The Influence of Element Marketing Communication, Relationship Commitment, Business on the Quality on Consumer Relations Against Customer Loyalty

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International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: November 2018

Haris Hermawan, Raden Andi Sularso, Diah Yulisetiarini & Hari Sukarno
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: The Influence of Element Marketing Communication, Relationship Commitment, Business on the Quality on Consumer Relations Against Customer Loyalty.

Abstract
The ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) is the integration of ASEAN member countries into the economic community for its people, in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community there are many challenges and opportunities faced by small culinary businesses in general. The challenge faced is increasingly fierce competition and competitors will take customers who are loyal to the product, the opportunity to be achieved is the growing market share in ASEAN. ASEAN economic blueprint in the MEA era is a challenge and opportunity for companies in Indonesia. This research includes the type of explanatory research or confirmatory research. The variables in this study are marketing soft sell (X1), Hard sell Marketing communication (X2), Relationship Commitment (X3), Relationship Quality (Y1), and Customer Loyalty (Y2). Data interval measurements (interval scale data) that produce responses to stimuli are presented in semantic (bipolar adjective) categories. The method used is a purposive sampling method based on quota. The analysis used to test the hypothesis in this study is SEM-Structural Equation Modeling) The findings of this study in the form of emotion shopping mediation from business to consumer relationship quality in triggering impulse buying based on marketing soft sell communication, marketing communication hard sell and relationship commitment. The research findings show that the direct effect of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 51.3%, impulse buying in the form of relationship commitment with affective-emotional indicators (willing to buy because of affective attitude with the seller’s commitment), cognitive-calculative (perceived that the company has the ability to provide competitive prices), Non-Coercive seller (ability to offer products to buy along with specific manner of salesmen), Uncertainty avoidance (having clear rules to prevent customer confusion) These indicators are based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers , while the emotion of business to consumer relationship quality arising from this study comes from the Money-back guarantee indicator, Trust (trust that grows in relational relations), Commitment (keeping promises), Satisfaction (customer satisfaction felt ) The findings of this study are to confirm and extend the results of empirical studies from previous studies that prove that: there is a guarantee of the company’s ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate.

Keywords: Soft Sell Marketing, Hard Sell Marketing, Relationship Commitment, Business to Consumer Relationship Quality Customer Loyalty, Impulse Buying & Shopping Emotion.

1. Background of the Research
1.1 Introduction
Kotler and Armstrong (2008: 10) states that marketing communication aims to find, attract, retain and grow target customers by creating, delivering, and communicating value superiority with customers while maintaining loyal customers, maintaining customer loyalty means the company’s ability to position its products in mind customers and try to think of customers as partners by strengthening customer confidence, always interacting, if necessary develop for mutual progress. Terence (2003: 24-29) states the character of marketing communication: (1) influences behavior, (2) starts from customers and prospective customers, (3) uses one or all means to “contact”, (4) tries to create synergy, (5) establish relationships.
Customer loyalty is defined as the loyalty shown by customers to products with indicators: loyal to continuous purchase-retention (Olivares et al., 2018), repurchase-buying (Kenningham et al., 2015), recommending products or service recommendations as well as reference source for referrals (Ku et al., 2016; Berman, 2015), so that customers have endurance not affected by other products-resistance (Mani and Chuck, 2017).
Customer consumption behavior begins to shift, retail customers shop through stores, now through online shops. This behavior is called lifestyle-based consumption, according to Engel et al. (1995: 268). Studying consumer behavior is needed because it will find out new opportunities based on the lifestyle of certain consumer groups that will come and their needs are not met and marketing strategies that need to be done. Griffin (2005: 89) states that the widespread use of the internet has changed the way customers expect to build relationships to interact with each other.

1.2 Research Gap
Research gap; (1) soft sell that performs its functions as follows: uses more visual imagery and are more subtle and ambiguous than hard sell ones, which are relatively more informational and focus on tangible product features, and (2) hard sell can be equated with informational advertising, particularly the kind that uses strong arguments and demands for action on these two elements based on research by Bradley et al. (1994); Messaris (1998); Alden et al. (1999); Okazaki et al. (2014); Prasertchuwong (2015). Zia (2014) and Rahi et al. (2016) state that Public Relations and Publicity will be effective for customer loyalty when customers have a good shopping experience, customers can conduct testimonials. Husnain et al. (2015); Khizar et al. (2016); Chang et al. (2016) states that there is proven direct marketing and commitment from the company will increase customer loyalty. Pongpaew et al. (2016); Verma et al. (2015); Jalillvand et al. (2012); Bilgihan (2016) states that interactive / internet marketing by means of social media, online shop can increase trust in marketing and influence loyalty, but otherwise Xu (2016) states that web-advertising does not affect customer loyalty if it is difficult to enter the url (uniform resource locator).
Singh et al. (2016) states that relationship quality does not apply effectively to customer loyalty if it does not coincide with built loyalty, commitment, and customer satisfaction. While Bukhari et al. (2016); Nyadzayo et al. (2016); Patel et al. (2016) states that there is relationship quality is effective for selectively targeted customers. Diah (2014) proves that reliability has a negative effect on customer loyalty. Diah (2016) proves that relationship marketing has a significant effect on loyalty.
Changes in people’s shopping behavior are increasingly accustomed to using technology due to a change in the perspective related to lifestyle towards information, communication and services with the use of technology.
a. Do marketing soft sell marketing, sell communication, and relationship commitment significantly influence business-to-consumer relationship quality?
b. Do marketing soft sell marketing, sell communication, and relationship commitment significantly influence customer loyalty?
c. Does business-to-consumer relationship quality significantly influence customer loyalty?

2. Development of Basic Theoretical Models
2.1 Development of Basic Theoretical Models
Relationship quality is a pillar of relationship marketing, Vieira et al. (2008) with dimensions as a basis are: trust, commitment, satisfaction. Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995) relationship marketing in consumer markets: the antecedents and consequences in the study of Howard and Sheth’s consumer behavior models prove the existence of a relational relationship between customers and suppliers in the consumer market.
Cravens and Piercy (2013: 207) Strategic Marketing stated, “relationship marketing is carried out in the form of analysis and operations through: (1) Reputational Risk means that management takes over risks at all” points of contact “, business to consumer in the form of guarantees, including: cross payment , providing guarantees, shipping, quality assurance, pre-post sales guarantees and others so that this guarantee provides a sense of security and certainty in the customer relationship to maintain the business reputation. (2) Partnering Capabilities means that management manages partnerships or mutually beneficial cooperation at all “contact points” that have the ability to mutually strengthen customer relations”.

Figure 1. Business Concept Synthesis to Consumer Relationship Quality

According to the results of Smith’s research (1998); Garbarino and Johnson, (1999); Bowdent, (2011); Palmatier, Dant, Grewal, Evans, (2005); Rauyruen and Miller, (2007) indicate that the salesperson’s actions are the key to relationship quality activities than the company, that the ability to respond to customer desires from salespersons who build and maintain relational relationships with customers increases relationship, interaction. Results of research by Vieira et al. (2008) is an explanation of improvement from Gummesson (1987) research’s context of improvement in adding determinants in the form of mutual goals, communication, domain expertise, relational value defined as the ability to serve customers’ varied tastes, the personal ability of salespersons to serve customers with varied tastes is a context that affects the dimensions of relationship quality, namely: trust, commitment, satisfaction.

2.2 PROPORTITION: Business to Consumer Relationship Quality
Business-to-consumer relationship quality is the ability of skilled companies to have quality, interactive relationships with actions to meet individual needs that contribute to creating positive customer perceptions so as to create a deep relationship between the company and customers to maintain customer loyalty.

Figure 2. Proposition Concept of Business to Consumer Relationship Quality

The character possessed by business to consumer relationship quality was developed from previous research in Figure 2.7, in the form of: quality relational relationships (Gummesson, 1987; Vieira et al., 2008; Osobajo and Moore, 2007); actions to meet needs per person (Hollyoake, 2009), positive perceptions in behavior (Rousseau et al., 1998), customer loyalty retention (Buttle, 2007: 367), interactive (Kotler and Keller, 2009: 159). The business to consumer relationship quality indicators are: the ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate (Davis et al., 1995; Fassauer, 2014), ability to serve customers’ varied tastes (Palmatier et al., 2006), ability to keep promises (Rossmann , 2017), the ability to respond to customer desires (Wandall, 2016; Funkhouser, 2015).

3. Conceptual Framework
There is a research gap between relationship commitment towards customer loyalty due to relationship commitment which causes the tendency of customers to leave because of uncertainty (Hunt and Morgan, 1994) and relationship commitment of the partners that causes customers to feel: locked, held hostage, so reluctant to deal with business with supplier (Storey, 2016), explicitly proven by the research of Diah, (2014) about reliability that is unable to satisfy customers. Azis et al. (2016) about unethical behavior in personal sales whereas relationship commitment to customer relationship marketing or joint ventures with customers is an emotional bond to customer loyalty (Sheth, 2016) so that business to consumer relationship quality variables can be bridged with new indicators that obtained from previous research in the form of money back guarantee which means the ability of refund if the order is not appropriate, dimension: trust, satisfaction, commitment, so the influence of elements of marketing communication, relationship commitment with amplifying effect business to consumer relationship quality affects customer loyalty.

Figure 3. Conceptual Framework

The Elements are marketing communication, relationship commitment, business to consumer relationship quality and customer loyalty in the bread industry in Jember Regency. Theoretical studies start from elements of marketing communication, namely soft sell and hard sell, relationship commitment, and business to consumer relationship quality to direct customer perceptions of communication in the marketing relational relationship used by the bakery industry in Kabupaten Jember to create customer loyalty, customer loyalty explains about customer perceptions of loyalty which are formulated as after-purchase evaluations for the performance of selected products.

4. Methodology
4.1 Research Design
This research includes explanatory research or confirmatory research, which is a study that aims to analyze the influence of one variable with another variable (Ferdinand, 2014: 18), besides this study is also an empirical study with causality test to explain the influence between variables through testing hypotheses the unit of analysis in this study is the bread industry customers.
The value of the variable / indicator in this study was determined using measurement interval data (interval scale data) which produced a response to stimuli by being presented in semantic (bipolar adjective) categories by stating a certain level of traits or values with weights 1-10, number 1 indicating lowest value weight (answer strongly disagrees) and number 10 shows the highest score weight (strongly agree).
The analysis used to test the hypothesis in this study is the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The use of SEM is done because the variables used are latent variables (variables that cannot be measured directly), such as elements of marketing communication, relationship commitment, business to consumer relationship quality, customer loyalty.

4.2 Population, Samples and Sampling Techniques
The population in this study were all bakery industry customers who had used online methods in their marketing relational relations in Jember Regency as many as 20 companies, using purposive sampling method found 5 (five) companies according to the research criteria, namely, (1) companies selling canvas ( traveling), (2) utilizing social media / google business / web / at least registered with Go Food, (3) or registered at https://bukutelepon.cybo.com/ID/kabupaten-jember/toko-roti/, 5 ( five) these companies are, (1) Wina Modern Bakery, (2) Glovic Cake, (3) Bread 46, (4) Ciliwung Bread, (5) Multirasa.
The method used is a purposive sampling method based on quota. The quota of respondents is, (1) characteristics that can represent bread customers who use the internet (social media, online) in bread subscription interactions, (2) respondents ‘distribution quota is 100% of respondents’ characteristics online in this bread subscription interaction with 70% quota users Google Android (Apps) or iPhone OS (IOS) with social media applications in the form of: Whatsapp, Face Book, Instagram, Google business, and 30% coming from other social media from the expected sample of 200 respondents.

4.3 The Variable
The variables in this study are classified as exogenous variables and endogenous variables. Exogenous variables in this study are: Marketing communication soft sell (X1) consists of: Advertising (X1.1), Public Relations and Publicity (X1.2), Direct Marketing (X1.3), Interactive/ Internet Marketing (X1.4). Marketing communication hard sell (X2) consists of: Sales Promotion (X2.1), Personal Sales (X2.2), Seller Influence Tactics (X2.3), Influence of Selling Tactics (X2.4), Commitment Relationship (X3). Endogenous variables in this study are: Relationship Quality (Y1), and Customer Loyalty (Y2).

5. Result
5.1 Characteristics of Respondents
Age of respondents, respondents aged between 28 – 37 years as many as 22.16%, while the minority of respondents who are customers of the bread industry are respondents aged between 17-27 years as many as 50.27%, 38 – 47 years as much as 13.51% and more than 47 years as much as 14.05%. The sex of the respondents, respondents were female as many as 58.38%, while the minority of respondents who were customers of the bakery industry were male respondents as much as 41.62%. The respondents’ education, respondents who had high school education as much as 55.68%, while the minority of respondents who were customers of the bakery industry were respondents who had a junior high school education of 15.68% and Universities as much as 28.65%. In the status of respondents, married respondents were 74.05%, while the minority of respondents who were customers of the bakery industry were 25.95% unmarried respondents. The professional, respondents who work in private companies are 47.85%, while the minority of respondents who are customers of the bakery industry are 16.67% respondents who are students or still study, 26.34% self-employed, and 9 civil servants, 14%. Respondents income, respondents with income between 1 million and 2 million as much as 74.05%, while the minority of respondents who are customers of the bakery industry are respondents earning less than 1 million as much as 5.95%, and more than 2 million as much as 20%.

5.2 Instrument Test
The results of validity and reliability tests show that the value of t (indicated by the value of C.R) for loading significance of 0.05 (critical value = 1.96), as well as the probability value is smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that all variables are significantly related to the construct. The construct reliability is 0.828, 0.870, 0.911, 0.867 and 0.871, above the recommended value of a minimum of 0.6 – 0.7 so all indicators or variables are reliable.

5.3 Assumption Test for Structural Equation Modeling
The results of the normal test give a CR value of 1.790 located between -1.96 (-1.96 ≤ 1.790 ≤1.96 (α = 0.05), so that it can be said that the data are multivariate normal. The results of multicollinearity tests provide determinant of sample values covariance matrix is 57,051. There are no multicollinearity and singularity problems in the analyzed data Outliers on the expensive distance or the number of d-squared are 33,924 (based on the X2 df 22 distribution table) .None case has a greater Mahalanobis distance value from 33,924, it can be concluded that there were no multivariate outliers in the study.

5.4 Analisis Structual Equation Modelling

Tabel 1. Goodness-Of-Fit Test
Criteria Cutt Off Result Information
Chi-square Less than
(< X2 df 143 is 171,907) 141,045 Good Sig. > 0,05 0,225 Good
RMSEA ≤ 0,08 0,036 Good
GFI ≥ 0,90 0,921 Good
AGFI ≥ 0,90 0,917 Good
CMIN/ DF
≤ 2 or 3 0,986 Good
TLI ≥ 0,90 0,965 Good
CFI ≥ 0,90 0,993 Good
Source: Data Analysis, 2018

Figure 4. Structual Equation Modelling

Based on Table 1 & Figure 3, it is known that out of the eight criteria used to assess whether a model is feasible or not, overall it can be said that the suitability of the model is good and acceptable which means there is a match between the model and the data.

Table 2. Causality Test
Variable Coefficient CR Probability Information
X1  Y1 0,287 2,323 0,005 Significant
X2  Y1 0,409 3,020 0,000 Significant
X3  Y1 0,548 4,240 0,000 Significant
X1  Y2 0,184 1,506 0,091 Not Significant
X2  Y2 0,314 2,317 0,000 Significant
X3  Y2 0,389 2,563 0,000 Significant
Y1  Y2 0,513 4,115 0,000 Significant
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
Based on the results of testing the path coefficient in Table 2 & Figure 4;
Y1 = 0,287 X1 + 0,409 X2 + 0,548 X3
Y2 = 0,184 X1 + 0,314 X2 + 0,389 X3 + 0,513 Y1

5.5 Direct Effect

Table 3. Direct Effect
Direct Effect Estimate
X1  Y1 28,7%
X2  Y1 40,9%
X3  Y1 54,8%
X1  Y2 18,4%
X2  Y2 31,4%
X3  Y2 38,9%
Y1  Y2 51,3%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018

a. The direct effect of soft sell communication marketing on business to consumer relationship quality is 28.7%, and customer loyalty is 18.4%;
b. The direct effect of hard sell marketing communication on business to consumer relationship quality is 40.9%, and customer loyalty is 31.4%;
c. The direct effect of relationship commitment on business to consumer relationship quality is 54.8%, and on customer loyalty is 38.9%;
d. Direct influence of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 51.3%.

5.6 Indirect Effect

Table 4. Indirect Effect
Indirect Effect Estimate
X1  Y1  Y2 15,6%
X2  Y1  Y2 27,7%
X3  Y1  Y2 37,5%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
a. The indirect effect of marketing soft sell marketing through business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 15.6%;
b. The indirect effect of marketing communication hard sell through business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 27.7%;
c. The indirect effect of relationship commitment through business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 37.5%.

5.7 Total Effect

Table 5. Total Effect
Total Effect Estimate
Y1
 X1  Y1  Y2 34,7%; 21,3%
Y1  X2  Y1  Y2 51,1%; 39,5%
Y1  X3  Y1  Y2 65,1%; 42,9%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
a. The effect of total sell communication soft sell on business to consumer relationship quality is 34.7% and the total marketing communication soft sell influence through business to consumer relationship quality to customer loyalty is 21.3%;
b. The effect of total marketing communication hard sell on business to consumer relationship quality is 51.1% and the effect of total marketing communication hard sell through business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 39.5%;
c. The effect of total relationship commitment on business to consumer relationship quality is 65.1% and the effect of total relationship commitment through business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 42.9%.

6. Discussion
6.1 The effect of soft sell marketing communication on business to consumer relationship quality and customer loyalty
Soft sell marketing communication has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality for bakery industry customers, meaning that the bakery industry is able to influence customers through soft sell marketing communication to maintain relational relationships with customers with quality indicators, based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers. The effect of marketing communication soft sell on Business to consumer relationship quality supports the results of research by Chang (2016) which states that online customers are consumers who actively use the internet, so that all transactions are carried out. This type of customer has no commitment in conducting transactions, speed-accuracy is required in serving it and the speed-accuracy itself they need in addition to quality products. The direct effect of communication soft sell marketing on business to consumer relationship quality in the bread industry customers in Jember Regency is 28.7%. This direct influence supports the results of the study of Gefen et al. (2003) which states that trust based on personality, this belief is credit for trust given to others before experience can provide a more rational interpretation through the media that he always sees, and supports Moghavvemi (2017); Chang (2016); Khizar (2016); Ranganathan and Ganapathy (2002).
Marketing communication soft sell influences but is not significant to the customer loyalty of the bakery industry in Jember Regency, meaning that the bread industry by conducting soft sell marketing communication does not necessarily make customer loyalty. It is based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers. The direct effect of marketing soft sell marketing on customer loyalty in the bread industry customers in Jember Regency is only 18.4%, this influence supports the results of Smith (1998); Garbarino and Johnson (1999); Bowdent (2011); Palmatier, Dant, Grewal, and Evans (2005); Rauyruen and Miller (2007) who prove that the effectiveness of the process of customer loyalty with the quality of relationships is determined by the salesperson with the explanation that the relationship is more effective when customers prefer to engage with salespersons rather than selling firms. A quality relationship requires a precise understanding of customer needs. Salespersons, thus, need focus on marketing activities that support the relationship. Previous studies demonstrated the role of the salesperson in building and maintaining the relationship with the customer by increasing the level of trust, relationship satisfaction, and commitment that a customer perceives from the salesperson and the results of this study are different from the results of Moghavvemi’s research (2017 ); Chang (2016); Khizar (2016); Ranganathan and Ganapathy (2002), which prove that companies that are able to provide information with advertisements, testimonials, ease of transactions and communication with customers, companies that have the ability to inform products to customers will influence customer loyalty, the results of this study indicate that information and communication technology through social media only as a marketing activity.

6.2 The influence of hard sell marketing communication on business to consumer relationship quality and customer loyalty
Marketing hard sell communication has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality in the bakery industry customers, meaning that hard sell marketing communication conducted by the bakery industry in Jember has been able to influence business to consumer relationship quality, based on definable and observable traits by customers. The results of this study support Basnayake (2015) which proves that salesman visits are felt as part of their needs in purchasing, direct influence of marketing hard sell communication on business to consumer relationship quality bread industry customers in Jember Regency is 40.9%, this direct influence supports the results of the research by Weitz and Bradford (1999) which prove that companies that manage the ability of salesmen to maintain customer relations with intensive visits are perceived as positive for customers.
Marketing hard sell communication has a significant effect on customer loyalty, meaning that marketing cell communication carried out by the bakery industry in Jember has the ability to create customer loyalty, this is based on the characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers. The direct effect of marketing communication hard sell on customer loyalty in the bread industry customers in Jember Regency is 31.4%, the results of this study support previous studies from Duta (2014); Sagala (2014) which proves that companies that have the ability to provide promos to customers indicate that the company is able to maintain relational relationships with its customers.

6.3 Effect of relationship commitment on business to consumer relationship quality and customer loyalty
Relationship commitment has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality in the bakery industry customers, meaning that the relationship commitment made by the bakery industry in Jember Regency is able to influence customers in implementing business to consumer relationship quality, based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers. The direct effect of relationship commitment on the business to consumer relationship quality of the bakery industry customers in Jember is 54.8%, the direct influence in this study supports previous research by Frazier and Summers (1984) which proves that customers feel from personal resources persuasive ability to sell.
Relationship commitment has a significant effect on customer loyalty, meaning that the relationship commitment made by the bakery industry in Jember Regency is able to create customer loyalty. This is based on the characteristics that can be defined and observed by the customer. The direct effect of relationship commitment on customer loyalty in the bread industry customers in Jember is 38.9%, the results of this study support previous studies from Gruen, Summers and Actio (2000); Fullerton (2005) which states that customers feel that a company’s personal ability is committed so that customers make purchases without the need to think.

6.4 Effect of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty
Business to consumer relationship quality has a significant effect on customer loyalty, meaning that the bread industry in Jember Regency is able to create customer loyalty, it is based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers with a Money back guarantee, a money back guarantee, perceptions of respondents on how to pay for bread orders because they feel there is a guarantee of the company’s ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate, Trust, is a trust that grows in relational relations, Commitment, is keeping promises, Satisfaction, is the satisfaction felt by customers. The direct effect of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty in the bread industry customers in Jember is 51.3%, the results of this study support previous studies from Davis et al. (1995); Fassauer (2014) which states that customers feel there is a guarantee of the company’s ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate.

7. Research Finding
The research findings are to confirm and extend the results of empirical studies from previous studies that prove that: there is a firm guarantee of the ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate (Davis et al., 1995; Fassauer, 2014), risk-taking fosters trust when expected behavior is realized (Rousseau et al., 1998), the ability to serve varied customer tastes (Palmatier et al., 2006), has evidence of the ability to keep promises to customers, which are seen as perceived (Rossmann, 2017), feeling the company has the ability to respond to desires customers (Wandall, 2016; Funkhouser, 2015). The bread industry in Jember has business to consumer relationship quality capabilities so that it can increase customer loyalty for Repurchase (repeated purchases and willingness to buy products that have been enjoyed for others), Retention (maintaining customer loyalty), Resistance (maintaining durability customers not to switch brands), Recommendations and referrals (making customers recommend and become product references).

8. Conclussion
The results of the analysis that have been carried out in this study;
a. Soft sell marketing communication has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality customers. This proves that the bakery industry is able to influence customers through soft sell marketing communication to maintain relational relationships with customers. Marketing communication soft sell has an effect but not significant to customer loyalty, this proves that the bakery industry by conducting soft sell marketing communication does not necessarily make loyal customers.
b. Marketing hard sell communication has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality customers. this proves that hard sell communication marketing conducted by the industry has been able to give effect to customer loyalty to customers. Marketing communication hard sell has a significant effect on customer loyalty, this proves that hard sell communication marketing carried out by the industry has been able to give effect to customer loyalty. this is based on traits that can be defined and observed by customers.
c. Relationship commitment has a significant effect on business to consumer relationship quality. this proves that relationship commitment carried out by industry has been able to influence business to consumer relationship quality. Relationship commitment has a significant effect on customer loyalty. this proves that the relationship commitment carried out by the industry has been able to influence customer loyalty.
d. Business to consumer relationship quality has a significant effect on customer loyalty, this proves that business to consumer relationship quality conducted by industry has been able to influence customer loyalty. it is based on the characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers.

9. References