Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: August, 2019
Atianashie Miracle A.
Department of Computer Science, Catholic University of Ghana
Journal Full Text PDF: Investigation of Computerized Student Registration System in Colleges of Education.
This investigation work was carried out on the analysis of a computerized student’s registration system in Colleges of Education. The researcher formulated four research questions which four research hypotheses were also drawn from the research questions and used for the study. A sixteen questionnaire item was structured and used as the instrument for data collection. The data collected through the use of the questionnaire were analyzed using the statistical mean method of analysis. After the analysis of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the researcher came out with the following findings; (a) The computerized registration system make registration of students easier than the manual registration system. (b) The setup and management of students computerized registration system is cost effective. (c) Staff and students cannot operate and manage the student computerized registration system (d) The epileptic power supply in colleges of education in Nigeria do not support the application of computer based system. Conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further studies were also made to improve on utilization of computerized registration system in institution of learning.
Keyword: Department, Registration system, Colleges, Staffs and students.
In most Nigerian colleges of education, the process of registering students as members of the institution is largely within a very short period of time, Awhogure, E. S. (2014). The purpose of registration process is to determine the status of students in any given institutions and also be able to give a firsthand information about any student in any given institution. From the student’s point of view, registration enables then to acquire the necessary membership of the college, and for them to obtain their course form. It is usually the case that students will register for a particular course, or module at the same time and the information collected is used by members of the teaching staff to construct class list etc. This task of registering the students is allocated to various units/departments within the College of Education, the registration process start from the students paying the stipulated amount into assigned bank and collecting a bank draft from the accepted bank. The bank draft is then taken and tendered to the bursary unit where it will be exchanged for a school receipt. The school receipt is in turn taken to a different section of the bursary where students would be issued course forms. On issuance of course form, the students then take the forms to their various schools where they are signed or stamped. The final stamping or signing takes place in the registry. Although it is worth mentioning here that as at 2006/2007 session, the course form where issued at admissions unit which was solely in charge of issuance of admission letters, registration numbers and screening students (Kelvin, 2011).
The profound effect of the application of computers in institution of higher learning cannot be over emphasized. Computer is being used to process student’s admission and registration as well as their academic processing or procedure. Besides that, the result of the student i.e. fully computerized which makes it easier and quicker to process. This does not stop here; the off payment is also being processed using computer. However, it should be noted that any institution of higher learning requires the services of principals, teacher, librarians, lecturer, bursars, registration provosts, rectors, vice chancellor and a host of categories of per efficient and effective operation. It is the leadership qualities coupled with academic conquests of these principal offices that will integrate the power of computing with student information system and order to produce of faster dynamic and efficient of the development.
Moreover, an efficient information system of the institution is not of paramount importance because it assists in the management of student record and also in providing adequate academic facilities for their students, (Wikipedia, 2015).
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Over the years the population of colleges of education students has continued to multiply session by session. Although the staff population too has not been static but the students to staff ratio has been very high. And as a result of this, the students and staff are often faced with a lot of difficulties during the registration exercise.
It is noticed that the students and staff encounter the following problems:
i. For students, they always queue up under the sun at times for days in trying to register.
ii. Some students due to the crowd, always exceed the deadline for the registration, and as such are made to pay extra fee for late registration.
iii. If a student misplaces his/her receipt, it is often difficult if not impossible to get a new one, hence cannot get his/her course form
a. As for the staff, they are always under pressure from the students and as a result it leads to making a lot of mistakes.
b. The school sometimes runs out of receipt booklets which cause delayering in the registration process.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to analyze a computerized student’s registration system for College of Education. The researcher intends to:
– Find out if the computerize registration system is cost intensive.
– Attempt to create the level of awareness on computerization of the students and staff in the college.
– Be of immense importance to both staff and students who would want to carry out further research on the topic.
– Compare the computerized system and the manual system to ascertain the best system to be used.
1.3 Research Questions
To enable the researcher carryout, the research effectively, the following research questions have been formulated.
i. Does the computerized registration system makes registration of students easier than the manual registration system?
ii. Is computerized registration system expensive to set up?
iii. Will the staff and students be able to operate and manage the computerized student’s registration system?
iv. Can the kind of power sources in colleges of education sustain a computerized student’s registration system?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
i. The computerized registration system makes registration of students easier than the manual registration system.
ii. The setup and management of students computerized registration system is cost effective.
iii. Staff and students cannot operate and manage the students computerized registration system.
iv. The epileptic power supply in colleges of education in Nigeria do not support the application of computer-based system.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is very important because;
i. It will reveal the benefits of the computerized registration system over the manual system.
ii. It will encourage the computer illiterate to be literate in computer usage since it is the basis on which the students can register themselves.
iii. It will reduce the stress often experienced by staff and students during registration exercise.
iv. It will also cut the level of forgery by students and staff of the institution.
v. It will encourage the speed of student’s registration system in the institution.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the review of related literature on the analysis of a computerized students’ registration system in Colleges of education.
The review is discussed based on the following sub-headings:
– Concept of a computerized registration system.
– Concept of manual registration system
– Analysis of a computerized registration system.
– Factors militating against the computerized registration system of students in tertiary institutions
– Strategies to improve on the utilization of a computerized students registration system in tertiary institutions.
– Summary of the review.
2.1 Concept of a Computerized Registration System
According to Ralph (2011), a major great challenge of the millennium is to unlock the potentials of the computer to help managers and decision-makers. Computerized registration system is an elaborate form to aid the students to register online with ease and avoid errors which is very commonly done with the manual registration system, Ralph (2011).
The impact of computers on society can be seen in the proliferation of computers and has become an important part of our everyday life. Institutions of higher learning now depend on the computerized registration system as the system operates with the use of software like the database. The student’s registration system can be functional only when each student’s fields like matriculation number, name, program, school, department, level, course of study, etc. are been keyed into the database (Microsoft excel, Spreadsheet).
According to French (2009) each student is given a password which is used to access the student’s registration process to update registration when necessary. The computerized registration system makes students registration easier and makes clearer students identification since the picture of the student is also attached to the registration facts. The stress of moving from one office to another to copy their course outline and the codes is no longer there since the introduction of the computerized registration system, French (2009). After due registration have been made, the student is issued an acknowledgement slip, a receipt and course forms. The course forms will then be signed to complete the registration process. As the student processes, the student registration portal will be updated from one academic session to another or from one semester to another. Through the updates, students can identify their course units for the semester and the carryover courses if any.
Joel (2014) added that the computerized registration system is very significant as it makes the retrieval of data and information easier and foster. This controls the movement or flow of students from one particular year to another. In a situation where a student is to repeat a particular year and the student neglects it, during the registration process, such student would be given the previous courses to study and the course forms for the previous year as well, will be printed out for such student to repeat the year. The issue of redundancy and duplication of information during registration is totally eliminated.
2.3 Concept of Manual Registration System
According to Obidinmu & Duke (2009) the manual registration system was in existence since the time institution of higher learning started operating. This was in the early 50s where students were enrolled as they are being registered manually through the use of pen and paper. Their names, address and other details were collected and stored in a cabinet for future use. This process generates problems like redundancy and duplication of data and information. The retrieval of students’ records was also complex.
According to Morphy (2014), the manual registration system of students in school came up to the early and late 70s and 80s in the tertiary institutions. Since registration is being done and stored on paper, term it and fire outbreak sometime damage the stored details of the students. When this happens, there will be no record to show again as the manual registration system have no backing storage medium. The issue of data security is also a problem with the manual registration system. Students or any unauthorized person can gain access to the registration register and make updates which are not genuine and recognized. This makes the system ineffective and promoted the introduction of the computerized registration system.
Shelly (2014) also pointed out that the manual registration system is very slow as student’s details or fields must be taken down and make updates for the students that are qualified to move to the next year of study. Data duplication and redundancy were the order of the day. Sometimes a student may pay fees and try to complete the registration by taking his or her course form for signing, the poor organization of the process lead to loss of students course forms and receipts. This makes it difficult for them to complete their registration. It will then require such student to start all over again with the registration process. The manual registration process consumes time and poses much stress on the staff in charge of the tasks.
2.3 Analysis of a Computerized Registration System
According to Willaims (2013), Computer system has been in existence in tertiary institutions and other learning environments. The computerized registration system is made up of computer system, software like database, network facilities, power system and the personnel to handle the operation of the registration process. The design of the registration system which is computerized must be installed with software applications like database, Microsoft excel and even the spreadsheet. The database must hold the student’s portal which has the feature of name of school or institution name of students, department, course offered, credit unit required for a semester, matriculation number of the student, etc. each students must be given a password to maintain data security thereby preventing unauthorized users to gain access to student’s details.
Edwards (2014), the computerized registration system has made it possible for easy information dissemination to students as their contact (phone numbers) also form a field of the details in the student’s registration portal. Before school resumption, the fees schedule for the semester and other requirement which are communicated online to them. This has help to reduce the stress involved in disseminating information and constant moving of file from one cabinet to another. With the computerized registration system, data security and retrieval is effective.
Denga (2012) affirmed that, the computerized registration system is that which store and retrieves student’s data and information to be used in making decisions of whether students are qualified to be awarded certificate at the end of the programmed. Students also get their school identify cards as all facts about them is already in the registration portal. The ID cards of the students must hold fields in accordance with the one in the registration portal. The students and institutions of learning now depend on the computerized registration system for the processing of student’s registration in every academic session.
Planning for computerization take a lot of stages. This stage is listed below:
a. Analyzing the requirements, to find out what the computer system has to do, what information it requires to hold and what screen and report layouts are required.
b. Taking up a project management structure to ensure the computerization project is completed on time within budget, and achieve the objective set for it and to provide mechanism for users to influence and guide the development of the computerization.
c. Involving the users in developing the plan for computerization.
d. Confirming the feasibility of the project.
e. Setting data standard and security measures.
f. Preparing and issuing documentation to assist users of the system, as well as to provide technical guidance to the computer staff who will maintain and support the system.
g. Evaluating the extent to which the complete system meets its design objectives, and subsequently maintaining its continued achievement (Awhogure, E. S., 2014).
In addition to the above, the design will include the creation of the school website which on log in will open up a created database requesting for a student’s name, department, registration number and the year of registration. However, for the students to complete the above procedure, he has to buy a scratch card whose pin code will be keyed into the internet before he would be formally registered.
After the registration, the students can printout the receipt which is already designed on the school website. This computerized system will not only make the registration, process easy for the staff and students, but would also serve as a source of income for the college because the school café was created purposely for this project.
2.4 Factors Militating Against the Computerized Registration System of Students in Tertiary Institutions
According to Ralph (2011) despite the benefits of the computerized registration system, it has really met the peak of its function as intended this is because there are some factors which limit the computerized registration system which include the poor orientation given to students on how to access their registration portal when necessary. As a result, they depend on the registration officers and other private computer operators to execute any registration tasks for them.
French (2009) through the assistance given to students on the registration process, most private operators gain access to student’s password thereby making data and information in-secured. He added that the cost intensiveness of setting and maintaining the computerized registration system is also a major factor limiting the system as intended. The cost of fueling generators is high as the public power source is a total failure. For the computerized registration system to succeed, there must be constant power supply since it is an automated system.
Joel (2014), one of the factors militating against the computerized registration system is the inadequacy of computer system and this slow down the process of registration.
Denga (2012) the inadequacy of staff who are really skilled and qualified to execute the registration process also hinder the computerized registration system. A particular staff who is to attend to over one hundred and above students may find it not comfortable to execute his job effectively. The pressure on him can prone him to errors which can limit the significance of computerized registration system.
Mendel (2014) computers with low configuration is also a hindrance to the computerized registration system as it delays loading and processing of data and information. This make it complex for the process to be fully implemented.
2.4 Strategies to Improve on the Utilization of a Computerized Students Registration System of Students in Tertiary Institutions
Ralph (2011) posed that proper orientation and seminars should be given to both students and staff from time to time to enable them do some registration tasks themselves and not depending on the computer operators only. This will promote the effective use of computerized student’s registration system in institutions of higher learning.
French (2009), opines that, students should be careful with their password as it can lead to insecurity of data on the student’s registration portal. If this is done, unauthorized users cannot gain access again to some restricted area in the computerized students’ registration system.
Joel (2014), through the availability of computer system, the computerized registration system can function well as students will no longer crowed on one system but assist where necessary.
Denga (2012), the issues of lack or inadequacy of skilled and experienced staff to handle the computerized student’s registration system can be managed by employing more staff who area computers literate and can manipulate the system. This in no doubt promote the effective utilization of the computerized student’s registration system to serve the purpose which it is meant for.
Mendel (2014), if computers must be made available, it should not just be low profile computers but computers with high configuration and speed to ease registration processes effectively. These and other measures are the ways forward to solve the problems limiting the computerized student’s registration system in schools.
2.5 Summary of the Review
This chapter has reviewed related literature on the concept of a computerized registration system, concept of manual registration system, analysis of a computerized registration system, factors militating against the computerized registration system of students in tertiary institutions and the strategies to improve on the utilization of a computerized student’s registration system in tertiary institutions.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the research methodology which guides the study.
3.1 Research Design
This research work was meant to investigate into the Analysis of a Computerized Students Registration System in Colleges of Education. The research adopted a survey design as the study seeks respondents’ belief, opinion and choice on the study.
3.2 Research Area
The research area was Education Local Government Area of Benue State. Education Local Government Area is located in the Eastern part of Benue State and share boundary with Taraba State in the East, Ukum Local Government Area in the North, Buruku Local Government Area in the North-West, Ushongo Local Government Area in the South-West and Adikpo Local Government Area in the South respectively. The majority people of Katina-Ala speak Tiv language while the minority speak Etilo.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population of the study consisted of computer users in College of Education the students and other private computer operators who execute student’s registration processes using the computer system in the college.
according to Admission Unit College of Education, the total number of students in Computer department is 822, while there eight lecturers in Computer Department (from Head of Department Computer), whereas there are 38 road side computer operators in the college (Association of Computer Operators, College of Education, Education Chapter. The population size for the study was eight hundred and sixty-eight respondents.
3.4 Sample of the Study
The sample of the study consisted of four (4) staff of College of Education in Computer Department, twenty-one (21) road side computer operators who are linked to the internet and can gain access to the student’s registration portal of College of Education, Education and seventy-five (75) students from the population of the total of eight hundred and twenty-two (822) respondents were used for the study. One hundred respondents were sampled out for the study sample.
3.5 Sampling Technique
The sampling technique adopted for this study was the random sampling approach where four (4) staff of College of Education, seventy-five (75) students and twenty-one (21) computer operators who execute computerized student’s registration system were sampled at random within college for the study.
The instrument used for data collection for the study was the questionnaire and the four point Likert scale type of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Strongly Disagreed (SD) and Disagreed (D) respectively were used. There were sixteen (16) questions items on the questionnaire which was meant to elicit ideas on the analysis of a computerized student’s registration system in College of Education.
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
There were one hundred (100) copies of questionnaire made available and distributed to the respondents sampled for the study. They were advised to respond honestly to the questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered by hand to the respondents. After completion, the questionnaires were returned to the researcher that same day. At the end of the entire exercise, data were collected from the returned questionnaire to obtain information for the data analysis.
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure
The data collected from the returned questionnaires were organized according to the research hypotheses. The score of the respondents on each item were collected and the statistical mean method of analysis was used. From the questionnaire administered research questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used to analyze hypothesis one, questions 5, 6, 7, and 8 were used to analyze hypothesis two, questions 9, 10, 11 and 12 were used to analyzed hypothesis three and questions 13, 14, 15 and 16 were used to analyze hypothesis four.
Nominal values were assigned to the response option which is as shown below:
SA – Strongly Agreed = 4
A – Agreed = 3
SD – Strongly Disagreed = 2
D – Disagreed = 1
Total = 10
Mean (X) = 10 ÷ 4 = 2.5