Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: June 3, 2019
Gatot Suryanto, Fery Ardiansyah, Qoyum Muslihin & Jono Supatmo
Malang Agricultural Institute, Malang
IKIP Budi Utomo, Malang
Atlas Nusantara Technical College, Malang
STKIP PGRI Sidoarjo, Sidoarjo
Journal Full Text PDF: Management System of Feasibility Cemani Chicken Farms (Studied in the Kedu Village, Temanggung).
The purpose of this study was to identify the production process management system and identify the feasibility of Cemani chicken farm that is managed independently and in a group in the village of the District Kedu Kedu, Temanggung regency. This study used survey method. Data collected through direct observation and interviews. This research is descriptive because it can describe each variable to get a better view of the activities of the chicken production process management system Cemani the feasibility and to prove a significant influence based on the effect on both. Analyzed by the Direct Marketing (Cluster and Control Package Test) and methods of GLM (General Linear Model) – Multivariate to know sigifikan difference between feasibility and production process management systems Cemani chicken farms and independent groups. The results showed that the group Cemani chicken farms more profitable than chicken farms Cemani independently based on the calculation Payback Period (PP).
Keywords: Cemani chicken, production process management systems, feasibility & Chicken Farms
Property owned by Indonesia in the form of biodiversity has been well known and include the diversity of genetic resources in the form of local chicken. The utilization of genetic resources requires serious attention and targeted programming is also one genetic resources conservation is concerned. Utilization of genetic resources most frequently done is to use genetic resources is concerned in the production process that can provide an advantage in a farm system. Generally, genetic resources available are not used directly as it is in nature but must go through a process of breeding. Generally, breeding can be defined as the process of genetic improvement to achieve a certain production (Samariyanto, 2010).
Kedu is a typical local livestock assets, Temanggung regency, Central Java province and even Indonesia, therefore the Government of Temanggung regency, Central Java province has sought continuously to maintain, preserve and develop at the same time. Kedu is one type of superior local chickens were from Central Java, especially in the district of Temanggung. These chickens are well known throughout Indonesia even to foreign countries. Currently there are three known types of Kedu Kedu namely white, striped and black (Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries District Temanggung, 2012).
Kedu chicken farmers have a tendency to develop black Kedu (Cemani) due to a higher economic value than the usual chicken Kedu (Thahjadi, 2010).
Expected by this study can increase the interest of farmers to pursue Cemani chicken farming, chicken has a high productivity and demand pasarnyapun quite open. There needs to be a calculation and economic analysis of the right to determine the efficiency of business he had built in order to obtain maximum results. Analysis of the benefits and feasibility of such calculation Break Event Point (BEP), Benefit Cost (R / C Ratio) and Payback Period (PP) is to provide information to farmers about the success of the business he founded. Benefit analysis and feasibility can demonstrate financial circumstances a farmer in knowing the state, financial development, selling price and profit achieved business results, so as to demonstrate the efficiency of the business.
2. Research methods
This research was conducted in two farms that have a different management system, the independent management and group management. The farms located at Desa Kedu, District Kedu, Temanggung regency, Central Java Province, When the study of the moonApril-May, 2014, The design of this study is observational because only see events that are in the field without the intervention of researchers(Bungin, 2005).
This research uses descriptive method because only capture and analyze a situation at a particular time.
The sampling technique was purposive sampling technique, by reason of population characteristics derived from two types of poultry Cemani that is independent and group. In subdistrict Kedu 8 samples taken breeders group and 8 samples independent farmers deliberately set menurud populous owned.
Data collection techniques in this study is a questionnaire to get answers from the respondents are of poultry Cemani independent and group assisted with interview techniques to the farmers as a resource that is based on the questionnaire and equipped with technical documentation in the form of documents relevant to the issues in order to complete the data obtained.
A financial analysis of broiler chicken farm were tested by using the calculation of earnings, revenue loss, Benefit Cost Ratio (B / C Ratio), Payback Period (PP), Break Even Point (BEP) and B / C ratio.
Analysis of the data used to determine the financial feasibility and management of the production process on a chicken farm Cemani with pattern and independent groups is Direct Marketing. Data analysis program used was SPSS.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1 Description Management System Data Management System Production Process Poultry Cemani in the District Kedu Kedu village of Temanggung
Groups of farmers and poultry breeders Cemani independent from the standpoint of production process management using the Direct Marketing (Cluster Analysis) can not be classified into two groups as both outline a pattern of management is almost the same so it can not be determined the most important factor in the management system of the production process the chicken farm Cemani in Temanggung district.
3.2 Description Results Business Analysis and Feasibility Poultry Cemani in the village of the District Kedu Kedu, Temanggung regency.
Based on the description of the calculation of the overall data analysis effort, here are some important factors on a chicken farm Cemani analysis and independent group of Temanggung:
Picture 1. Important factors in the chicken farm Cemani analysis and independent groups in the district of Temanggung.
,In Figure 1 shows there are some important factors on a chicken farm Cemani analysis and independent groups in the village of the District Kedu Kedu, Temanggung regency. These factors sequentially from the most important is the transport 1 year, 1 year of electricity, the payback period, the BEP price culled birds, the total production of culled chicken, chicken eggs rejected one year, the price of land, income, B / C ratio and reception. The most important factors in business analysis is equally present in the chicken farm Cemani and independent groups.
B / C ratio Cemani chicken farms and independent groups were not significantly determine feasibility. Based on the data generated, 8 of 8 samples breeders group and 8 out of 8 samples independent farmers viable B / C ratio with a decent indicator if the B / C ratio ≥ 1 and. The results showed that of the feasibility of each poultry Cemani showed no significant data, so that the B / C ratio can be said to be equally feasible between farmer groups and independent. The result of the calculation B / C ratio if the B / C> 1, then a farm is said to provide benefits for businesses or worthy to be pursued. If the B / C = 1, then a farm is said to be even or no benefits and no disadvantages, in the feasibility analysis is said to be not feasible. Meanwhile, if the B / C <1, payback PeriodCemani chicken farms and independent groups were not significantly determine feasibility. Based on the data generated, 6 of 8 samples said to be viable breeders group Payback Period (PP) with the indicator is feasible if the Payback Period (PP) ≤ 1. On the chicken farm Cemani independently of 8 samples breeders say not feasible Payback Period (PP) , The results showed that of the feasibility of each poultry Cemani showed no significant data, so that the payback period can be said that the group Cemani chicken farms more viable than the independent Cemani chicken farm. Indicators Payback Period calculation is very dependent on the amount of profit or loss and the amount farmers received total investment costs already incurred breeder. The greater the profit generated, the less the value of Payback Period. Payback Period is an investment appraisal method that shows how long the investment can be covered back of the net cash flow. So, show time as is necessary to recover the investments made or the length of time required by benefits and depreciation for investment returns. Indicator is feasible if the Payback Period (PP) ≤ 1. The smaller the value Payback Period (PP) ≤ 1, then the sooner the investment value will be returned (Sjahrial, 2008). 3.3 Feasibility and Factors Influencing the Production Process Management System Poultry Cemani in the District Kedu Kedu village of Temanggung The average value of B / C Ratio breeder hen group Cemani of 3.61, the median value B / C ratio of 3.58 and standard deviation for the B / C ratio of 0.32 and an average value of B / C Ratio on independent farmers Cemani chicken at 2.43, the median value B / C ratio of 2.35 and standard deviation for the B / C ratio of 0.27. B / C Ratio> 1, then an attempt is said to be beneficial for businesses or worthy to be pursued. Based on these values, then the chicken farm Cemani groups or independently in the village of the District Kedu Kedu, Temanggung regency worthy to be pursued. Each farmer groups or independently sell five products namely chicken grower Cemani (as main product), chicken Cemani adult, DOC, eggs and chicken Cemani rejects and embryonated eggs.
BEP production Cemani chicken growers at the farm group has an average value of 55 dolphins, the median value of 44 head and to a standard deviation of 20.58 birds per year and for independent farms have an average value of 10 fish tails median value and standard 10 deviation of 1.90 birds per year. Both values obtained are very different, because the BEP calculation depends on the number of chickens Cemani owned by each farmer and consumer demand to buy chicken Cemani grower. Each farmer group sales amount Cemani chicken grower farmers sequentially from the first group is 84, 180, 72, 108, 96, 96, 156 and 156 head / year. Cemani independent chicken farmers Cemani chicken grower sales amount sequence 12, 24, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12 and 12 head / year.
BEP price Cemani chicken growers at the farm group has an average value of Rp 696 148, – the median value of Rp 695 997, – and for the standard deviation of USD 77 173, – per year and for independent farms have an average value of Rp 1,111,337, – the median value of Rp 1,179,998, – and a standard deviation of USD 147 448, – per year. Both also gained a very different value, because the BEP calculation depends on the number of chickens Cemani owned by each farmer and consumer demand to buy chicken Cemani grower. Each farmer groups and independent Cemani chicken growers sell at the same price of Rp 1.500.000, -. So the average of all poultry Cemani group has an advantage because it has been sold more than the average farmer groups BEP price of Rp 696,000, – per head and average BEP independent farmers price of Rp 1.
BEP calculation (price / production) actually only used for companies selling a single product, while for poultry Cemani either a group or an independent consumer demand is very diverse so that farmers sell it in many forms of eggs fertile, DOC, chicken Cemani adult, chicken Cemani rejected and infertile eggs as an additional reception. BEP calculations to fertile eggs, DOC, Cemani adult chicken, chicken and eggs infertile Cemani rejects bias the results because the actual main product of the chicken farm Cemani is Cemani chicken grower.
Average profit per year breeder chickens groups and independent farmers Cemani show positive value of Rp 210 434 277, – and Rp 20,997,357, which means businesses both benefit. Scale distinct advantage between the two, because the amount of profit is very influenced by the chicken population Cemnai owned and success of each breeder management. One of the points that determine the feasibility of a business is from income earned, the higher the profit earned value then the business is feasible or even very decent.
payback period(PP) for rancher group has an average value of 0.9, the median value of 0.9 and a standard deviation of 0.06 and for independent farmers have an average value of 2.3, the median value of 2.4 and a standard deviation of 0.39 , This value indicates that for breeder hen group Cemani quick payback period, which is less than one year but for independent farmers Cemani chicken slow return of capital, which is more than two years due to sales turnover is relatively less than Cemani chicken farmer groups.
These factors sequentially from the most important is the transport 1 year, electricity 1 year, payback period, the BEP price culled birds, the total production of culled birds, chickens culled and eggs infertile one year, the price of land, income, B / C ratio and reception , The most important factors in business analysis is equally present in the chicken farm Cemani and independent groups.
Factors transport and electricity to two of the most important factor in calculating eligibility Cemani chicken farm. It is based on the questionnaire data transport and electricity costs included in cost is not fixed or Operational costs. So the cost operasioanl an important expense in a poultry farm Cemani either standalone or groups. The bigger the chicken population Cemani possessed the greater the expenditure budget for transportation and electricity. Consumers chicken Cemani mostly from outside Temanggung, and most of the outer islands. So the role of transportation here is very important to ensure the customer to place orders in accordance with the expected conditions.
4. Conclusions and recommendations
The most important factors in business analysis covering 1 year transportation, electricity 1 year, payback period, the BEP price culled birds, the total production of culled chicken, chicken eggs rejected one year, the price of land, income, B / C ratio and reception in Cemani chicken farms and independent groups. Through this study, it can be suggested several issues related to the development of chicken farm Cemani is Improving the implementation of the maintenance system specifically for independent farmers, and the farmers are not worthy efforts in order to improve management of the exercise, a chicken farmer Cemani independently suggested to make a recording (recording ) are detailed and sustainability of the management system of production processes and financially so as to make the business analysis that clearly and ranchers can mengeahui feasibility of their business, increase populations of chickens Cemani on farms independently so that the benefits can be enhanced and poultry Cemani self-advised to join a groups of farmers,as seen from the viewpoint of management and the feasibility of the group Cemani chicken farm more profitable.