Policy Changes, Age Factor and the Nees for Continuing Education

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Published on International Journal of Teaching & Education
Publication Date: August, 2019

Sarah Eno Effeh
X-Vone Limited, Zaria, Nigeria

Journal Full Text PDF: Policy Changes, Age Factor and the Nees for Continuing Education (Case Studied of Kaduna State, Nigeria).

Abstract
The aim of this paper are: – a) To explain the need to adhere to current changes in the educational policy on vocational training and b) there are risks involved with vocational training. The objective to show that there is need for adult education for all levels of the Nigerian educational curriculum. This means that from primary school curriculum until tertiary levels, there is need for the equivalence in the centers meant for adult education only. Most of the centers that are ready for this are vocationally inclined. The procedures that are used to achieve this are, mainly to assist the learners to cope with their assignments during apprenticeship-style of education. The vocational schools available in Zaria metropolis was investigated by (Effeh 2009). The most outstanding did not bother about educational background, except age of learner. This meant that lessons were handed down to learners in the various dialects they understood best. In Zaria, Hausa was the major language of instruction at United Nations Development Center, Samaru. In Nigeria as a whole the major lingua franca is French and English. The extent to which these persons can operate within the Nigerian economy, after graduating from such institutions, are limited. Section 4 of the National Policy on education dated 2013 is on mass and nomadic education. There are two major sub-sections, namely, Section A and B. The first section is titled ‘Mass Literacy, Adult and non-formal education’. The aim of this section is to provide guidelines for the provision of basic education to adults, children and youths of formal school age, outside the formal school system. The last sub-section contains information on Nomadic education. The aim of nomadic education is to provide six years of basic education to children of disadvantaged nomadic population. These group of people include, migrant farmers, fishermen and pastoralist (nomads). The males where highly favored. The boy-child was expected to be enrolled in a primary school with the aim of being able to speak, write and communicate in the Formal and local lingua franca. This was English and one locally used language in the location of the vocational or primary school attended. The research objectives of this paper are a) There are sources of equipment and materials for training in owning a fast-food chain and beading shop, the best prices are yet to be ascertained. b) The level of adherence to the current National policy on Education demands on vocational training needs to be ascertained also. The instrument for the gathering of primary data is the interview. The interview showed that out of seven shops noted for the sale of used equipment two refused to accept that some of their equipment, on sale, were used. Also ten shops where beading accessories and training occurred where visited. The ability to obtain beading equipment and materials that are pre-used was very difficult but possible. The second research question was satisfied by the responses of vocational trainers and owners of pre-basic, basic and post basic training establishments. The demands of fast-food training and bead weaving dis-allows some sections of the population that qualify for Mass and Nomadic education under section 4 of the National policy on education dated 2013 to under-go training in these areas. This is notable, because of the demand from customers for them at the wrong age and educational background. The ideal age is for the learner to have completed Junior secondary three – this is equivalent to the attainment of pre-basic plus basic training. The age of such learners are usually fifteen years, in this case. (Federal Republic of Nigeria 2013) section 3, sub-section 35 commented on the need for children to complete ten years of basic education before being enrolled into all forms of continuing education and career development. The aspect of this type of education that is provided by Vocational Enterprise institutions (VEIs) is vocational in nature. They are expected to cater for basic education and post basic education graduates that are yet to proceed for further education. VEIs are also expected to assist with Mass literacy, adult and non-formal educational efforts.

Keyword: budget preparation, utilization, execution, control, financial resource, education & schools.

1. Introduction
This cost analysis is as a result of efforts to visualize the future of a fast-food company and that of a beading professionalized outlet, given the variety of conflicting factors at play in the Nigerian society. It is true that the fast food service business is associated with high life, loud music and wild colors – it is thus a challenge to inculcate it into a “closed” environment. As a result of this stark reality, efforts have been geared at bringing to light, that side of a fast food business that is never open to customers – the heat, the plies of trays, plates to be washed, flour-covered humans, tables and floor, the fatigue associated with this line of business. These are just a few of the things that have to be hidden from customers’ view for obvious reasons.
The beading professional’s job is not far-fetched when you consider the need for interior designing that respects the need to promote cultural tastes. These sort of issues also brings the idea of tourism closer to the African continent. The risks associated with these two lines of endeavor is the technological updates that have been achieved. This has made these type of business responsibilities beyond the reach of children and has placed itself squarely in the hands of matured normal adults. For instance, manning a standard dish washer, washing machine and photocopier is no joke. These types of equipment could start off a fire outbreak.
The issue of presentation has lots of significance and at the same time budgetary issues must be put into consideration. This is why taking a relevant survey to find out what major costs are involved for these two vocations is important to making them accessible, by the right group of learners as advised in the national policy on education. What is covered in this paper includes, the equipment and tools needed to begin a fast-food and/or restaurant with a presentation space and a beading shop. The cost involved is discussed in relation to that of equipment and tools. To be able to make some good targets at profit-making in this business, this paper has been prepared for more details on that.
I know you have eaten out in exciting fast food outlets in various parts of the world, or in Nigeria. They all have their survival strategies and weaknesses. For instance, some of the big names such as ‘Mr. Biggs’ have incorporated African dishes in a special way. ‘Tantalizers’ have special breakfast menus that include bean cakes, custard and tea. Others have inculcated other local dishes such as ‘waina’ in very exceptional presentations. Some weak points have to do with security issues. For instance, it was an unfortunate experience for a couple one night at Zaria metropolis in one of those eateries. The male was gunned down by suspected armed robbers. In Abuja metropolis, there was an incidence with a group of three – one male and two females. The male paid for some meals and included chicken parts for the two ladies.
One of the ladies apparently invited another female without the knowledge of the other two. She canvassed for part of the meal of the other female to be taken away by the ‘third’ female. This involved liaising with one or more staff. The ‘deal’ blew open due to the watchful eye of the male who was careful enough to ensure that He had value for his money. All these sort of embarrassing situations need to be checked so as to maintain or re-gain customer confidence and patronage.
The above narrative is a clear signal that security is a top priority at business premises where goods have value and have high demand. Security issues are overlooked except there are cases to refer to that are real. Another issue of concern in the fast- food chain industry, is the growing number of clients that prefer dieting. These are challenges that cannot be left in the hands of adolescents. The challenges facing the beading professional borders on originality of design and taste of furnishings. Most beaded products make some people feel they are purchasing ‘charms’. This do not need to be so all the time. In open environments, except for special orders ‘abstract’ designs are best. Interior designing is just one of the things beads are used for. Some clients gather in fast-food joints because of the ‘secondary’ dealings that they could locate. This could be a mini gallery made from real-time and timeless neck pieces and bags made from beads. Clothiers need the attention of good hands in beading too. This means that presentation space must be crafted out carefully and spacious.
Based on this, the research questions are as follows: – Are there cheaper sources of equipment and materials for training in owning a fast-food chain and vocational beading shop? b) What is the level of adherence to the current National Policy on Education demands on vocational training with regards to the age of new intakes and their educational background before admission? The research objectives of this paper are a) There are sources of equipment and materials for training in owning a fast-food chain and beading shop, the best prices are yet to be ascertained. b) The level of adherence to the current National policy on Education demands on vocational training needs to be ascertained also.
There are some equipment that need to be ‘laid of’. For instance, cancer causing implements are on the top of the list. These are mainly micro-wave ovens with dual and triple functions. The excessive use of communication gadgets are also affected. Many old designs of gas cookers, gas cylinders, toasters and irons do not have safety valves to prevent possible mishaps. Those in the bead weaving industry know that medical experts are mandated to go round for routine checks because ‘cheaply produced’ tools and beaded pieces that can add to ill heath too are in the market place. That is why the need to look around for good prices of machinery with quality, is not a bad thing at all. The curriculum of vocational courses need to be updated and some aspects scrapped as the case may be. The need to understand why this occurs is essential to being timely on educational pursuits of one’s choice.

2. Literature Review
Curriculum innovation is usually planned for. It cannot be achieved through haphazard means. It is a deliberate effort geared at improving the curriculum in some way. That is, to maximize the efficient use of the curriculum. It is usually carried out in such a way as to fill the varying needs and aspirations of the learners and also, to meet the ever changing needs of this society. Innovation in the curriculum has to be beneficial to the learner and the society at large, so as to achieve her aims and goals. There are some theoretical models that have been generated to explain the pattern of educational changes.
Notable among them is the model produced by Havelock and Huberman 1978. They limited their observations to the pattern of initiation and implementation of various educational changes in African, Asian and Latin American countries. In this model, emphasis was on three basic elements. They are infrastructure, authority and consensus. They were of the opinion that, the countries they surveyed had complicated problems associated with innovatory programs and as such, de-emphasized other factors such as resources.
They however, concluded that the social process leading to the initiation of educational innovations in African, Asian and Latin American countries were too complex to be described by only one model. Another model is the one put forward by Rogers and Shoemaker in 1971. This model has two dimensions namely: Authority innovative Decision and Collective Decision making. The former dealt with identification of need for change, right down to the implementation stage. The latter, has to do with the participation of personnel concerned. That is the subsequent adoption of the innovation. The following are some of the factors that could instigate a need for changes in the curriculum to ensue.
1. feedback from learners’ performance (Evaluation).
2. Inadequacy and unavailability of learning facilities
3. Economic or financial state of the economy
4. Socio-cultural politics (ethnicity).
The success of a curriculum can be measured by the performance of students in evaluative exercises or learning methods employed. Also the economic state in the economy may not be high enough to support learning methods in advanced countries. Change in curriculum could be in the area of methodology, policy objectives, evaluation and etcetera.

2.1 Innovative Elements in the Nigerian Educational System
i) National Policy on Education
One of the main innovations in the Nigerian educational sector is the continuous developments on the National policy on Education. This National Policy on Education was once referred to as the 6-5-2-3 system. This meant that six years will be spent in primary school, five years in the secondary school, two years in the higher basic school and three years in the university.
This was later restructured to accommodate the three years Junior Secondary School (JSS). This was done so that graduates at this level could be channeled into teachers training, technical colleges and schools, in addition to Senior Secondary schools. As a result, the national policy on education was now referred to as 6-3-3-4 system. At present, plans to merge junior secondary level with primary school level, so that a total of nine years will be spent before junior secondary certificate is issued is successful. The policy is known as three years of lower pre-basic education, three years of higher pre-basic education, three years of basic education and three years of post-basic education. This implies that the certificate issued at the end of the primary school level has been abolished. Rather a certificate showing completion of pre-basic and basic education is currently the norm now.
Other innovations in the National policy on education are : –
– Upgrades in the National policy on education document. The current policy document is dated 2013 with new courses attached to various levels of education in Nigeria. For instance, the harmonization of Islamic education to O’ level standards for admission into higher institutions, are within the latest copy of this document.
– Introduction of the Universal Basic Education program under the National economic empowerment and development strategy (NEEDS). The Universal Basic Education (UBE) is similar to the Universal Primary Education (UPE) founded in 1976. It suffered a lot of setbacks. The UBE caters for the level of education formerly referred to as primary and junior secondary education. It is expected to be expanded to include what was originally design by the United Nations experts on educational matters.
– Liberalization of access to higher education through correspondence courses, part- time courses and work – study programs. This also lays emphasis on adult education. The UBE is expected to cater for adult education at lower levels with time.
– The curriculum at pre-basic, basic and post basic level of education has been updated to include new topics, courses and a variety of non-core subjects to choose from.

ii) The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN).
NOUN was initially established on 22 of July 1983 under the name National Open University (NOU). It was suspended on 25 April 1984 by the military head of state as at the time – Muhammad Buhari (rtd). An improvement on NOU is the NOUN of today which started operations on the 1 October 2002. The university was resuscitated during the reign of Olusegun Obasanjo-led government, in a bid to tackle problems associated with providing quality education that is cost-effective and flexible.
The National Open University (NOU) which officially took off in 1983 with legal status, had to be suspended in 1984. This was because, the infrastructure on ground could not cater adequately for the method of operations of the university as stated in the guidelines for its implementation. For instance, the teaching methods included the use of study centers, correspondence materials radio and television broad cast. These methods of imparting knowledge had low patronage from students because of problems associated with the Nigerian mail-delivery system, broadcasting and power supply, among other things.
The cost of improving the facilities at the university implied high fees for intending students. Which was yet another barrier to interested persons, since the economic situation in the country at the time, was definitely not at its best. Cultural discrimination is another factor that can trigger off a need to change the curriculum. The Joint and Matriculations Board (JAMB) was set up in 1978 to control admission into universities. This subsequently led to the closure of schools of preliminary studies in 1998.
Northern Nigerian students were very dissatisfied with this move and saw it as a way of protecting southern interests in higher education. In order to ease the growing tensions between the north and the south, the government gradually introduced as admission policy which took effect in all federal institutions. This policy based admissions on three main areas namely, Quota (merit), Educationally disadvantaged areas (areas noted for low educational input) and catchment area (areas with immediate vicinity of the education facility). Due to this, northern students were adequately catered for and the conception they earlier had, was reversed.

iii) Liberty to Learners on What to Learn, How and Where
Despite the fact that there are strict curriculums to follow per course of study, students are supposed to be given ‘free-hand’ on how this is supposed to be achieved. This is due to the incessant cases of mal-treatment bordering on sexual molestation, forced cult membership and attacks. The issue of ‘caning’ is gradually dying out too. That is why some courses have a minimum and maximum duration after which the student must be declared a graduate or withdrawal. For instance, most PhD programs are between four to eight years.

iv) Scrapping and Replacement of Courses
There are some educational programs that are no longer available in the Nigerian educational sector. The challenges in the economy has made it necessary for such courses to be upgraded or removed completely, as the case may be. The ability to lecture and teach has been professionalized. There is need to acquire professional certifications with Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria.
Before now, the Grade two teachers’ certifications was sufficient for some classes of the teaching work force, such as nursery and primary school teachers.

v) The ability to undergo Long Distance learning courses and Online Education
The programs that are attached to the traditional classroom style of learning is still regarded as superior to other forms of learning styles. People still attach importance to them. Currently, most universities of repute used to the traditional setting have started making waves with their online learning interfaces. The ability to work with these certifications are limited however most entrepreneurial persons find such courses easy to combine with work responsibilities. The long distance courses have been available for some time now. These include courses by correspondences, contact centers in various locations within Nigeria. The inability to carefully separate long distance courses by accredited institutions from the ones that are fake, made it impossible to keep contact centers beyond a particular ‘radius’ from the ‘parent’ institution.

vi) The Provision of Students’ Representative Councils (S.R.Cs) in Place of Student Union Governments (S.U.Gs) in some Institutions of Learning
S.R.Cs are common in tertiary institutions notable for ‘class struggles’ that have been found to be detrimental to the community as a whole. There are some serious cases of franchised political activities that have been known to have spelt doom for members of the student population. Despite all these problems attached to some branches of S.U.Gs, the student population still needed some sort of representation at the various avenues such as National and International Student bodies.

vii) Home Grown School Feeding and Health Program (HGSFHP)
New challenges, preventing children of school going age from attending classes, made this innovation possible. Children are being delayed by relatives from attending pre-basic and basic education despite the fact that these services are now free in Nigeria. Some of these children have been arrested by security forces for peddling items for sale during school hours. Most of them have complained about the inability to reach school due to the lack of some basic necessities of life. It became mandatory for such issues such as food and uniforms to the made available to children.

viii) Financial Literacy Policy Associated with National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS), State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS) and Local Government Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (LEEDS)
This particular policy was tedious to implement due to the skeptism associated with financial fraud from the Nigerian public. This had to be handled in collaboration with financial houses, banks, Consultants and international educational bodies. A lot of grants had to be released from the private and government sector, at national and international levels just to solicit support from special sections of the population that are affected most by financial shortages. These include migrant populations, women and children. Efforts to inculcate financially related curriculums into various levels of the Nigerian educational system is being resisted. The argument here borders on fundamental human rights to be or not to be financially stable enough to cater for one’s self. There are theories of development that insists that the care of the populace is the social responsibilities of any ruling government. Some sectors of the international population are yet to let go of these ideologies. Some can be traced to that of Karl Max and Weber.

3. Methodology
The aspect of the methodology that is fit for this research is the application of primary data gathering techniques. The appropriate research design is the descriptive research design. The employment of the interview was best since most marketers and other respondents that were appropriate were quite busy. The local government areas of Kaduna State used for this research are, Sabon Gari Zaria, Sabon Gari Kaduna, Birnin Gwari and Zaria. The rules for the purchase of used equipment are not farfetched, since the possibility for the goods to be stolen is also there. There is also the need to try and find out if the reason for the sale can be discussed. For instance, is the former owner relocating and wants to travel ‘light’? For the first research question, seventeen shops were visited. Ten beading shops and seven shops for used items. The second research problem attracted response mainly from owners of pre-basic, basic, post basic educational and vocational establishments.

3.1 Discussion of Findings A
The prices of machine and equipment needed to begin the appropriate training, start a fast food chain and hotel business, are tabularized below.

Table 1: – Estimated Prices of Equipment and Tools meant for Fast-Food Mini Industry
One need not be disturbed of the figures. Some of these things may already exist, as part of what you already own and could afford to covert some for business use, if still in good shape. These are all estimates. It is still possible to get good products at cheaper rates. For instance, a retailer who still has old stock could give you a price range that is between the current price and the old price before inflationary trends took over the scene. Note that associations also fix prices on old or new stock as long as they are all in top condition. With the current conditions in the market, used items may not be in top form. The former owner of used relevant items could be relocating, and needs to sell off some articles. Most business owners choose to store inventories till they are needed again.
In the case of budgeting for presentation space, these are some of the options available if buying/building a suitable space is not cost efficient for the time being: –
a) It could be a drive-through space, where clients just order and pick up their meals/lunch in disposable packs. There may or may not be sitting space.
b) Another option is to prepare these food items at home. Then liaise with another business concern with space enough to display your items. This could be a drive-through shop with disposable packs. Sitting space may or may not be available. Your presence may not be needed in this kind of arrangement.
c) Other options could be to get a contract to manage the restaurant space of an office building/school/hotel/guesthouse/motel/hostel. This means combining good home cooking recipes to clients on the menu, together with fast-food options.

3.1.1 Review on Consumables Associated with Food Preparation
In this section, non-fixed items otherwise known as perishables needed for production are listed out and discussed, briefly. The analysis here takes care of approximately a week to one month’s production. This depends on factors such as, the location of presentation of items, amount of clients and their envisaged number of visits per day. To keep this business open 24 hours, 7 days a week, extra hands need to be employed. Then, the presentation space must be yours, either rented or built. Whichever one is ideal, the space where the output from the commercial kitchen is displayed for the general public to see must meet current standard practice and be tailored to your needs.
Note: – those that ‘use’ the space of others, involves entering agreements to supply a given number of snacks at pre-arranged intervals. Most times, the owner of the presentation space pays off the independent kitchen staff for his/her supplies or as agreed also.