Concentration and Old Immersion in Lime Stick to the Characteristics of Cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz)

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Published on International Journal of Food & Nutrition
Publication Date: July 23, 2019

Putri Safitri, Anam Jauhari & Indra Darmowongso
Pandanaran University, Semarang
Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang
Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Concentration and Old Immersion in Lime Stick to the Characteristics of Cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz).

Abstract
The purposes of this research were to study the effect of the concentration and soaking time of cassava in Ca (OH) 2. The benefit of this research was to add a various types of food and to improve economic value. The design of the experiment that used was a factorial design (3 x 3) in a randomized group design with three times replication. Variable that used were concentration Ca (OH) 2 (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15%) and soaking times (20 minutes; 30 minutes; and 40 minutes). The parameters of this research analysis were moisture content, ash content, starch content, fat content, and organoleptic test Including taste, flavor, crispness, and color. The methods were cleaning, slicing, soaking, blanching, drying, and fiying. The result of this research based on scoring of test to the cassava stick Showed that cassava stick with code a2d2 was an interaction of 0.1% Ca (OH) 2 and 30 minutes soaking time, was the best product with water content of 2.13%, ash content of 1.19%, starch content of 33.38% and 3.69% lipid content.

Keyword: Concentration, immersion, Ca (OH) 2, Stick cassava.

I. Introduction
Cassava can be processed into various products, processing commonly performed as an attempt utilization is by processing cassava into cassava, tapioca starch, tape or also can be made into a wide variety of other food products.
Stick is one snack a kind of chips that can be used as food, is also a source of calories high enough, although according to nutritionists classified into nutritious food is low, but consumers in general put in terms of preferences compared the nutritional value and the price, considering the consumption of food light increases, the stick of cassava (manioc) can add to diversification of processed cassava products, Matz, [1] in Arsianty, [2].
According Wijandi [3], soaking in lime water Ca (OH) 2 can inhibit the browning process, which is thought to be caused by enzyme activity polifenolase contained in cassava due to contact with air.
According Winingsih [4], that immersion in water is a good lime at a concentration of 0.25%, with a time of 45 minutes for the product chips squash. Meanwhile, according to [2], where the products are water-soaked chicken intestines lime having a concentration of 1.0% and a 30-minute soaking time will produce a crispy chicken intestine water content of 1.67%, and when soaked in lime water with a concentration of 0.5 % with a 45-minute soaking time produce crisp chicken intestine has 37.97% fat content. The purpose of this research is studying the effect of the concentration of lime and lime dipping time to stick to the quality of cassava.
The benefits of this research is to increase the economic value of cassava and a diversification of products whose raw materials processed cassava.

II. METHODOLOGY
Raw materials used in this study are: cassava obtained from traditional markets. Supporting materials used are: lime, salt, garlic, and cooking oil. While the chemical ingredients used are: toluene, distilled, concentrated HCL 25%, 30% NaOH, H2SO4 solution (p), salt (mixture of Na2SO4 6N, luff solution, starch, KL, Na Thiosulfate 0,1N, N- hexane.
The design of treatment on primary research consisted of two factors, namely the concentration of lime (A), which consists of three levels and prolonged submersion (D), which consists of three levels, namely:
1. The concentration of lime (A) consists of:
A1 = concentration of 0.05%
A2 = concentration of 0.1%
A3 = concentration of 0.15%
2. Long immersion (D) consists of:
D1 = Old soaking 20 minutes
D2 = Long soaking 30 minutes
D3 = Length soaking 40 minutes

2.1 Design of Experiments
The experimental design used in this study is the 3 x 3 factorial design in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Based on the above design, then created a variation analysis (ANOVA).

2.2 Draft Response
The draft response carried out on primary research on cassava sticks consist of a chemical response, and sensory responses.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Lime concentration tested in the preliminary study was 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%, of the organoleptic test concentration of lime selected obtained and used for research panelists main lime concentration of 0.1%. As for the long immersion in lime water to be tested is 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes, from the organoleptic test results obtained preliminary selected panelists soaking time is 30 minutes and is used in the main study.

Figure 1. Appearance Analysis Results Preliminary Stick Cassava
Note: The closer the lines of color against a black line, the better the product stick cassava

The main research is the advanced research of preliminary research. Based on the results of preliminary experiments with the organoleptic test shows that the best of the preliminary study are treated with 0.1% lime concentration and soaking time of 30 minutes. Then in the main trial tested two factors: the concentration of lime with three levels (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%) and prolonged submersion with three levels (20 minutes, 30 minutes and 40 minutes). And do some chemical analysis is the analysis of water content by distillation method, gravimetric methods of analysis ash content, starch content analysis method and analysis luff schoorl fat content soxhlet method.

3.1 Test Appearance
3.1.1 Sense
A sensory taste in humans that can determine whether a food tasty addition to appearance or packaging appearance that is usually seen first by the consumer. Regulation of tasting it to show the consumer acceptance of a food product is generally carried out by means of the human senses. Each panelist will provide value to others tasting product.
The results of the ANOVA calculation shows that the concentration and soaking time in chalk effect on the characteristics, followed by Duncan test with results as listed in Table 1, 2, 3.

Table 1 The Effect Concentration Against Lime tasting it Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Table 1 shows that the lowest value is 3.35 tasting it obtained from the treatment a3 (lime concentration of 0.15%), while tasting it on the highest value is 3.55 on a1 treatment (lime concentration of 0.05%).

Table 2. Effect of Lime Against Immersion duration tasting it Stick Cassava
Old Immersion Value The real level of 5%
d3 (soaking 40 minutes) 3.19 a
d1 (immersion 20min) 3.55 b
d2 (soaking 30 minutes) 3.62 b
Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Further test results Dunken Table 2 shows the d3 soaking time (40 minutes) was significantly different from d1 (20 minutes) and d2 (30 minutes), d1 (20 minutes) was not significantly different from d2 (30 minutes). The longer soaking in lime, then the lower the value of tasting it.

The difference in concentration, the treatment of immersion and interaction can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3. Effect of Interaction Between Old concentration Lime and Limestone Against Immersion In tasting it Stick Cassava

Information :
– lowercase notation is read horizontally, while vertical readable notation uppercase letters (a further test Duncan 5% significance level)
– Different letters indicate any significant difference treatment.

Table 3 shows that the influence of the concentration of lime (a) of the soaking time factor (d), wherein the treatment a1d1 (0.05% lime concentration and soaking time 20 min) significantly different from a1d3 treatment (lime concentration of 0.05% and soaking time 40 minutes), but not significantly different from a1d2 treatment (0.05% lime concentration and soaking time 30 min), treatment a2d1 (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 20 minutes) was not significantly different from a2d3 treatment (concentration lime 0.1% and soaking time 40 minutes), but significantly different from a2d2 treatment (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 min), treatment a3d1 (0.15% lime concentration and soaking time 20 minutes), A3d2 ( 0.15% lime concentration and soaking time 20 minutes) and A3d3 (lime concentration 0,15% and 40 minute soaking time) each significantly different among the three.

3.1.2 Aroma
The aroma of a food or beverage products have an important role of ratings and appearance, as if food or drink has a unique flavor then the product can be said to be good. ANOVA calculation results show that the concentration of lime affect the aroma stick of cassava, followed by Duncan test with results as listed Table 4, 5, 6.

Table 4. The Effect Concentration Against Lime Aroma Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Further test results Duncan Table 4 shows that the concentration of lime a3 (0.15%) was significantly different from a1 lime concentration (0.05%), the concentration of lime a3 (0.15%) were not significantly different from a2 concentration (0.1% ) and the concentration of lime a1 (0.05%) were not significantly different from a2 concentration (0.1%). The higher the concentration of the aromas of lime lime increasingly smelled.

Table 5 Effect of Lime Against Immersion Duration Aroma Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Further test Dunken Table 5 shows the d3 soaking time (40 minutes) was significantly different from d1 (20 minutes) and d2 (30 minutes), d1 (20 minutes) was not significantly different from d2 (30 minutes).

Table 6 Effect of Interaction Between Old concentration Lime and Limestone Against Immersion In Aroma Stick Cassava

Information :
– lowercase notation is read horizontally, while vertical readable notation uppercase letters (a further test Duncan 5% significance level)
– Different letters indicate any significant difference treatment.

Duncan further test results in Table 6 shows that the interaction with the scent of lime concentration cassava stick showed significantly different values.
Crispness is the ease of foodstuffs for cracks, splits or crunchy. The texture of food is closely related to crispness. For this product the crispness of cassava stick is an important attribute, stickdesirable is crispy.
The results of the statistical calculations organoleptic analysis of the influence of the concentration of long immersion in lime and chalk to stick crispiness value of cassava showed significantly different results at the level of 5% of each treatment. Followed by Duncan test with results as listed in Table 7, 8, 9.

Table 7 Effect of Concentration Chalk Terhadah crispness Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Further test results Duncan Table 7 shows that the concentration of lime a1 (0.05%) and a2 lime concentration (0.1%) were not significantly different, but both are significantly different from the concentration of lime a3 (0.15%). Based on the above table it can be seen that the lowest crispness to the concentration of lime is at 3.18 which is obtained from a1 treatment (lime concentration of 0.05%), while the highest value is 3.46 crispness in the treatment a3 (lime concentration of 0.15%).

table 8 Effect of Lime Against Immersion Crispness Old Stick Cassava
Old Immersion Value The real level of 5%

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test.
Further test results Duncan Table 8 shows that the soaking time of 40 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes each significantly different from each other. From the table above it can be seen that the lowest value was 3.05 crispness obtained from treatment of d3 (lime soaking 40 minutes), while the highest value is 3.44 crispness on d2 treatment (soaking 30 minutes).

Table 9 Effect of Interaction Between Old concentration Lime and Limestone Against Immersion In crispness Stick Cassava

Information:
– lowercase notation is read horizontally, while vertical readable notation uppercase letters (a further test Duncan 5% significance level)
– Different letters indicate any significant difference treatment.

Color is one of the least interesting attraction appearance of a product is influenced by the physical state of the product.
Because usually the first thing to note would mamilih consumer at the time a product is physical appearance in this case is usually seen first is color, Soekarto [5].
The results of the ANOVA calculation shows that the concentration of lime affect the color stick followed by Duncan test with results as listed in Table 7, 8, 9.

Table 10 Effect of Lime Against Concentration Color Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
Further test results Duncan Table 10 shows that the concentration of lime a1 (0.05%), a2 lime concentration (0.1%), and the concentration of lime a3 (0.15%) each significantly different from each other. Based on the above table it can be seen that the lowest color value for the concentration of lime is obtained from the treatment a3 3.27 (lime concentration of 0.15%), while the aroma of the highest value is 3.55 on a1 treatment (lime concentration of 0.05%).

Table 11 Effect of Color Against Lime Old Immersion Stick Cassava

Description: Each different letters indicate significant differences at the level of 5% up Duncan’s test
The test results further Duncan Table 11 shows that the soaking time d3 (40 minutes) was not significantly different from the soaking time d1 (20 minutes) but significantly different with soaking d2 (30 minutes), whereas the soaking d2 (30 minutes) was not significantly different from the immersion d1 (20 minutes).

Table 12 Effect of Interaction Between Concentration Chalk and Old

Information:
– lowercase notation is read horizontally, while vertical readable notation uppercase letters (a further test Duncan 5% significance level)
– Different letters indicate any significant difference treatment.

Effect of soaking time factor (d) the concentration of lime (a), which d1a1 treatment (20 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.05%) was significantly different from d1a2 treatment (20 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.1%) and treatment d1a3 (20 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.15%), but not significantly different d1a2 d1a3 treatment. D2a1 treatment (30 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.05%) was significantly different from d2a2 treatment (30 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.1%) but not significantly different from d2a3 treatment (30 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0, 15%). D3A1 treatment (soaking time of 40 minutes, the concentration of lime 0.05%) was significantly different from D3A2 treatment (30 minutes soaking time, the concentration of lime 0.1%) and d3a3 (soaking time of 40 minutes, the concentration of lime 0.15%).

3.2 Chemical Analysis
3.2.1 Water Content Analysis Methods Distillation
The water content in a food material influence on the quality of foodstuffs, it is one of the reasons why in the food processing, water is often removed or reduced, for example by means of drying.
Based on analysis of variance calculation of the value of the water content of cassava stick F count is less than F table at 5% level then the lime treatment concentration and soaking time does not affect the water content of cassava stick so the hypothesis is rejected and does not do a further test of Duncan.

3.2.2 Content Analysis Abu Methods Gravimetry
Sudarmadji [6], the ash is inorganic substances which are waste products of combustion of an organic and inorganic materials. Ash obtained after the annealed material to carbon-free food while the organic substances burn out and become C02 and H2O.
Ash content value analysis results cassava stick product that most are in treatment A3d3 (0.15% lime concentration and soaking time of 40 minutes) of 1.45.
While those with a low ash content is in treatment a1d1 (0.05% lime concentration and soaking time 20 minutes) of 0.83. Many or low levels of ash in the ash content analysis cassava stick is affected by the different concentrations of lime and duration of immersion with lime, as listed in Table 13.

Table 13 Effect of Lime Against Concentration stick ash content Cassava
Chalk concentration Value The real level of 5%

Further test results Duncan Table 13 shows that the concentration of lime to stick ash content of cassava by treatment with lime a1 (0.05%), a2 lime concentration (0.1%), and the concentration of lime a3 (0.15%) different from each other real one another. According to the table above shows that the value for the lowest ash content for lime concentration is 0.67 obtained from a1 treatment (lime concentration of 0.05%), while the value of the highest ash content was 1.95 at treatment a3 (lime concentration of 0.15% ).
From the analysis of variation (ANOVA) showed that the concentrations of different lime affect the ash content of cassava sticks but does not affect the long immersion and interaction. Starch Content Analysis Luff Schoorl method. Starch is a carbohydrate compound which is composed of molecules of amylose and amylopectin, [3].
Based on analysis of variance calculation of the value of cassava starch stick F count is smaller than F table at 5% level then the lime treatment concentration and soaking time has no effect on the starch content cassava stick so the hypothesis is rejected and does not do a further test of Duncan.

3.2.3 Fat Content Analysis Method Soxhlet
Fat is a molecule that has an organic bond consisting of the elements C, H and O. In general, the fat has a high melting point and is solid at room temperature, the fat in the liquid state at room temperature are called oils, has a low melting point and is fluid , [6].
Based on the calculation of variance analysis of the value of fat stick of cassava where F count is smaller than F table at the level of 5%, the treatment concentration of lime (A) and prolonged submersion (D) had no effect on levels of fat stick of cassava so the hypothesis is rejected and does not conducted a further test of Duncan.

3.2.4 Test Scoring
The results of test calculations scoring against organoleptic and chemical analysis obtained the best products selected are treated a2d2 (concentration of 0.1% lime and soaking time 30 minutes) with the number 25, while the lowest number of test scoring is the result of determination a2d3 treatment at 16 , the determination is made of the results of the number of calculations where the treatment a2d2 have a number higher than other treatments, the higher the value / number, the better the product.

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 Conclusion
1. The concentration of lime affect the taste, aroma, crispness, color and ash content, but does not affect the water content, starch and fat content.
2. Long immersion effect on the flavor, aroma, crispness and color, but does not affect the moisture content, ash content, starch and fat content.
3. Results The interaction between concentration and soaking time in chalk effect on tasting it, aroma, crispness and color. But does not affect the moisture content, ash content, starch and fat content. Ie for the treatment tasting it on a2d2 (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 minutes) of 3.87. Aroma a2d2 treatment (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 minutes) of 3.49. Crispness a2d2 treatment (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 minutes) of 3.76. while for the color on a2d2 treatment (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 minutes) of 3.89.
4. The best products according to the calculations of the organoleptic test scoring and analytical chemistry is a product with a2d2 treatment (0.1% lime concentration and soaking time 30 minutes). With a water content of 2.13%, ash content of 1.19%, the starch content of 33.38% and 3.69% fat content.

4.2 Recommendations
1. Undertake more research regarding the addition of flavor, color, and type of oil used for frying.
2. To maintain the quality of these products, it is necessary to conduct further research on the best packaging in storage.