Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: December, 2019
S. A. Shaibu
Department of Mass Communication, Bingham University
Journal Full Text PDF: Mass Communication Select Theories, Practices, Sustainability and Constancy of Divine Laws.
This paper takes an analytical look at select mass communication theories, practices; sustainability and constancy of divine laws at the backdrop of changing realities. The paper also periscopes the debilitating blows of technological changes on these theories, practices and their sustainability against the backdrop of divine laws in the Book of Book – the Bible with a view of coming up with recommendations within the context of the limitations of human knowledge.
Definition of Terms
Mass Communication Theories
Mass Communication practice
Mass Communication Theory Sustainability – here refers to capacity or the ability if the theory to stand the test of time.
Constancy of Divine Laws – refers to the unchanging laws of God in the Bible and the ever-changing-world of Mass Communication theories and practices.
Mass Communication is a discipline in the Humanities or Social Science Faculties of most Universities in Nigeria.
It is a course/ discipline standing or supported to stand on 5 legs:
a. Print Communication
b. Electronic Media Communication
c. Public Relations
This fact must have guided the professor Umaru Pate’s Committee and her submission to National Universities’ Commission to unbound Mass Communication and make it a Faculty in the Nigerian Universities. A rear-mirror view of Mass Communication as a course/discipline has seen it radiating from focus on the Print media, Journalism, Communication arts with course components in theatre or language arts of some universities. The course has dangled nomadically between faculty or Arts, Humanities and Social Science Faculties of our Universities. It has changed degree nomenclature either as an Arts or Social Science course from university to university in Nigeria. The focus of this paper is not on these controversies. It is on the theories in Mass Communication generally as propounded by Mass Communication scholars.
This paper takes a look at select theories collated from interactions between 400 levels student of Mass Communication Departments of Bingham University.New Media Speakers, Writers Association of Nigeria (NMswan) and the Post-graduate students of Information Management and Reporting Course of Nigeria Institute of Legislative Studies, Abuja. The analytical paper is based on input/interviews from these students/other Christians, secondary and primary materials and the researchers view point from divine perspective of the Book of books – the Bible – for which the researcher bas been a lifelong student as a member of Full Gospel Business Men’s FellowshipInternational, as elder of ECWA Central Church Abuja, and as a Gideon among others. The researchers’ class of information management and Parliamentary Reporting 2019 reflect many theories as to which the media can be put to use.
What are the theories and how are they put to use in any organization?
These theories with their vision and mission/limitations include the following:
a. Marshall McLuhan (1911 – 1980) – Medium determines the message theory.
b. Wilbur Scharmm (1964) theory
c. Henry Mintezeberg (Canadian Academic/Author theory)
d. Dennis Mcquail theory
e. Manuel Castells Olivan (1989) theory
f. Richard Jackson theory
g. Roy & Moore theory
h. Mark Arten Peterson theory
i. Jenny Bryant theory
j. Graeme Bulor theory
k. Maxwell McCombs – Agenda Setting theory
l. Walter Lipman – Agenda Setting theory
m. Robert Schmuhl – Media market place of idea theory
n. Robert G. Picard – Media market place of idea theory
o. Professor Lance Bennett – Media as Watchdog theory
p. Wole Soyinka – Writer as visionary of the people theory
q. Prof. Ralph Akinfeleye – The other name for democracy is free press theory
r. Steve S. theory
s. Dele Giwa – Doyen/Martyr of Investigative Journalism and allied Investigative Journalism theories
t. Jess C. Scott – People are the Sheep and TV is the shepherd theory
u. Steve Shohbha Zlan – It doesn’t matter whether it is true only that it’s believable theory
v. Mokokoma Mokhonana – To see what they look like, people look at a mirror to look like what they see theory
w. WH. Auden – What the media offers is not popular arts but entertainment which is intended to be consumed like food, forgotten and replaced with another fish theory
x. Malcolm X – The media is most powerful entity on earth. It has the power to make the innocent guilty and the guilty innocent because they control the minds of the people theory.
y. Robert Bresson – Radio, Television, Magazines are school of inattention: People look without seeing, listen in without hearing theory
z. Mark Twain – If you don’t read the newspaper you are uninformed. If you read the newspaper you are misinformed theory
aa. Tricia Harris – the mass media, their influence is everywhere. They tell us what to do, what to think about ourselves all the time theory
bb. Henry Jenkins – Social connectivity, creativity and learning take place through various media related experiences theory.
cc. Paul Gilin – Transparency may be the most disruptive and far reaching innovation to come out of the Social media theory.
dd. Edwin Ardener & Shirley Ardener (1975) – Muted Group Theory MGT – that reflected how marginalized groups are muted & excluded via the use of language is relevant to Nigeria. The big 3 and other minorities use this theory to their own advantage and to the marginalization of others. But is this right? The divine law says NO as explained later.
ee. George Gerbner – The cultivation theory = people who watch television frequently are most likely to be influenced by the message from the world of television. This may account for the different reasons of deprivation by parents, schools, churches & mosques against television, radio, film and the new media programmes. The divine law does not encourage attacking of symptoms but addressing of the inner man/mind via the Holy Spirit
ff. Elihu Katz & Joy Blumler – Uses and Gratification theory – use of media to satisfy specific needs.
gg. Paul F. Lazarsfeld (1948) – Two-step flow theory = People affected by their peers than the mass media. People here = opinion leaders. The theory suggests that opinion leaders pay close attention to the mass media and pass on their interpretation of media message to others. Maintain also that audience are active participants in the communication process.
hh. Joseph Clapper: Effects of Mass Communication = people come to decision regarding public issues, change their food purchasing habit, habits of dress, select movies they watch etc.
ii. Maxwell McCombs & Donald Shaw: Agenda –setting theory. Media tells audience what to think about, how to vote, media power to set agenda, set a Nations agenda, focus people’s attention to some issues, importance to attach to an issue, etc.
jj. Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel (1986) = Power of the media to convey understanding to another person. Power of the media to transfer information from sender to receiver.
kk. Joseph Walter (1992): Interpersonal Communication theory – online interpersonal communication without non-verbal cues and how people develop and manage relationships in a computer – mediated use of environment – eg instant messages, e-mails and chat rooms.
ll. Myles Munroe’s theory of succession building that says “success without successor is absolute failure”
Scholarly contributions that led to different theories in Mass Communication have their different roots:
– Atheistic roots
– Cultic roots
– Satanic roots
– Godly roots
With a few rooting their basis on the divine principles of God. Drawing from Professor Oyibo’s Gagut (God Almighty Grand Universal Theory) : the point is being made by a comparison of these diverse theories with the divine principles of God Almighty as encapsulated in the Bible.
The reality of these exercise are as indicated below for the select few theories:
Theory Reference to constancy of divine law
McLuhan theory of the Medium determining the message Has a similitude with the Christian admonition encouraging all to walk the talk like Jesus Christ of Nazareth as in the books of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John
Maxwell McCombs et al Agenda-Setting theory Has relationship with the admonition of Jesus Christ in Mathew, Mark, Luke & John for Christians to make disciples of all Nations
Goebel Theory of consistent lie, taking the form of truth with time via lies, propaganda, distortion, misinformation, disinformation etc Rooted in satanic principles of distortion, disinformation, misinformation etc as reflected from Genesis to Revelations of the Bible
Steve Shahbazian theory that says “it does not matter whether it is true only that is believable” Another variant of Marchievelian theory of Goebel that capsuled bitterness with sweetness. It is from the pit of Satan/hell as in the Bible from Genesis to Revelation
From these few examples it can be seen that the entire crises in the world is a crisis between good and bad, crisis between God and Satan using God’s disciples and Satanic minions. A look at most of the theories earlier reflected in this work will showcase those whose theories are rooted in Godly principles and those whose theories are rooted in Satanic hellish principles of lies, propaganda, Misinformation, disinformation, distortion etc. that cannot stand the test of time…theories built not on solid rock of intellectualism rooted in God but on the shaky sand of lies of Satan that crumbles like a pack of cards…as in predicted in the infallible Book of books – the Bible. As in the words of Wole Soyinka… which is an adaptation from the Bible:
As it was in the beginning,
So it is and ever shall be!
NOTE: Also that the practice of Mass Communication is rooted on the diverse theories of Mass Communication. Present practitioners, therefore being minions of Satan and or disciples of God Almighty will definitely reflect the goods of God and the bad and ugly of Satan. But the fact stands clear – technology may change theories, move practice from analogue to digital, but the divine laws of God remain very constant. An Example of this is the divine 10 commandments of God:
“As of was in the beginning
So it is and ever shall be!”
Humanity today, which can be seen towing and kowtowing to Isaiarian divine theory (Isaiah 53:6) have since abandoned divine principles to pursuing fleeting human philosophies and theories that has a short life-span like Joy which according to Ola Rotimi’s proposition in The gods Are Not to Blame
Has a slender skin
That blends too soon!
Here we can see that with all human boastings in Science, Arts, Philosophies, Atheistic calculations, Religious denunciations, etc. all humanity knows is like “a film darkly” with human limited knowledge and God’s unlimited wisdom, knowledge and understanding that no book, no google, no internet has yet uncovered or covered.
In revelation 3:17, the intellectual community thinks everything was okay with them, they believe they are the custodian of knowledge, wisdom and understanding but note the following:
– Discoveries in modern medicine can now be seen to be limited with new discoveries in alternative medicine/new discoveries/cures and vaccine
– Discoveries about the world and the entire galaxy can now be seen to be limited with new discoveries of other new planet that were never imagined before in Geography or the Sciences.
– The capacity/new discoveries in ICT cannot be equaled with the intricacies of the human brain created by the discoveries in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology and Prof. Oyibo’s Gagut (God Almighty Grand Universal theory).
– Humanity’s medical procedures cannot understand divine medical violations in faith healing.
– Humanity is still blind in many areas of the physical sciences, social sciences and the arts.
– Humanity is still naked when we are talking of holistic or complete knowledge, wisdom and understanding.
– Humanity’s entire knowledge in the intellectual world cannot be compared to the vast repository of divine wisdom, knowledge and understanding.
– The entire life-span of learning/books and libraries cannot be compared to the wisdom of Solomon/wisdom in book of Proverbs.
– In spite of the intellectual calculations and hope in the United Nations (UN) – the World cannot boast of peace because they have abandoned the Author of Peace (Jesus Christ).
– Israel with all their scientific and non-scientific discoveries/supremacy in warfare will never know peace except the accord due recognition and acceptance of the carpenter of Nazareth that ask them to turn the “other cheek” and love their neighbours as themselves.
– No human knowledge can outsmart divine knowledge in humanity’s analysis paralysis.
We can go on and on but the final conclusion can be gleaned in the realities of John’s divine discoveries in the book of Revelations (in the bible).
Regardless of Societal distortions, the agenda-setting theory of the Mass Communication theory empowers all media practitioners to be socially, politically and economically responsible to society. This is in the Bible from Genesis to Revelation & in particular Romans 13.
The community social responsibility paradigm for companies taking so much from society and never giving back is in the injunction of Jesus Christ that we should give unto Ceasar what belongs to Ceasar, indeed the right way to interpret community social responsibility (CSR) is Christianity social responsibility (CSR). We must revert back to the basics/basis that Satan and his Minions had hitherto derailed us into.
 Ardener, Edwin Chapman (2007): The voice of prophecy and other essays, New York Berghahn book.
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 Pogacar, Ruth, L.J. Shrun and Tina, M. Lowrey (2018): The effects of linguistic devices on consumer information processing and persuasion: a language complexity processing mode framework” Journal of consumer psychology, 28(4), 689_711
 Postgraduate class, (2019) Nigeria Institute of legislative studies, Abuja
 Shabu S.A (2018) “Paper presentation in ECWA church “A constant God in non-constant world” ECWA, Abuja
 Shaibu S.A (2018|19) “Interview of some ECWA members”
 Shaibu S.A (2019) “Interview of some Full Gospel Business Men’s Fellowship International Members”
Shaibu S.A (2019) “unpublished manuscript: “Mass Communication theories and God’s”
 Shaibu S.A (Unpublished ) “Sundry Dialogues”
 Professor Oyibo Gagut (God Almighty Grand Universal theory) (from internet)
 John Maxwell, Tim Elmore editing (2002): The Maxwell Leadership Bible, Maxwell Motivate Inc. USA.