Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: May, 2019
Lufi Rizki Pradana, Sri Wahyu Lelly Hana Setyanti & Elok Sri Utami
Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember
The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of multiple role conflict on the performance of female employees with job stress on employees as mediators. This type of research is a literature review. The results of this study indicate that multiple role conflict has a negative and significant effect on the performance of female employees, multiple role conflict has a negative and significant impact on work stress, and multiple role conflict has a negative and significant effect on employee performance through work stress.
Keywords: Double Role Conflict; Work stress; Employee Performance.
Achievement of organizational goals because of the efforts made by people who are in the organization. To achieve the goals needed, human labor is human resources that have good intelligence, loyalty and intellectual and emotional intelligence. Because, human resources are the most important assets for companies or companies, where these resources have the ability to develop in companies where they work and devote themselves to the progress of the company.
This research was conducted because there was still limited research on women’s dual role conflict and seeing the existence of empirical phenomena that occurred in women who discussed two roles at once, as an employee as well as being a housewife, making it easier to live. In this case time management is needed so that the time between being a woman and being a housewife can be balanced (balanced). According to Rahmadita (2013: 60) Multiple Role Conflict is a form of conflict between family roles and duties, multiple role conflicts that must be carried out by the woman, namely as a wife, mother and woman who works. In line with previous studies conducted by (Uttam: 2011, Widyaningrum: 2012, Rosita: 2012, Wulandari: 2013, and Mega: 2016) which discussed the relationship of positive and significant double conflict to women’s work outcomes. However, the research gap from the research (Dhafailah: 2013, Sarananii: 2015, Ririn: 2015, Trisna: 2018, Burhanudin: 2018) which refers to research on role conflict has no significant effect on women. The dual role conflict experienced by the woman because it is related to family, the woman also participated in her career.
Excessive workloads cause collisions or pressures that occur on him which can cause stress for employees. According to, Sopiah (2008: 16), defines that stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening a person’s health. This opinion is also supported by Mangkunegara (2013: 25), arguing that work stress is a feeling of stress experienced by employees in the face of work. This work stress can be seen from symptoms, including unstable emotions, feelings of displeasure, aloofness, insomnia, excessive smoking, unable to relax, anxiety, tension, nervousness, increased blood pressure, and indigestion. In line with previous research by (Iswari: 2013, Ramopoli: 2017, Nurhaenih; 2018 and Wenur: 2018) which shows that work stress has a significant effect on employee performance. For women who have worked since before marriage because they are based on high self-actualization needs, they tend to return to work after marriage and having children. There are also among mothers who prefer to only act as housewives, but the economic situation turns out to require him to work again to improve the economic condition of the family finances.
Conditions like the above often trigger conflicts that occur in the life of a career woman, if not handled seriously it will have a very significant impact on the bank with the low performance of female bank employees as a whole will affect the productivity of the bank where the woman works and can directly to female bank employees, because they are in a wrong state so they experience mental and emotional stress that results in work stress. However, research gap from the research of Aan (2013) Cyntia (2017) and Trisna(2018) Job Stress has a negative effect on women’s performance. Companies must continue to strive to motivate employees to be able to cope with work stresses and pressures so that it does not become a problem within the company that will hinder employee performance.
Job complexity requires employees to bring up a professional attitude to work, especially for female employees. Some aspects related to professionalism include the ability of female employees to minimize the occurrence of multiple role conflicts in the work environment with work stress. Mangkunegara (2013: 67) states that employee performance (work performance) is a work result in the quality and quantity achieved by an employee in carrying out his duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him. Employee performance will greatly determine the competitive advantage of a company. Dual Role Conflict is divided by its role as a housewife so that it can sometimes interfere with activities and concentration in the work.
2. Conseptual Framework
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of conflict of multiple roles on employee performance with work stress as mediation. This conceptual framework shows the direct effects and indirect effects of multiple conflict (X1) and work stress (Z) on employee performance (Y).
Conceptual Framework of Literature Review
3.1 The Influence of Effect Dual Role Conflict on Job Stress
According to Rahmadita(2013: 60) multiple role conflict is a form of conflict between roles where the role of family and work pressure is contradictory, meaning that there are two roles at once that must be carried out by the woman, namely as a wife, mother and working woman. In a study conducted by Wulandari (2013) which showed a significant correlation between multiple role conflict with work stress on married female nurses. Mega (2016) which shows the results that multiple role conflict has a significant positive effect on employee work stress. Burhanuddin (2018) Partially multiple role conflict has a positive and significant effect on employee job stress.
So, the influence of the dual role conflict on work stress is a form of conflict between roles in which the role of work and family pressures are conflicting, meaning that there are two roles at once that must be carried out by a woman, namely as a wife, mother and working woman as an adaptive response to external situations that results in physical, psychological and behavioral deviations in members of the organization. All responses aimed at stressors, whether physiological or psychological responses, are called stress. Stress is more often associated with demands (demand) and resources (resources). There is a very close relationship between multiple role conflict with work stress.
3.2 The Influence of the Effect of Dual Role Conflict with Employee Performance
According to Mangkunegara (2013: 67), performance or work performance is the work of quality and quantity achieved by an employee in carrying out his duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him. In a study conducted by Ririn (2015) Partially showed that dual role conflict was not significant effect on performance. Burhanuddin (2018) multiple role conflict has a negative and not significant effect on employee performance.
So, the dual role conflict experienced by women, especially women who have children, will have an impact on performance, because when a woman experiences multiple role conflicts it can lead to various factors that can decrease the performance of female employees. Previous research also stated that one form of multiple role conflict, namely family-work has a negative influence on performance. Female employees who have a high level of work-family conflict are reported to be decreasing in performance because they feel more controlled by their work which results in female employees unable to fulfill their responsibilities to the family.
3.3 The Influence of Effect of Job Stress on Employee Performance
Mangkunegara (2013: 25), argues that work stress is a feeling of stress experienced by employees in the face of work. Stress is more often associated with demands (demand) and resources (resources). In a study conducted by Aan (2013) Job Stress has a negative effect on the performance of female nurses, Cyntia (2017) which shows that work stress has a negative effect on nurse performance, Burhanuddin (2018) work stress has a negative and significant effect on employee performance, Trisna (2018) Job stress has a negative and significant effect on employee performance.
So, the level of work stress of a woman who is able to control it makes employees do their jobs better, because it makes them able to increase work intensity, alertness, and creative ability, but excessive levels of stress make their performance decrease. High work stress both physical and behavioral are short term results of job stress that can affect low employee performance. Stress in female employees is not something that always affects women employees & their performance, but stress can also motivate female employees to foster a sense of enthusiasm in carrying out every job to achieve a good work performance for the career of female employees and for progress and success company in the future.
Multiple role conflict has a negative and significant impact on the performance of female employees, this is due to the lack of participation of female employees in caring for and educating their children. The female employee completely surrenders the affairs of the learning process (at home and school) of her children to her husband, all the needs of her children, but the work assigned to her is never completed because of the addition of new work or excess workload given so that the work provided able to be completed in a timely manner.
Negative work stress is significant and significant to the performance of female employees, this is due to the low quality of relationships among female workers where female employees feel too often understand and understand the attitudes and behavior of coworkers so that workplace conflicts often occur because competition between female employees is very high making it a motivation in work and supported by the ability of female employees to complete tasks and responsibilities carefully in accordance with the standard work assignments.
Multiple role conflict increases the negative impact and significant work stress of female employes, this is due to the high commitment of female workers and responsibility for their work because most of the time female employees have been devoted to work so that a lack of time is devoted to their families. Female employees are always responsible and committed to completing all tasks and jobs assigned to them, loyalty of female employees to very high jobs, while the workload given is not in accordance with the duties and responsibilities imposed on female employees causing stress to female employees.
Multiple role conflict has a negative and not significant effect on performance through the work stress of female employees. Explain that the dual role conflict owned by female employees is low. This is due to the low ability of female employees to help alleviate the duties of husbands of female employees at home, home affairs are fully borne by the husband, it can be said that their participation in resolving their household problems is low, but female employees are often late in completing work because the target is very high the company where female employees work has perfectionist character who demands that the work be completed perfectly and that female employees are also not given the opportunity to develop creativity at work.
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