. Webb (2005) mentioned that child’s character development is effected by interrelationships between classmates and schoolmates, and family system probably the most influential system of all. If the faith and values of the family system are different from the other systems than the efforts made by all other systems can be ineffective or less effective. Damon (1988) said that emotions, culture, school and relationship with parents and peers effect the education and moral development of a child. Glaze, (2004) said that development of good character cannot be put on chance but must be encouraged explicitly, expected, taught, exhibited, practiced and celebrated intentionally. Kamaruddin (2012) conclude that character building should be part of educational process and should be done at early stage so that the individual prepared academically and of good character.
For children, parents and families act as moral center because home is child`s first social learning environment (Ponzetti, 2005). Today families often give less guidance and counseling to their children than earlier generation, due to advancement in technology and education they leave the moral development of their children on schools (Benigni, 2006). Brannon (2008) conclude that character development is a joint responsibility of parents and community. Parents are child`s first teachers and in order to foster child`s character development collaboration between teachers and parents must exist. Children need to observe role models of character within family and community.
Parents must depend on school’s feedback in the form of grades, assessments and test results in order to shape their expectations about child’s future (Goldenberg et al, 2001; Seginer, 1983). Similarly Weinstein (2002) also found that teachers probably praise those students from whom they have high expectations, to lead classroom activities they ask from them and more academic choices are given to them. On the other hand from whom they have low expectations they give them negative response, less attention and suggest to place them in classes of low track.
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Population of the study was parents and teachers of public secondary schools in District Rawalpindi. According to (schools.punjab.gov.pk) there were seven tehsils in district Rawalpindi and total 370 High Schools in whole district. Among seven tehsils large numbers of schools were located in Tehsil Rawalpindi and that was 141(38%). Due to most urbanized and having large number of schools researcher conducted the study in Tehsil Rawalpindi.
The research was delimited to:
• Public High Schools for both boys and girls from Tehsil Rawalpindi were selected.
• The parents and teachers of class 9th and 10th of session 2017-2018 were focused in this research.
• S.S.T (General, Science, and Bio) teachers.
There are 141 Public High Schools in Tehsil Rawalpindi from which 74 (52.482%) are females and 67 (47.517%) are males High schools. Researcher selected stratified sampling technique as Alvi (2016) stated that stratified random sampling is used when population is hetrogenous and is not very much widely spread geographically. According to L.R.Gay`s table required sample size for population 140 is 103 (73%), for 141 the researcher takes 104 (74%) as a sample size. Through proportional stratified sampling, sample for male High schools was (47% of 104 is 49.417) 50 schools and from females High schools (52% of 104 is 54.581) 55 schools selected. From each selected school available S.S.T (General, Science, and Bio) teachers were 283 (142 male & 141 female) and 283 parents (151 mothers & 132 fathers), which were selected for the sample.
Self developed questionnaire was used by the researcher. The language used in questionnaire was simple, that every respondent understood easily. Questionnaire each for parents and teachers validated and having reliability after pilot testing was used as research instruments of study.