Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: August, 2019
Atianashie, Miracle A.
Department of Computer Science, Catholic University College of Ghana
Journal Full Text PDF: The Application of Computer in the Prevention of Home Accident.
Computer has gained wide applications in human endeavour right from simple applications to very complex ones. This research work tries to investigate if computer can be applied in the prevention of home accident. The researcher formulated three research questions which each research question was used in structuring three research questions, a questionnaire with four items each making a total of twelve questionnaire items was structured. The questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using the simple statistical mean method of analysis using chi square was used. After the analysis, the researcher came out with the following findings: there is problem of power supply, illiteracy and computer illiteracy, with high cost of purchase, maintenance and repairs has made it difficult for computers to be used at home for the prevention of accidents.
Keywords: Computer application, teaching and learning, home accident, Obudu.
Accidents are the main cause of injury and even death in both adults and children. People only relate accidents to traffic accident or accidents in outdoor a activities. However, as a matter of fact, the place where people regard as the safest place is the home. The home is a place where we live and home hides many hazards which can result to accidents (Wikipedia, 2013).
The main cause of home accidents is the general negligence of safely at home. This negligence goes a long way to cause home accident as children are mostly involved. Home accident can be caused by unstable gait of the toddler, presence of objects on the floor that are harmful when applied negatively, lack of supervision of children in the home when playing and also curiosity of the children towards some certain things around the home (Colly, 2014).
Before the introduction of computer, the manual approach of preventing home accident was used as the floors must be keep free of toys and other objects like knife, parents must exercise close supervision of children or toddler when they learn to walk, babies were never left unattended on raised surface and security fitted safety harness in a pram, push chair or high chair and prevent children from involving themselves in plays that are dangerous (Goldren, 2014).
Today, computers are used to monitor home activities to prevent home accident. Workstations now link home computers which can view every activities going on to give signals is there are situations that can cause home accident so that it can be prevented. This computerized system has helped to reduce the rate at which home accidents occur on like the manual approach which no one can view the home, it promotes home accidents cases which people can get injured and even die (Wikipedia, 2014).
Most home accidents are caused from the kitchen magnets to Jewelry. It’s hard to think of every possible hazard, especially since there are so many new dangers nowadays. Children can enter the kitchen, pick an object that can start fire and activate it. One it is being activated, they get curious and try to place it on something that can burn. This act is done ignorantly and can burn down the whole building and even kill the child as well.
This project work aimed at surveying into the role of computer in the prevention of home accident. Computerization has become the order of the day with its application from sophisticated systems to the common ones, from offices, firms to the home. This research work sort to access the application of computers in prevention of home accidents. The following problem statements are raised
a. Most homes do not have access to computer let alone using them at home
b. Computer makes use of power in its operation which most of homes have no access to power supply.
c. People living in most homes do not have knowledge of computers
The following are the specific objectives of the study.
a. To access the availability of computers at home for its application in preventing home accidents.
b. To find out the problems hindering the homes have adequate power supply for effective application of computers at homes.
c. To find out if home dwellers are computer literate enough to use computers for home application.
The following are the research questions formulated to guide this study.
a. Do we have computers in our homes?
b. Can the power supply in our homes be sufficient for the application of computers?
c. Are home dwellers computer literate enough to apply computer at home?
From the research questions above, the researcher formulates the following research hypotheses for the study;
a. We have enough computers in our homes
b. Homes lacks adequate power source to fully implement computers at home
c. Home dwellers are not computer literate yet to fully implement computers at home.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the review of related literature on the role of computer in the prevention of home accident. The review was discussed under the following sub-headings:
– Concept of Home accident
– The role of computer in the prevention of home accident
– Problems and prospects of the use of computer in the prevention of home accident
– Summary of the review
2.2 Concept of Home accident
According to Joel (2003) home accidents are unfortunate event resulting from carelessness, unawareness, ignorance or a combination of causes of other factors at home which can result to injury or death. It is also an unplanned, unexpected and undersigned (not purposefully caused) event which occurs suddenly and causes injury or loss of life. An accident on its own is not deliberately caused and which is not inevitable.
According to Mike (2009), pointed out that an accident or home accident is an incidental and unplanned event or circumstance often with lack of intention or necessity. It will usually imply a generally negative outcome which might have been avoided or prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized and acted upon, prior to its occurrence. Home accident usually happens in the home and children are most vulnerable.
Home accidents can be caused by household properties like chairs, tables, spoons, plate, knife, candle, matches, water, etc which when misused or ignorantly apply or step on some of the above item can care accident which can result to injury or even death. Sometimes unsatisfactory work at home such as a new window which has just been fitted, falling from the frame onto you, then this type of accident is called home accident. Some children can start fire at home ignorantly which can burn the whole building and also kill the child if he or she does not run out of the house. This has happened with many families who are careless with objects like matches and fuel (Wikipedia, 2013). Many people are dead due to home accidents and some injured seriously which they cannot get back their normal body anymore.
2.3 The role of Computer in the Prevention of Home accidents
According to Ranchu (2001), computers are used in the prevention of Home accidents as they serve this purpose due to the innovations that have follow computer technology. This is possible as computers are installed inside the home to view and alert household members that an accident is about to happen. Cameras which are connected to the computer are used to view every part of the house as this view children’s activity which parents can control them from areas that when touched can prompt accident. The cameras also act as security system as it records all the events which take place in the home.
Wilters (2010) added that viewing systems are installed in every part of the Home to help alert household member to respond to actions that can cause accident. One of the typical computerized systems used for preventing home accident is the fire alarm. The fire alarm works or give signals when there is any smoke in the house. If it senses that fire may start up, it raises alarm and then sprinkle water all over the house to prevent fire outbreak.
Humos (2012) pointed out that computers are used to prevent home accidents as viewing cameras does the notification, fire alarm sprinkles water and house hold members stop actions that can cause accidents. Sometimes children find their way to the kitchen and pick sharp object like knife and may be playing with it ignorantly. They can use it to injure themselves and sometimes their actions can result to death. Since the viewing cameras are linked to the kitchen, the parents can only pass instruction to the children through the microphone to leave the kitchen and also drop that object immediately. The children hearing their parents voice from the speakers linked to the control system will do as they have been told. This help to restrict and control children’s movement in the home.
Edwards (2009), affirmed that some computers that are used to control or prevent home accidents are connected to house hold member’s mobile phones and their offices.
This type of system is very effective as parents can give instruction to children even if they are not at home. This they do as they speak through the gadgets connected to their computer and linked to the home. Before the viewing and communication of household members take place in the home to prevent accident, installation of microchips and other sensory gadgets are done as these serve as the means of noticing and action that may cause accident as this can be stopped when quick responses are made.
Dove (2000) pointed out that the computerized fire alarm is a very significant gadget which is very active in the prevention of home accidents. This fire alarm is mostly used in advanced countries where there is constant power supply as it relevance is not meet when it is not powered. A small smell of some cause this alarm to give notice to household members and also drop water to prevent the start of fire and even its spread.
Some homes are linked to the fire station where every home activity are monitored to prevent home accident and also carryout security tasks. The fire station officers are in-charge of responding to any fire outbreak and alert the police officers if there is any criminal issue going on in a particular Home that is connected to their office. This help to prevent home accident effectively.
2.4 Problems and Prospects of the use of Computer in the Prevention of Home accidents
According to Colly (2014), one of the factors militating against the effective utilization of the computer to prevent home accident is the inconsistency of power supply. The computer is electronic in nature and must be powered before it can function, lack of power supply limit the functioning of the system thereby allowing it to remain redundant. Household members who intend to operate with the computer to prevent home accidents should make provision for their private power plant or generator to make the process effective.
Ranchu (2001) added that another problem is viral attack on the systems as it will cause system malfunction thereby leading to false information delivery to household members. The computers can be installed with anti-virus to protect the system from viral infections. This will help to activate the role of the computer in the prevention of home accidents effectively.
Golden (2014) also added that poor responses from household members and fire station officers also hinder or limit the role of computer in the prevention of home accidents. Sometimes the computers may give notice of an act that may result to home accident but since they are no body to respond, the accident may occur. Fire officers and home members should endeavour to check their systems and respond promptly to the alert they get from home to prevent home accidents. (Shadeh, 2001).
The cost of fuelling the generator to supply constant power is also a problem. Household members should only put the generator on when they are at home and get supportive systems that can store electrical energy as this energy can power the system to monitor the home when they are away. This will reduce the cost of spending on fuelling (Wikipedia, 2014).
Mike (2009) pointed out that, Household members most especially children should be given orientation to stay away from actions that can cause home accident. This will go a long way to control home accident. As poor or lack of orientations cause home accident
Witles (2010) pointed out that one of the factors responsible for home accident is carelessness. Most home or household members are careless as they allow the children to enter and use any household material, their hands can reach. Sometimes the children start fire from the kitchen which the substance like gas from the gas cooker will then expand the fire to other parts of the home. Children can also use sharp object like the knife to injure themselves and others. Parents should restrict children from some parts of the home to avoid home accidents.
2.5 Summary of the Review
This chapter has reviewed related literature on the concept of Home accident, the role of computer in the prevention of home accident and the problems and prospects of the use of computer in the prevention of home accident respectively. These were the basis of the review.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the general procedures for the research under the following sub-headings: Design of the study, the research area, population of the study sample/sampling techniques, instrumentation, data collection procedures, data analysis procedure and decision rule.
3.1 Research Design
This study was a short-span research in which a survey method was used to investigate the peoples’ opinion on the role of computer in preventing home accidents.
3.2 Research Area
This study was focused on the application of computer in the prevention of home accidents, a case study of homes in Obudu urban, in Obudu LGA.
The study was restricted to restricted to homes in Obudu urban, in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State. The area under study which is Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State is in the south-south geo-political zone of Nigeria. It is made up of ten (10) political wards. It is bounded in the North by Benue state, in the South by Obanliku Local Government Area and Ogoja Local Government and in the west by Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population of the study was made up of homes in Obudu urban 1in Obudu LGA in Cross River State. As at the time of study, there were 1112 homes within Obudu Urban with a population of 7780 persons which formed the population of the study.
3.4 Sample of the Study
The sample for this study was made up of 100 landlords of 100 homes picked randomly from the population of the study. The sample of the study was therefore 100 respondents.
3.5 Sampling Technique
The sampling technique for this study was the random sampling approach where 100 homes were randomly selected and landlord of respective homes picked was for the study.
The random approach was used because it suits a survey design and allows the researcher to make selections without biases.
The instrument for data collection in this study was the questionnaire and the likert type was used. There were eight questions items which were meant to elicit question on the application of computer in the prevention of home accidents.
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
There were one hundred copies of questionnaires made and distributed to the landlords of homes sampled for the study, they were advised to respond honestly to the questionnaire. The questionnaires were returned by hand to the researcher. At the end of the entire exercise, responses were gathered from the returned questionnaires to obtain information for the data analysis.
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure
The data collected from the questionnaires were organized according to the research questions. The score of the respondents on each item were collected and the chi square method of analysis was used.
The formula is X2 =
T = 1
= Chi – square
fo = observed frequency
fe = expected frequency
N = number of groups or classes data (number of observations)
3.9 Decision Rule
The decision rule states that if X2 (calculated) is less that x2 (tabulated), then the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. And reverse is the case if x2 (calculated) is greater than x2 (tabulated).
4. RESEARCH RESULTH
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
This chapter covers the presentation of data collected from the respondents and the results as well as the summary of findings and discussion of findings.
One hundred (100) copies of questionnaires were distributed to the respondents involved in this research. All the one hundred (100) copies of questionnaires were returned to the researcher by hand for data analysis.
Research Hypothesis I:
The null hypothesis states, “We have enough computers in our homes”.
Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Total
Options Most homes do not have even one computer Most home finds it difficult to afford computer for home use. Computer sound strange to most homes to be use as home device.
T 70 25 50 145
N 30 75 50 155
Total 100 100 100 300
Thus, the following are the expected frequencies;
For cell a = – 48.33
For cell b = – 48.33
For cell c = – 48.33
For cell d = – 51.66
For cell e = – 51.66
For cell f = – 51.66
Computation of chi-square value
X2 = 40.71
Degree of freedom = df (2-1) = 1×2 = 2 level of significance P = 0.05.
The calculated x2 value is 40.71, the level of significance p = 0.05, thus the level of significance P = 0.05, thus the table value of x2 = 5.991. This indicates that the table value of 5.991 is less than the x2 calculated; therefore, the null (Ho) is rejected while the alternative (Ha) is accepted that homes lacks computers for any of its applications.
Research Hypothesis II:
The hypothesis states that “Homes lacks adequate power source to fully implement computers at home”.
Item 4 Item 5 Total
Options Power supplies in our homes are not dependable. The use of alternative power supply at homes cannot sustain the application of computers at home for the prevention of home accidents.
Computation of chi-square value
P = 0.05
The calculated X2 value is 0.041, then P = 0.05, thus the table value of X2 = 3.841. This indicates that X2 calculated is less than the table value, therefore the null (Ho) is accepted that power supply in homes will not be able to sustain the application of computer in the prevention of home accidents, while the alternative (HA) is rejected.
Research Hypothesis III:
The hypothesis states “Home dwellers are not computer literate enough yet to implement computers at home”.
Computation of chi-square value
X2 = 4.8
Degree of freedom
df = (2-1) (3-1) = 1 x 2 = 2
Level of significance P = 0.05.
The calculated x2 value is 4.8, the table value of x2 = 5.991 and this is greater than the x2 calculated. This indicates that the null (Ho) is accepted that home dwellers are not computer literate enough yet to fully implement computers at home, while the alternative (HA) was rejected.
4.2 Summary of Findings
The following are the summary of findings for this study:
Based on research hypothesis one, the findings showed that homes lack computer for its application in preventing home accident. Based on research hypothesis two, the findings showed that Homes lacks adequate power supply for the full implementation of computer in the prevention of home accidents. Based on research hypothesis three, the findings showed that home dwellers are not computer literate enough yet to implement computer in the prevention of home accidents.
4.3 Discussion of Findings
The findings of this study are discussed below:
Based on research hypothesis one X2 calculated of 40.71 was greater than the table value of X2 = 5.991. This shows that the null (Ho) was rejected that we have enough computers in our homes. The alternative (HA) was accepted that computers are lacking in our homes, and this is in line with Joel (2013) who observed that computer cannot be used effectively in our homes because of it adequacy at homes. He went further to say that computer resources are very relevant as far as computer application is concern.
Based on research hypothesis two, the X2 calculated of 0.41 was less than the table value of X2 = 3.841. This shows that the null hypothesis (Ho) was accepted that Homes lacks adequate supply of power to sustain successfully the application of computers at home. The alternative hypothesis was rejected. This fact is supported by Mike (2009) that computers need electric power to operate, but this grossly inadequate in the Nigeria system thereby affecting the effective application off computers at homes.
Based on research hypothesis three, the X2 calculated of 4.8 indicates that null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted since the X2 calculated was less than the X2 tabulated which was 5.991. This agrees with the idea of Dove (2000) that most homes in Nigeria and in Diasporas lack the knowledge of computer and efforts toward computer literacy is moving at snail speed.
The researcher added that it is a good intention to think of implementing computers in homes for security wise, but that factor against such good idea supersedes the proposal in Nigeria, except for few homes that are already made.
It is appropriate to have adequate computer at homes for security and accident purposes, but from this study, it shows that, most homes do not have computers; most homes are not computer literate, power supply problems and others. It becomes therefore thinking on the full implementation of computers at home. Notwithstanding, homes should advance the purchase and used of computers at home to encourage its applications at homes in full.
The following are the Recommendations based on the study:
a. Landlords and families should as a matter of necessity afford computer systems for home usage.
b. Government and well-meaning Nigerians should encourage adequate supply of electric power to homes and at affordable rates.
c. Every individual in a home should endeavor to be computer literate
7. Suggestions for Further Studies
The following suggestions have been made after this research work was carried out.
a. Research should be carried out on the basic problems affecting poor or absence of the application of computers in Nigeria homes.
b. Research should also be carried out on the attitude of families toward the application of computers at home.
c. Research should also be carried out on this topic in a wider scope.