Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: December, 2019
Odukwe Emmanuel & Okpala Emeka
Department of Public Administration
This research was carried out to examine the Impact of recruitment policies and procedures on the performance of civil service, (A study of the Nigerian Television Authority towards the effectiveness or efficiency of the present civil service compared to the past, Consequent upon this, the organization is realizing its goals and objectives which form the primary aims for establishing the company However if is recommended that the company should maintain her training policy and the establishment of its own educational in-door programmes. There should be creation of work-study section in all the departments of the organization which could enhance on the spot identification of problems for correction. Also staff motivation should be encouraged to enable them put their best. Recognition of the above is essential because great management ideas are strictly arm chair until a manager puts them into effect through manpower planning.
Keywords: Impact of recruitment, policies and procedures & performance of civil service.
Evolution of the Nigeria Civil Service Policies Essay
In tracing the emergence and growth of the civil service in Nigeria, Nwosu (1977) started from 1900 when Britain formally established the authority in most of the administrative purposes. They were in the colony of Lagos and the protectorate of Northern and southern Nigeria. Later in 1906, the Lagos colony was merged with the southern protectorate and remained the colony and protectorate of southern Nigeria. In 1914, the two protectorates were amalgamated and subsequently became known as the colony and protectorate of Nigeria.
In order to be able to administer the territory, Britain imposed a unified alien civil service on Nigeria without giving much thought to its impact on the Nigerian traditional communities with their conflicting values, interest, norms and authority structure (Kingsley 1963). It must be pointed out that despite the amalgamation and it attendant unification of the civil service of the North and South, the two are still developed of their own pace.
The major function of civil service at the time was mainly the maintenance of law and raising enough revenue to sustain the colonial authority According 10 Okoli and Ohali (2002), the service was geared towards the negative policy of preventing trouble in the area under its administration. Economic and social development was never a major objective of the administration.
The colonial civil service according to Nwosu 1977 had its structure; at the Head of Public Service was the Governor. General who was accountable to the colonial secretary in London. The colonial secretary was himself accountable to the British cabinet and the parliament. The governor general delegated his authority to the Chief Secretary, who was the effective head of the service. The chief secretary coordinated the whole service which was divided into two major parts the departmental and the political administration. The departmental administration covers the technical and professional functions of this colonial regime. These include education, health treasury, agriculture, forestry, public works and audit.
The various heads assisted the chief secretary they are not only advised the governor but initiated policies, partial pated in legislation and supervised the execution of enacted bills and approved polices.
While the head of technical department operated from Lagos. Their subordinates were in change of field offices. The field officers included the lieutenant —governor, the resident and district officers, the officers who are pillars of colonial civil service were fully responsible for maintenance of law and order and the mobilization of resources which were the main object of colonial administration.
The field officer did not rule the people directly rather they owned the people and that is indirect rule. In the north, it was completely successful because of this indigenous political and administrative structure on ground. In the west, it was partially successful because of the peoples contrast with western education and in the east; it was a complete failure because of the republican nature of the people’s government.
The fusion of western administration with the traditional African system produced a new structure which Nwosu (1977) says corresponded with Fred Riggs description of the pattern of role differentiation in a traditional society. As this early period, Nigerians were restricted to the lower odious of the civil service. The south and the north though amalgamated, still had their separate civil service.
2. PRINCIPLE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is guided by the triple maxims of authority, neutrality and impartiality. The principles of permanence and also seen as patt of the maxims (Obiajulu and Obi 2004).
Anonymity: This states that civil servant should be seen and not heard. Though they advise political office holders on issues relating to government, they neither take the blame nor the glory of such policies they are not expected to be seen defending such policies. Civil servant as far as possible is anonymous and should not be seen as coming for publicity.
Neutrality: The civil servant must be politically neutral his job is to serve the government of the day irrespective of what he feels about that particular government. He should not allow his personal prejudices color his dedication to his duty. He is not expected to be a card carrying member of a political party or get involved in partisan politics though he is expected to vote at election times.
Impartiality: Civil servants are paid from tax payer’s money which does not belong to anybody or group in particular. They are therefore expected to discharge their duties without fear or favour in rendering such service to the public. The civil servant is expected to treat everybody with a high degree of impartiality.
Permanence: the civil service is often defined as a permanent body of officials that carryout government decisions. It is permanent and its life is not the life of any particular government. Government come and goes but the civil service remains.
3. FUNCTION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
According to Obiajulu & Obi (2004), the major function of the civil service is the implementation of government policies. Civil servants are not policy makers and are not really in a position to question government policies. Whenever a policy is made it becomes the role of the civil servants to implement the policy the way the government of the day want it to be. The federal and state civil servants play important role in policy formulation and advice. They play a major economic, social and educational objective of both the federal and state governments.
The civil service also gathers statistical information for the activities of the government senior civil servants also have to inform the public about the achievements, abilities and problems facing the government.
Also, Ezeani (2005) noted that the civil service is a store of knowledge of past government decisions and procedures. Thus it plays an educative role by assisting professional and military political executives (as is the case in Nigeria), especially the new ones” to adjust themselves to the realities of their offices” (This week, 1988; 19). The civil servants also play investigative and regulatory functions.
4. HOW CAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT BE FULLY REALIZED
Development has come more crucial in the developing countries to avert the lingering problem of bureaucratic maze paralyzed by partisan and ideological imperatives, poor coordination, implementation and cheer miscalculation that be devil many administrative issues in the developing countries. These problems can be tackled through beater monitoring accountability checks and more rigorous project evaluations. Development does not take place in a vacuum but in all “environment” the environment in the field of development is a country’s socio-economic and political set up. To be conducive to national development, the civil service as an
Statement Of Problem
Anomilies in the recruitment of civil servants have affected civil service. In most cases, unqualified civil servants have been called to serve. These are reasons why poor performances in the civil service has occurred.
Poor attention has also been given to the civil service. Politicizing ethnicity and all the issues bothering inefficiency are reasons that affect the civil service. This research is designed to bring out these anomilies and problems and also to bring out solutions to solve them.
The actual and hidden costs of recruitment and selection are important. The total outlay In recruiting one employee can involve expenditure of the order of six to fourth percent of the annual basic salary. Cost of advertising, agency/search/selectton consultancy fees, royalties, fee for occupational testing etc., all soon mount up, without taking into account administration costs and the recruiter’s own time It no engagement is made these costs can escalate dramatically, for there are unquantifiable but significant costs involved in repeating the recruitment exercise. It IS important therefore to establish an effective recruitment system, if only because such significant of money can be put at risk (Humphrey, 2010). The process should provide statistical information for human resource planning, job information, and administrative support to deal with responses from candidates
The department of Employment’s Glossary of Management Terus defines “Job Description” as a broad statement of the purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job, whereas a “Job specification” is a detailed statement of the physical and mental activities in a job.
A job description identifies the authority of the job, its location in the organization and the activities and major responsibilities that must be done to perform the Job. It is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done and what it is done. It should accurately portray job content, environment and conditions of employment. Job description serves as the basis for performance rating and promotion.
It makes the duties, tasks and responsibilities clear to the hob holder. It is used in determining employees’ remain ration and, consequently, his/her status in the organization. It is very useful in designing training programmes and it is used in contract negotiation with labour unison. There are two basic approaches to job description. Open approach and classified approach. Job description is not an end in itself and the compilation is not a once and for all exercise, especially as dangers in technology, materials, company objectives, products and labour market will dedicate new jobs.
According to Ejumudo (2012) a person’s specification, also known as Job specification, defines the education, training, qualification and competence required for the Job. Candidate profile as it is sometimes called is to make explicit the attributes that are required in candidates for the job in question. Thus, the personnel specification becomes a summary of the important knowledge, skills and personal characteristics required by the successful candidates in order to be able to carry out the job of an required, but the job will be performed in a particular social context, and so it is important to have the managers view as to the sort of personal qualities that would permit the new comer to fit into the team (Ejumudo, 2012). As Fraser (2008) explicitly stated each human being is unique and can only be understood as a complete entity. Ill-conceived attempts to force him into classifications usually lead to essential element being either concealed or missed out entirely. But when trying to select from among a group of candidates, we want to be able to compance one with another.
Methods And Sources Of Recruitment
Generally, there are two rnain sources of recruitment. The first is recruitment form outside the organization while the second is from within the organization itself. This second method is mainly through departmental promotion which is one in which appointment to the higher posts in the service is made only from within the service itself.
This may be done through restricted competitive examinations.
Selection is the process of choosing from the period of applicants those to be lived by the organization based on the specified organizational requirements. This stage in the recruitment cycle is very important as it is through this that employers make decisions on who is the work appropriate candidate to be employed of all the job applicants that possess the relevant qualifications, experience and aptitude. It is at this stage that the recruiters are very careful not to select candidates that would not fit into the work force properly.
Planning And Setting Up The Interview
For any applicant to be hived or attend employment in any organization, the applicant must attend an interview (which is the selection process). According to Humphrey (2010), for a situation to be described as an interview it must meet the following criteria:
a It is a part of the communication process b It is a vehicle for the transmission of information from one person to another.
c. It focuses upon specific subject matter that is relevant to its situation, occasion and purpose.
d It requires the participation of at last two people who interact freely with each other.
e. It is limited to achieve one or several objectives.
It takes place in a particular physical social setting it occurs as part of a procedural sequence of events.
The Interview Setting
In any interview, privacy is an important requirement. This is to avoid third parties having knowledge to the conversation between the candidate and the interviewer during interviews. Although the interview has a social element it is also a business investing. If an office is used for the interview if might be necessary to consider tidiness, positions of desks and chairs, as well as training the telephone and turning off the personal computer. Privacy includes avoidance of interruptions and visual distractions (Humphrey, 2010) in
the course of the interview, every effort be made to establish rapport with the candidate. It this element is missing, chances are that the objectives will not be achieved, unless a deliberated stress situation has been created for a purpose. It is also necessary that the necessary countries are extended to candidates during any waiting period. This is because feeling of being isolated or ignorant can easily be aroused by lack of attention and it takes much time and effort overcomes these effects (Humphrey, 2010).
Conducting The Interview
After defining the context of the interview, the interviewer has to decide on the style of interview to adopt. The style can be directed non-directed or probing
In this style of interview, direct questions requiring definite answers are used. This style is especially appropriate for school leaves, for applicant with complicated job histories and when there is a suggestion that “facts” are in dispute.
Non -Directed Interviews
Open questions that allow the candidate to choose an answer should always be relied on it is the best way of stanching or developing a candidate’s views on any subject. Prompting is useful techniques another techniques is for the interviewer to keep silent, thus building pressure on the interviewer, who usually cannot resist the need to fill the vacuum by continuing to talk, trying to establish his her point (Humphrey, 2010).
In this kind of interview, the interviewer attempts to cover and recover the same ground by services of questions. This interviewer may need to check on claimed experience, perceived inconsistencies in the job history or even on attitudes displayed which may not seem to be in character.
Immediately after the interview, an initial assessment of each
Should be made. This practice always valuable is especially important when there is a long delay between Interviews and the final decision. A simple form based on Fraser’s five — point plan can be used, and this should be attached to the interview notes. The scale assigned to each of the factors is rather broad, but simple methods as this provide a useful framework which allows the interviewer to summarize his or her thoughts and make an initial judgement (Humphrey, 2010).
Initial Assessment and interview summary adopted from Peter Humphrey. The Gower Hand Book of management 4th Edition, 2010, pg. 1022.
According to Humphrey (2010), with the offer and acceptance of employment, recruitment and selection of staff ends. Despite this there are important post recruitment activities which need to be mentioned here
Introducing The New Employee To The Organization
Any new employee (staff) will need a period of familiarization before he can perform his job properly as a result an established induction programme for new recruits (employees) is necessary and useful especially when this includes a formal Introductory course through which new employee (staff) as soon as possible into the organization.
It is important that contact is maintained with new recruits it becomes apparent that they have settled down and have become fully interpreted into the team. Following up the progress of the new employee (staff) is particularly important where the appointment IS subject to a probationary period of employment as is always the case in the Nigeria public service where appointments are subject to a
probationary period of between twelve (12) and twenty four (24) calendar months. Humphrey (2010), believes that the employee must be kept informed of the progress which he or she is seen to be making. This may not be on a formal basis. The result of an informal that can be a mending of ways or a spur to even better performance.
Kind Of Appointment In The Nigerian Public Service
According to chapter 2, section 1 of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Public service Rules, (2008), “appointment to public offices in the Federal Civil Services are made on the authority of the Federal
Civil Service Commission. These appointments are made either:
1. By a letter written under the direction of the Federal Civil Service Commission,
2. By formal agreement between the officer and the Federal Government or its appointed agents. Subject to Rule 020205, 020206 and 020207 permanent Secretaries / Heads of Extra — Ministerial
Offices are authorized to appoint eligible candidates to posts in respect of which the powers of appointment have been delegated to them.
Types Of Appointment
On non-pensionable contract to a non-pensionable post or against a pensionable post; and d On temporary basis.
5. ELIGIBILITY FOR APPOINTMENT
Yaro (2014), states that prospective employees of the public service are expected to satisfy the following conditions.
Be our sixteen (16) years of age;
Possess such minimum qualification as one specified from time to time;
Data presentation and Analysis
Relevant questions dealing with the research question were
asked in the questionnaire for this paper. The questionnaires were distributed to respondents of the Federal and State Ministries and
Extra-Ministerial Departments located in the federal capital territory
F.C.T Abuja. The questionnaires were meticulous filled and returned.
The result of data collected there from is persecuted as follows.
Study Question 1: How frequent are recruitment exercise conducted in the Public Service in Nigeria?
Study Question 2: Is merit system adopted in the recruitment and selection into the public service in Nigeria?
Study Question 3: Do ethnicity and religion play any role in the recruitment and selection into the public services in Nigeria?
Study Question 4: Are the recruitment and selection practices into the public services guided by the Federal Character
Study Question 5: Is Training, Professionalism, etc, used as guiding principles in recruitment and selection into the Public Services in Nigeria?
1 The present imbalance in the federal civil services in Nigeria has significant relationship with Nigerian Television Authority.
2 The present imbalance has no significant relationship with the Nigerian Television Authority.
3 The Nigerian Television Authority encourages the recruitment of unqualified personnel into the civil service.
4 Nepotism does not impact negatively on the Nigerian Television Authority
The research was to investigate the impact of recruitment policies and procedures in public administration in enhancing the performance of civil service.
The questionnaires were used to gather the useful data for the research findings. These presented, analyzed and interpreted Testing the various hypotheses after the finding has been summarized relatively followed. The entire hypothesis was accepted as facts for adoption, that existence of an organization depend on the effective planning of the recruitment policies and procedures and the ability of the management to maintain their staff by motivating them to enable them (staffs) meet their heed in order to be focused in their job and render effective and efficient services to ensure that employees are able to meet the organizational goals.
On the course of this study, it was discovered that there are lapses in some areas cf personnel functions such as posting and transfer of staff or employees. It is necessary for an organization not to retain its officers in a particular post longer than three years; change on the job posting could be motivated.
There should be creation of work study in all the departments of the organization which could enhance on the spot identification of problems for correction. Management audit unit should be adhered to enable the organization identify problem points within a reasonable period of occurrence. This could enhance continuity in the organization operations.
These should be an improvement of award schemes in the organization. These suggested schemes should be or include among others best worker of the year, overall well behaved worker of the year, error free allowance, for various sections and departments. Other award could be in weekly form. (such as Best Staff of the week etc). These are some of the strategies for achieving best performance from the employees at the right time. Performance gaps between the
branch/zonal offices and the headquarters should be bridged to help boost the morale of those who might over stay in their various field/ post four years without posting, transfer or promotion.
The organization has a bright future of producing high level recruitment policies of various types, hence maintaining their training policy is advisable and establishment of its own educational indoor programmes are necessary.
Human Resources Management according to Batty, Donnelly, Jnr. Gibson and John Iveneech and A.K Ubeku are the process of accomplishing organizational objectives by acquiring, retaining terminating, developing and properly using the human resources in an organization”. The motion of accomplishing objectives is a major part of any form of management. Onless objectives are regularly accomplished, the organization ceases to exist.
The acquisition of skilled, talented and motivated employees is an important part of Human Resources Management. The acquisition phase involves recruiting, screening selecting and properly placing of personnel.
Any organization without a well-established manpower procedures and recruitment polices is an independent activity of management, but an essential part of what every organization should do.
Adebayo A. (1981), Principle and Practice of Public Administration in Nigeria, Ibadan-Spectrum Books Ltd
Adamolekun, (1983): Public Administration” A Nigeria and Comparative Perspective Longman Publishers, New York (1986).
Afonja, S. & Pearce (1984) Social Change in Nigeria Intec Printers United. Ibadan.
Belogun M.J. (1992), Public Administration in Nigeria, A Development Approach. Macmillan Nigeria
Ekhator V.E. (PHD) (2003), Rudiments of Public Administration. Joyce Graphic Printers and Publishers co. Kaduna
Ejiofor and Aniagoh (1984) Managing the Nigerian Workers, Longman Nig. Ltd.
Gray/Strarke (1984) Organizational Behaviour Concepts, and
Applications 3 rd Edn, Clarkes E. Merril Publishing Company Columbus, Ohio 43216
Maslow, A. (1 943), Theory of Human Motivation and Personality. New York McGraw Inc.
Obiagbaoso, G C. (1995) Public Administration Issues and Values, Nigeria in Perspective. Bida BC Publishing Press.
Up, A A. (1994), Advanced Public Administration. Anyaotu August Enterprises and Publishers. Nigeria.
Ujo AA. (2001), Understanding Public Administration. Anyaotu Enterprises & Publishers. Nigeria Ltd
Weber M. (19964) Bureaucracy, New York Free Press.
Weidner (1979), Trends in the Comparative Study of Public Administration. New York McGraw Hill Inc
Williams J.C. (1978) Human Behaviour in Organizations, Southwestern Publishing Company.
Brief on Nigerian Television Authority (1981) NTA (EDUC) BE/2889/Vl
The Activities of the Nigerian Television Authority in FCT (1987)
Brief on Nigerian Television Authority (1989)
The Philosophy of the Nigerian Television Authority in the FCT.
Professional and Ethics in the Civil Service by Allison A. Ayida (GCON)