Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: April, 2019
Tegegne Alemayehu Beyene
College of Business and Economic, Woliata Sodo University
Journal Full Text PDF: Customary Conflict Management System (A Case Study of Oromo and Afar Societies).
Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationship and in all social settings. Because of the wide range of potential differences among people, the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaning full interaction. However, the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constrictive or destructive. The objective of this study is to examine customary conflict management system of Oromo and Afar societies in the study area. By using both primary and secondary source of data the study was conducted on three kebeles of purposively selected according to the extent of damage occurred recurrently. The informative interviews conducted using Peasant Rural Associations or (PRA) tools ranking and rating, oral history analysis and time line and trends analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of local people’s views on conflict, the perceived drivers behind these conflicts and traditional mechanism of conflict resolution in the area. The cause of conflicts obtained at the study areas are competition for new land use, searching of wet grass land for pasture and water resources. Not only these, the distribution of forests for consumption and charcoal making for market. The customary institutions of the local areas are the religious leaders, clan leaders, abagars and aba-agaa and the famous elders in addition to kebele peace committee. In this area the issue of conflict may be evitable by water development resource office. This office will take the action at boundary needs of building of water resources infrastructure, agricultural development office; take actions of developing new lands by modern irrigations access around the area for equal beneficiaries of the two communities. Office of security can take an action of strengthen of security around the area to protect the illegal commercial weapons, delivering of awareness about the securing the area such as protecting of deforestation, illegal commercial weapons, illegal farming land.
Keywords: Conflict, Tradition, Conflict Management, Conflict Resolution & Elders.
Many conflict theories exist among the practitioners and academics studying analyzing and dealing with conflict and the destination between them facility better understanding (Leone and Gianni, 2006). As such four conflict theories are conflict management, conflict settlement, and conflict resolution and conflict transformation. The first major theoretical conflict frame work is conflict management or conflict prevention. It stresses that some conflict are intractable. Thus the conflict can only be controlled or managed the intractability which come from availed of deep secedes sources such as history distribution of power, differences in valid and interests through managing conflict, the theory purports that conflict can be prevented from escalating or becoming more volatile and violent finally this theory sees management as the best option for handling difference (Leone and Gianni, 2006).
According to Bold filled and Reilly (1998) conflict management is the positive and constructive handling of difference and divergence rather than advocating methods for removing conflict. Conflict settlement on the other hand refers to all strategies that in one way or another seek to end violent or instruction conflict through a cease fire or top the hostility (muhyadin, 2005).According to Riemann, (2001) conflict settlement is all out come oriented strategies for achieving sustainable win- win solutions or putting an end to direct violence without necessarily addressing the underlying causes of conflict. It focuses on short term disagreements. This approach believes that mutually satisfactory solutions are possible between parties. It does not necessarily address the underlying cause of conflict but instead focuses on ending the dispute various methods negotiation, conciliation, mediation, arbitration, adjudication or litigation can be used to address the disputes (Leone and Gionnini, 2006). In the conflict resolution, the primary goal is not just to end the strife but also to solve the problem. In this case resolution means to deal with something success fully to clear it up and to find an answer (Nathan, 1996) scholar define conflict settlement conflict resolution refers to all oriented activities that aim to address the underlying cause of direct cultural and structure.
The term conflict resolution was first used by Kenneth Boulding in the (1950) to mean of conflict and the normative element of it positive management recently, it has developed to mean approach capable of mobilizing wide varieties of inter- venation strategies from peace keeping to problem solving workshops (wood house, 1996). Resolving a conflict means a settlement or avoidance of disputes between Individuals or groups of people through solutions that refrain from violence and that attempt to reunify and re harmonize the people involved in internal conflict or that attempt to preserve amicable relation with external societies (Bonta, 1996). Conflict resolution has used for several years in the world to reduce problems with in societies companies, countries, ethnic groups, individuals and soon.It is primarily aimed at peaceful and successful solving of disputes and conflict that arise from time to time in different parts of the globe. It encourages peoples to negotiate and to establish peace (Nathan, 1996). The last conflict theory is conflict transformation as outcome process and structural oriented long term peace building efforts, which aim to truly over come revealed forms of directs cultural and structural valence (Lederach, 1995; Galtung, 2001). It moves beyond the aims of both conflict settlement and conflict resolution. It means that now, effort are made not to eliminate conflict as much; rather, it is assumed that conflict expressed in anon violent manner is an essential for catalyst social change (muhyadin, 2006). Thus conflict transformation tries to change the socio political system in which the conflict occurs (shide, 2003). Good communication skills are critical one of the primary skill sets taught in partners which builds the process of cooperative long term relationship between the parties. Home, how we work conflict management resolutions.
1.2 Background of the Institution
Jille Dumuga is one of the seven district in Oromo Administrative zone of Amhara national of Regional state of Ethiopia, it is bordered on the south North shewa zone of kewot distract, on the west north shewa zone of Efirata Gidim district, on the east Afar regional state of Adda’ela district, on the north by Oromo zone of Artuma fursi district. The Oromo Administrative zone of Amhara regional state is made up of 7/ seven/ districts namely jile dumuga, Artuma fursi, Dewa cheffa, Bati, Dewe Harewa, kemissie administrative town and Bati administrative towns. The Oromia administrative zone of Amhara regional state of Ethiopia has 102 rural kebeles and 11 towns’ kebeles. The total Kebles of zonal administrative has 113 kebeles. The Jile Dumuga kebeles structured in19 rural kebeles and 1/one/ kebeles town. The district/ woreda established in (1994) E.C (2002) G.C before ten years ago. The Woreda was administrated under Artuma fursi Woreda’s before.
The district is located in the Amhara national regional state of Oromia zone /kemissie/. It located between the latitude 1002–10025 N, and 39055–40012 East of longitude. Oromia zone located in 10001 to 11 º 25 N and longitude 39041 to 40024 east. Kemissie is the capital city of Oromia zone of Amhara national regional state found on main high of way of Addis Ababa to Dessie on 325 km to the north of Addis Ababa. The jille Dumuga district woreda found the same to Kemissie on the main high way of Addis Ababa to Dessie on 263 KM to the north of Addis Ababa and the capital city of jille Dumuga district is called Senbate.
The agro-climate type of the study area of jille Dumuga is characterized as some arid of agro ecological zone rainfall pattern is characterized by two moderate rainfall with maximum in July and August and minimum in January and April. Average annual rain fall registered is from 1200-1800 mm at the woreda Agricultural office data. According to Oromia zone of plan, Economic and finance department, the Average annual rain fall registered at weledi meteorological station is 600-900 mm (Getachew mekonin, 2011; plan economic &finance, 2012; Jile communication office 2012). The mean minimum and maximum temperature of the area is 12 ºc and to 30 ºc respectively (jille communication office report 2012).The climatic condition is arid 94.07% & semi-arid 59.3%.
The Oromia zone of jille Dumuga distract found in flat 40% hills 31% mountains 22% and others 7%. Most of the farming system of the district is characterized by agro-pastoral systems.
In Amhara national Regional state Oromia zone is the special zone majority of the populations Oromo’s this is officially structured in March 26 of 1986 E.C by splitting from South wallo and North shewa zone of Amhara regional state. Now a day it is structured in to 5 rural administrative districts and two towns administrative. The totals of districts are seven.They are including Bati rural, Bati town administrative, Dewe Harawa, Dewa cheffa, Arxuma fursii and jille-Dumuga Administrative districts.
1.3 Statement of the problem
Most of the violent and latent conflicts within the Amhara regional state of Oromia zone is not political in the larger sense, but occur between or within clans and concern access to productive resources, especially water and land pasture for grazing, arable land for farming. In addition to this, the area of the oromia zone at Afar regional state border such as jille dumuga, Bate, dawwe Harawa and Arxuma fursi woredas are exposing to the challenge of conflicts. Addition to the above causes of the conflicts cattle rustling and bandit caused by border tensions. Sometime those caused lead violent between the clan or two societies of Oromo and Afar.
At one said, when the pastoralists searching for water and pasture at both side, the situations lead to conditions where people often related by trans boundary kinship and sharing common languages and cultures, have to compete for the use of the few perennial water resources (UNDP) report (Ahrens and farah,1996). There is a growing acceptance for the importance of traditional approaches of conflict resolution in understanding and resolving local conflicts. Historically, natural resource conflicts at local level in different parts of the Horn were on dealt with through customary or traditional conflict resolution practices (shid, 2003; Amin Yusuf, 2009).
Currently there is emerging curiosity on the relevance of indigenous resolution mechanism. At present, community based peace building and conflict resolution is increasingly affected areas, including the rehabilitation and rural development programs (Mwaura, 2005; Amin Yusuf, 2009). Nevertheless, currently traditional mechanisms alone cannot be enough for the management of the new challenges and changes in the global environment that results many of the conflicts that local people are experiencing today (Shied, 2003). One could argue that the level of conflict resolution will depend on the cooperation between the customary and formal conflict resolution institutions and practices (Tyler, 1990).Customary institutions of conflict resolution are currently facing many challenges, Development of modern constitutions, loose collaboration between the customary institution and the government and proliferation natural demographic factor of population increase are among the challenges (Almagor, 1979; Desalegn etal, 2007).Hence identifying available indigenous conflicts resolution mechanisms and prospects of local institution of conflict resolution is the rational for under taking this study.
1.4 Objectives of the study
While the ultimate goal of this research is to examine customary conflict management system, having a good experience to resolve of Oromo and Afar societies in the study area, more specifically it tends to assess the following points:
a. Identify the main cause of conflict which arising at the study area.
b. Assess the contribution of clan leaders, Religious leaders and the famous elders up on conflict resolution.
c. Investigate the role of women towards traditional conflict resolution
d. Identify the challenges and prospects of local conflict resolution institution.
2. Theoretical and empirical literatures
Conflict is a very vague word. Different writers and organizations define conflict in different ways. Though the various definitions of conflict can be found yet, the main role of conflict theories and concept is to explain social conflict in general examining their sources patterns of escalation, de-escalation consequences and management (salih, 2006); fisher 1990). For instance viewed conflict as an incompatibility of goals or values between two or more parties in a relationship combined with attempts to control each other and antagonistic feelings toward each other the in compatibility or difference may exist in reality or may any be perceived by the parties involved nonetheless the opposing action and the hostile emotions are very real hall marks of human conflict has the potential for either a great deal of distraction or much creativity and positive social change (kriesberg ,1998) conflict is defined as a struggle over values or claims to status power and scarce resources. For example land, water natural resources minerals and food among two more polities that perceive in computable interest or express hostile attitude (castor and Ettenger, 1997).
Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationship and in all social settings. Because of the wide range of potential differences among people the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaning full interaction however the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constrictive or destructive (Deutch and Coleman, 2000).
2.1 Pressure of conflict
2.1.1 Competition over land
The common image of Africa as land rich and sparsely populated still holds when the continent is compared with areas in Asia where large rural populations exist depending to varying degrees on the land the image of plentiful land for all who want it however no longer holds for most of Africa on Average land is more abounding in Africa than in other continents but most Africans have only very small plots and an increasing number are land less (Rainkes, 2000).
Increasing population heavy immigration alienation of large areas for plantations conservation and other purposes combined with the increased focus on cultivation and expansion of the cultivated area has eventually led to pressure on arable land pastures (Odgaar, 2003).
According to USAID, (2005) the potential for conflict over land is pronounced when a large landless or land poor population has limited lively hood opportunities and marginalized population depends on a small piece of land for subsistence and survival Both apply to some extent to the Amhara Regional state of Oromia zone as livelihood opportunities are scale and almost entirely dependent on the land. Of course the land available is not small by most measures, but usable land is limited given to the nature of the terrain, especially in times of drought.
This sets up inevitable conflict over land, which is not a new phenomenon in Oromo and Afar even Amhara societies which found at the area of arid. But exacerbating the situation are relatively new and competing ideas over how land should be owned and used (Gedi, 2005) in Oromo society at the area land is traditionally communally owned; one common understanding that all land belongs to un born living and dead. According to the federal government all land is owned by the state though in (2005), a law was passed granting regional government authority over land issues. Effectively, though land is collectively owned and managed by the sub-clan lineages occupying the territory with shanen jille/ five jile elders exerting day to day control over land (Ayele, 2005).
The transition forwards more agro-pastoralist and farming activities alters this dynamic. Such sedentary activities create incentives for group or individuals to own, or at least seek rights to, specific plots of land that they can harvest and from which they can derive economic benefit CHF, 2005. There is an enclosure in the Oromia zone of Amahara region were established before and there has been a tremendous growth of enclosures from time to time. A clan of jile Oromo district societies having started to enclose land since saile-silase regime before. This practices of incising individual ownership of land in contrary to the traditional communal use of land (Gedi, 2005). The erection of physical boundaries demarcating land-an overtly physical statement of land ownership only heightens the potential for conflict.
2.1.2 Competition for other natural resource
Disputes over access rights water and pasture resources are very common in the Amhara region of Oromia zone. They occur when herders use water resources without the prior permit request and constant of the individual owner (Hagmann, 2000; Gindi, 2005).
2.2 The Oromo people traditional conflict management or customary law
The indigenous systems of conflict resolution In Oromia of Oromo peoples is the gadaa system, an institution developed for guiding the social ,political, economical and religious life of the Oromo people in Ethiopia and for managing resources such as well as its contribute in conflict resolution among individuals and communication .
(CAB international, 2007); community based water law and water resource management 146 reform in developing countries (eds B.van, koppen M.Giordano and J.Butterworth).In the Amhara national of regional state of Oromia Administrative zone the culture of traditional conflict management institution rules pointed out.The traditional rules that exist in Oromo society, it is an unwritten agreement that has evolved within the Oromo community over generations. Also it bears no formal institutional structure the implementation of Aba-Aga and Abagar over seen by traditional elders. It is particularity important in rural areas where the presence of modern political institutions is weak .However, even in urban areas with local Administration in the case of jille Dumuga, the traditional conflict management institutions rules in the community’s clan Known locally called Aba-aga and Abagar.
Aba-aga with his elders is person who punishes the one who made mistaken in the villagers, according to traditional rules existed in the communities.The authority of Aba-aga /friend judge play greater role to support in the process of conciliates, mediate or arbitrate communities who have illfeeled /disagreed. In the communities, it appeared as cultured from communal to until today known by the Government. Source Qoti /kot/ zonal magazine June, (1992 E.C) on page 26.The second one and the famous in the communities is Abagar. Abagar is the person who called in the communities of Oromo people in Jille, who resolve or manage conflict, blood feud /Guma/ during or after conflict takes place. Not only conciliation making at the conflict, but also he is doing for sustainable peace building /conflict transformation/. Abagar interfere between the conflicts with his famous elders. Abagar with his elders’ converse the two parties and after conversed and inquired two parties, he delivering in to verdict.
The person who made ill turn on another person must pay compensation for the victim’s (body) party; this punishment which teach a person who made a mistakes.For sustainability of peace the two parties take a promise and crossed on the abagar Qotii (Kot) Abagar stick. Mostly the promised locally called Balli; the person, who could not apply the Balle, culturally condemned and imprecated as well as Ignored from the communities, and lives alone according to the culture. Then, the Abagar has taken a great role to managed conflict, (Qotii) (Kot) magazine, 1992 June on page 27).
2.3 The Dubarti (older women in wollo)
The one which loved more and respected in the Wallo culture of society is dubarti Qotii (kot). Dubarti is the one that known and the famous one in praying to the God for the issue of individuals and common interest of communities. Not only praying; but also, they have a great role in order to resolve or manage conflicts between the individuals, evens communities or clans. They are culturally respected and known in the local communities, the prayer of Dubarti in wallo locally wedaja or du’a called. This locally known before the God in spiritual paring is habited. Dubarti / wallow women’s older have ceased or handled stick like Qotii (kot)siiqqee on their hand. On one wedaja/ Du’a after entertained food, coffee, such like Dubartis ( wallo women’s older )after making different pray’s to god spiritually. They pray in unity with singing of anthem like. The role of dubarti in wallo has great role in order to resolve or manage conflict between individuals, even the clans. Source Qotii (kot), magazine (June, 1992 on page 27).
2.4 The challenges and prospects of the customary /traditional institutions
The importance of traditional /customary institutions is indisputable as traditional conflict management institutions are in solving the majority of disputes and criminal cases. However, the Abagar and Aba-aga of customary institution are faced by different challenges. The real challenges are many and may include according to priorities development of modern constitutions, both at federal and regional levels that contradicts or confronts the traditional structural is one of the challenges (Abdurrahman, 2005; Amin, 2009). On other challenge is the loose collaboration, if any between the costmary or traditional institution and the government in dealing with conflict resolution between individuals and the communities or clans.The government fails to appreciate collaborate and compliment fail the traditional conflict management methods or resource allocation and resolution of conflicts. Limited state understanding of the role played by customary institutions has diminished their efficiency and relevance in conflict management (Desalegn et al, 2007; Amin yesuf, 2009). Formal government institution especially Keble as well as villages ( homestead) replaced the function of traditional leaders some factors pushing for replacement of traditional institutions with formal institution according to elders include; privatization of land for cultivation, sedentrization that increased access to facilities like schools, clinic ..Etc, exposure to modernizations, food aid provided through formal government institutions and some development works like water development that comes through formal administration (PCDP, 2005).Another change is the proliferation of elders as a result of the natural demographic factor of population increase which happened at a more rapid pace leading to an increased need to split groups in different way, as they become too big for the an elder to manage. Consequently many new elders were elected, who may not always posses sufficient knowledge of the Abagar and Aba-aga. Instead of splitting groups indifferent way , the strategy of choosing as second elders is sometimes applied which also lead to more elders (Abdurrahman ,2005) this may intern deteriorate the unity among the elders (Almagor,1997).
In this study the descriptive research design was employed which aim at providing answers to questions such as who, what and how part of the topic. This research design was adopted because it enhanced the reliability, credibility and validity of the research. Rodson (2002) explained that descriptive research is used to portray an accurate profile of persons, events and situations.
3.1 Sampling size and technique
Even if, the word’s (district) has 19 rural kebeles, and additionally adda’ela of Afar kebele. The method of the study area focused on three kebele purposively selected according to the damage extent of the area. The informative interviews conducted using Peasant Rural Associations or (PRA) tools ranking and rating, oral history analysis and time line and trends analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of local people’s views on conflict, the perceived drivers behind these conflicts and traditional mechanism of conflict resolution in the area. Secondary source such as implementation of zonal security Administration reports, different journal articles and dissertations which are relevant to the study were utilized.
3.1.1 Population data of the study area
Oromia zone population size of urban and rural of estimation 2007 E.C should in districts (woreda’s) on table below.
Table 1. Oromia zone population size of urban and rural
District/ woreda’s Urban Rural Total rural + urban
Male female total Male female total Male female total
Kemissie town Administrative 12,06 11,890 23,958 14,480 14,354 28,834 26,548 26,958 52,7920
Dewa cheffa 1,637 1,911 3,548 56,034 55,809 111,842 57,671 57,719 115,390
Bati 0 0 0 37,434 36,808 74,241 37,434 36,808 74,241
Artuma fursi 3,633 3,696 7,329 40,952 41,938 82,890 44,585 45,634 90,220
Dawe Harawa 1,020 1,080 2,105 21,131 21,610 42,741 22,151 22,695 44,846
Bati townAdministrative 9,552 11,062 20,615 12,136 11,362 23,498 21,688 22,424 44,113
Jille Dumuga 3,057 3,204 6,261 35,809 37,279 73,088 38,867 40,482 79,349
Zonal 30,96 32,848 63,816 217,976 219,160 437,136 248,944 252,007 500,951
3.2 Data type, source and methods of Data collection
In this study both primary and secondary data source were used. Primary data was collected using focused group discussion and detail interviews of individuals consisting of different types of questions related to topic of the research. The focused group discussion and detail interviews of individuals conducted on the basis of the checklist of open ended questions to gather more information regarding the issue was under study. In addition to this I used closed open ended questions to get more information existed in the community of local study areas. First of all the participants were carefully informed about the objectives of the study to secure their cooperation. In this regard, communities’ elders including both sex and chair persons were approached. In additions key informant interviews more focused the damaged village’s family study by using (PRA).
3.3 interviews of individuals with Oromo
The individuals who have knowledge of traditional conflict resolution invited to share their experience, knowledge about the local area customary laws. Those individuals are selected by asking of their voluntary from the two communities Oromo and Afar. For the name of interviewed people or individuals the code is given which can replace name for both. From Oromo individuals coded by giving letters A,B,C&E and from Afar the code given instead of name by F,G,H,I & J. Three the same questions are given to the two groups of individuals to respond voluntarily.
4.1 Individual’s respondents from Oromo’s
The questionnaires are distributed to the respondents by expecting of real information response. The detail interviewee of individuals practiced 10 individuals sampled equally from the ethnic groups. These people are grouped depend up on their similar ideas are collected to one place. According to this methods the individuals A, B & D are shared their ideas on each of three questions similarly listed before it analyzed. And then the similar ideas collected and grouped as follows. The causes of traditional conflict in their areas are currently appeared in arable land for farming, Land for pasture and watering of livestock on malka (river). In addition to these, sometimes there is rustling a number of cattle in stealing. At a seasons of summer in the months of May, august and June are dry seasons in case of a dry seasons Afar communities moves with their livestock to the Oromo territory land in order to survive their cattle from the drought at that time. They are left their Owen areas to feed livestock’s in the land covered by fresh crops of Oromo. This is creating conflict between them. The mechanisms of traditional conflict resolutions are many but few and core to brief that are the two communities use it. In the two communities locally they are the institution of customary since the societies have clans’ leaders, religious leaders and the famous individuals are contributed to solve their good knowledge, experience and abilities. In addition to these customary institutions are the famous people elected by the communities for the establishment of peace committee on each of kebele and the committees consisting maximum 50 members. These elders facilitate and determine the peace of the two nationalities for the mutual uses of natural resource such as land for pasture, arable land for farming and utilization of water. Elders have potential for peace making sporadically without interventions of government by using religious leaders who have thought according to ‘Kuran’ or Bible principles what the God is loving peace, achieve tolerance, and good ethics to people believed and respect in the religious principle rather than government body, and also the contribution of abagars and aba-aga (Aba dhiiraa) are very high to mediate and stop disputes.
They can manage their people becoming to the peace they have a prestige before their people. The symptom of the conflict before it appeared are no communication between them, no body going to market (absent from the market). Rustling of cattle, killing and taking gun over as a bandit, shooting gun bullet up ward — etc–are the symptom of the conflict. The common values of the Afar and Oromo societies help to resolve conflict are the two communities have the same Religious; since they are at boundary have no language problem to communicate with each other. There is marriage between the two societies and they have a mutual farming land sporadically.
The roles of customary institutions in resolving traditional conflicts at the study areas are as follows.
1. The Religious leaders
This institution is playing its role to make peace by preaching peace, tolerance, internalizing of good ethics, generally delivery counseling to their followers according to their Kuran principles. Religious leaders are very respected and accepted by the community in the local study areas.
Abagaer is a good person who is praying for the community, for the country peace and development. He is a prestige to the community. The community sees Abagar as a king. He is acknowledgeable, experience to resolve conflicts which happened between the disputers. And also he is a last decision maker and penalizes the guilty people according to the local culture in the community. He is a leader of community at one specific area.
3. Aba-aga (aba-dhiiraa)
Aba-ga is a person who monitoring the security of community and mobilizing community to the area development. He is a leader of community next to Abagar.he is sometimes called by the people a friend judge. The role of aba-ga in the conflict resolution is convince and arise community to conflict settlement has he acceptance in the community is high as to Abagar. Because of the people hears them in the local study area.
4. The famous elders
These elders are known elders in the community by their good practices, knowledge, experience and ability considering elected by community itself to help and service them, looking at the problems created in the local community.
5. The role of women in the local study area
Women have roles in the conflict resolution in the local study area. They are involving indirectly in counseling of their husbands, brothers, sons and their relatives and friends. They are requesting by kneeling down to the men to stop conflict in the community.
The challenges of customary institution are lack of enforcement, growth of globalization and expansions of structural government bodies.
4.2 Individual’s respondents from Afar’s
In this case the Afar interviewee people responded the questions given to them. So, according to their explanation similar ideas responses grouped to F, G, I, and H & J. These are similar ideas of F, G and I, individuals who are grouped and by the researcher as follows. Factors which arises the traditional conflict are on natural resource livelihood such as land for pasture, farm land and utilization of water resource. The symptoms of this conflict before it is happened are rustling of livestock, absent from marketing, arable lands for farming, releasing cattle on the fresh crops to feed it are the few ones. The time of the conflict is happened in the summer seasonal sporadic and in the winter also. The mechanisms of conflict traditional resolutions practiced through the religious leaders, clan’s leaders, and peace committee.
These peoples play a great role to solve the conflict by organizing the people to make peace. They are counseling and a suitable condition to use natural resources mutually. These institutions play a great role to resolve traditional conflict in the two societies’ by bringing two bodies and guilty people in front of the law to teach and penalizes in order to conglomerate good ethics to respect the superior of law. The contributions of women in the traditional conflict resolutions are not simple. They have a great role to reconcile and settle the dispute among the group between two groups. Women are indirectly involving in resolving traditional conflict by discussing with their husbands, brothers and sons to abandon from conflict and promoting peace and security. The continuous peace security encouragement is keeping the livestock together, the clans’ leader, religions and the famous elders bargain and discuss together as well as commenting on the failure and success of the two communities in social issues. His institutions to resolve different traditional conflicts are the customary institution such as religious leaders, clan’s leaders, the famous elders and peace committee. The problems of traditional conflict institutions are the practices of steals the cattle’s, involuntary to accept customary and statutory of the institutions are appeared. The other one is the expansion of globalization around the world rapidly and the institution has no law enforcement.
The role of the clans in the Afar community explained as follows:
1. Clan leaders
Clan leaders are the people who have responsibilities to manage and administrate the community equally. They are responsible to their people. There are the head of community at the local areas. They community discuss with the people on the situation happened, arbitrates the disputers, enforce the disputers to pay compensation for the attacked people, have high role to settle and reconcile traditional conflict happened.
2. Religious leaders
These people are preaching their community about love, tolerance, empathy, co-ordination, unity and solidarity with the human beings. And they have detail knowledge about the Kuran principle and sharing to their community enables to achieve settlement during the traditional conflict. They arbitrate and pledge disputers according to Kuran principle.
3. The famous elders
These people are the known people in their honesty, fairness, transparency and good ethics in the community and elected by the communities themselves. They arbitrate, and mediate the two people.
4. The role women in traditional conflict resolution
The role of women in traditional conflict resolution is similar to Oromo women. The involvement of women in traditional conflict resolution is indirect through requesting their husbands, brothers and sons to stop conflict
The causes of traditional conflict resolutions are when the drought is happened, pastoralists searching the wet grass lands, the rivers losses their springs waters, farming the arable land by passing the borders and individual fenced lands are a few of them. The symptoms of this conflict before it is happened are rustling of livestock, absent from marketing, arable lands for farming, releasing cattle on the fresh crops to feed it are the few ones. Because of the happiness of the continuous drought, the movable of pastoralists to pasture the wet grass land, arable land for farming and watering of livestock.
The river is far away to fetch water and it is four hours journey away from their living areas in single journey. These are the causes of the conflict which takes place between the Afar and Oromo communities for a long period of time. The time of the conflict is happened during the months of May, August, June, September and November. The mechanisms of conflict resolutions in Afar society is local clan’s leaders who have administrating community well according to their rules. In addition to clan leaders there are the religious leaders who are teaching the community according to the principle of Koran (kitaba) which is given awareness for the existence of tolerance, love, respecting of guests, helping the poor. These points are good to prevent or settle conflicts. Because of the community believes in Islamic and afraid of Allah (God). Islam means it is surrender to peace (Afar elders said).
The contributions of women are to reconcile and settle to manage the traditional conflict. The actions taken they are taken an actions are requesting, counseling about society peace security to their husbands, brothers, sons and relative and friends to stop from conflict or violence. The culture of peace security encouragement between the communities is mutual marketing, keeping and watering of livestock, bargain and discuss one issue in order to harmonize their community.
The mechanisms of traditional conflict resolution are through the religious leaders, clan leaders the famous elders, peace security committee established on the woreda and kebele level contribute to make peace since they have acceptance in the local community. These customary institutions are playing a great role to reconcile, mediate and peace security building after the traditional conflict resolved in the communities. They are doing for the stability of peace, encourage good relationship between the disputers body, marketing together, bring the guilty people to the law, compensation payment for the attacked people, keeping morality of the people through developing good social values are the few of them.
5. Conclusion and Suggestions
The aim of this study is the investigation of conflict management methods between Oromo and Afar societies. The cause of conflicts obtained at the study areas are competition for new land use, searching of wet grass land for pasture and water resources. Not only these, the distribution of forests for consumption and charcoal making for market. The customary institutions of the local study areas are the religious leaders, clan leaders, abagars and aba-agaa and the famous elders in addition to kebele peace committee. The institutions which contribute for traditional conflict resolutions bargain together from the two communities and discuss on the issues of the problems and penalize the guilty people who are not respected the rules of them.
The social values of the communities which help for peace encouragement are strengthen of solidarity through marriage linkage, using common market and adaption of culture and sharing language and making relative and friends (kinship created). At the local areas women do not involve directly in the traditional conflict resolution. But they can involve indirectly by counseling and begging of their husbands, brothers, sons and others relative friends to abandon from the conflict. Women have wise ideas to advice and counseling their husbands and relative friends to abandons from disputing.
The challenges to traditional conflict institutions are lack of law enforcement, encroaching of the pledge (not keeping of promise and renewed the conflict), and weakness of bring back property rustled by both communities before. The prospects of the customary institutions are they have a great role to resolve traditional conflict from the grass root, the acceptance of elders is very high. Because of they are elected by community himself and they have positive attitude to integrated, collaborated and coordinated with government body and also the government with them.
The challenges and prospects of traditional conflict resolutions are identified during the observation. Accordingly the prospects of traditional institutions are having a great role to resolve traditional conflict from the grass root rather than government body. Even if the problem is solved after a time it is renewed. The institution of this customary is the acceptance of the institution in the community is very high. And they have positive attitude to integrated, collaborated and coordinated with government with body and also the government.
The challenges of customary institutions are have no law enforcement, encroaching of the pledge (not keeping promise and renewed the conflict), weakness of bring back property rustled from the both communities.
Traditionally, community has elders who are resolving disputes among the groups or individuals. They are tactics full and a method able way following to solve the conflicts among the disputers. They have daily information gathering systems in the community for what situations happened and dealing with each other how to make a decision and resolve the problems. But the institutions are facing with different problems.
Customary institutions are facing with the problems of enforcement, lack of modern knowledge to adapt globalization; bring the guilty people to the law and also women not to involve in mediation, reconciliation and arbitration of conflict. To these problems the suggestions solution will be taken is promoting their talents and constructive and building of their awareness though the continuous trainings by justices office, office of administrative and security and women, youth and children office are a responsible to action.
The investigations listed above needs suggestions to get the necessary solutions. The people who are living in the local study area are insecure of food. This area is economically very poor. In this area the issue of conflict may be evitable by water development resource office. This office will take the action at boundary needs of building of water resources infrastructure, agricultural development office; take actions of developing new lands by modern irrigations access around the area for equal beneficiaries of the two communities. Office of security administrative take an action of strengthen of security around the area to protect the illegal commercial weapons, delivering of awareness about the securing the area such as protecting of deforestation, illegal commercial weapons, illegal farming land. For this coordination, collaborations, long and short term of common plan preparation and implementation will be needed.
The bodies that have responsibility and accountability to develop around local study area should be taken the measure of development activities. The communities and government body specially water development office for building of water infrastructure, agricultural development office, for the expansion of irrigation to succeed food security, office of justice, doing for teaching the community to aware about minimizing of criminal guilty, office of security administrate, doing for security and protecting criminal guilty by coordinating with the communities and other stakeholder will be expected. For this accomplishment the involvements of the customary institutions, women and youth people play vanguard roles. Women, youth and children office will doing as an owner for the will of women rights and democracy and gender equalities for equal beneficiaries of political, Economical and socio-cultural development shall be expected.
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