Published on International Journal of Health, Nursing, & Medicine
Publication Date: May 9, 2019
Yustina Riki Nazarius
Postgraduate Master of Nursing Programme School Hight
Health Sciences Jenderal Achmad Yani Cimahi
Emotional intelligence influences the development of the individual. Emotional intelligence develops since the womb and reaches its maximum at the age of 7-15 years. The age of pre-school children is the initial stage of the development of emotional intelligence. Puzzles function to improve cognitive function, improve skills and stimulate the development of children’s emotional intelligence. This study aims to identify the effect of puzzle games on pre-school aged children on emotional intelligence in Taman Kanak Suster and Taman Kanak Bruder Melati, Pontianak. The research method used was a quasi-experimental research design with a Non-Equivalent Control Group design approach on 48 pre-school age children. The sampling method uses purposive sampling. Analysis using Paired T-Test and Independent T-Test. The results of the statistical test showed differences in the average emotional intelligence before and after intervention in the intervention group (p 0.001), there was a difference in the average emotional intelligence after intervention between the control group and the intervention group (p 0.001). The main recommendation is to apply the puzzle game program to learning activities in kindergarten schools. This program can also be play therapy in pediatric nursing to stimulate children’s ability to think critically.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Pre-school Age Children, Puzzle Game.
Pre-school age children are in the age range of 3 to 6 years. Pre-school age children have different physical, motor, intellectual, and social development characteristics from other ages. The stages of physical and motor development of pre-school children can be in the form of jumping, dancing, and dressing. The intellectual and social stages of children develop rapidly when they play with peers (Hidayat, 2005).
The age of pre-school children also experiences language and psychosocial development. Language development in children such as expressing their feelings with simple sentences and asking other people about what they experienced. Psychosocial developments such as starting to actively associate with peers understand the rules made and children have begun to realize the interests of themselves or others.
Games for pre-school children are usually associative, develop motor coordination, and require relationships with peers. Barraton, Ray, and Rhine (2005) state that play has a positive effect on the treatment of children and the type of play for children must be adjusted to the level of maturity of the child. Some pre-school age games include coloring, drawing, arranging puzzles, and arranging blocks.
A puzzle is a game that requires child patients. Puzzles can make children have a concept in understanding the events in their environment. Puzzles can be done alone or in groups, where each child communicates and interacts with each other in compiling puzzles. This type of game is included in one educational game that is fun, entertaining and educational (Kayvan, 2009; Adriana, 2011).
Aral, Gursoy, Can and Yasar (2011) state that puzzles are a means of play that must be solved so as to provide sensory stimulation, emotions, imagination and creativity of children. This study is supported by a study from Levine, Ratliff, Huttenlocher, and Cannon (2011) which states that puzzle play makes children able to think intelligently not depending on the male or female gender.
A child not only requires intellectual intelligence but also must have good emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence shows the potential of human vital intelligence after intellectual intelligence (Intellectual quotient). Emotional intelligence is important in regulating the emotions of individuals so they are able to control life problems that occur to them (Goleman, 2005).
The results of the preliminary study through interviews with the chairperson of the Taman Kanak Suster Melati, Pontianak showed that the total number of children in the 2013/2014 school year was 27 in A1 class and 27 in A2 class. found data that the total number of children in the 2013/2014 school year was 27 in A1 class and 27 in A2 class. The age of the child varies between 3-6 years. The types of games available at Sister Kindergarten also vary such as ball games, flag games, beams, picture books, swings, and others.
The phenomenon that has been obtained leads researchers to identify the influence of puzzle games on emotional intelligence. Good emotional intelligence is very important for individuals to have at an early age so researchers want to know whether there is an influence of puzzle games on pre-school age children on emotional intelligence in Sister Melati Pontianak Sisters and Kindergarten Park.
The research method used is a quasi-experimental research design with a non-equivalent control group design approach. Sampling uses purposive sampling method. This study involved 48 pre-school aged children from Sister Melati Pontianak Sister and Kindergarten Park. The time of the study was conducted from March to August 2014. The research process is divided into 3 sections, preparation of proposals, data collection and reporting of research results.
The tools used in data collection are observation sheets for emotional intelligence in children and Puzzle Games made of cork with varying color characteristics, size ± 1 meter, images varying and arranged on the floor. In this study, respondents were grouped into 2 groups: the intervention group and the control group.
The study began with a pre-test conducted from June 6-12 2014 in the intervention group. A pre-test is done by giving puzzle games for 6 consecutive days for 15 minutes per day. To avoid jealousy among children who do not include respondents still be given a puzzle game and include it in the game group but not assessed. While for the control group puzzle is not given.
A post-tests were carried out as many as 3 on June 13-16 2014 in both groups to find out emotional intelligence using the observation sheet. Post tests are carried out while dividing children into 6 groups consisting of 4 children in the control and intervention groups, observations are made when the child is in class and there are several points taken when the child is resting or playing. Observation by researchers and assisted by 5 numerators.
The results of a questionnaire analysis that illustrates the differences in the average emotional intelligence in pre-school age children before and after being given a puzzle game in the control group and intervention group are as follows (Table 1):
Table 1. Differences in the average emotional intelligence of pre-school age children before and after in
Table 1 shows the difference in average emotional intelligence before and after in the control group 0.014 while for differences in the average intelligence before and after in the intervention group 5.584. This shows the average value of intelligence before and after the intervention group was higher than in the control group.
The results of differences in the average emotional intelligence in pre-school age children after the intervention between the control group and the intervention group are as follows (Table 2):
Table 2 Differences in the average emotional intelligence of pre-school age children after intervention
Table 2 shows the composite assessment of the emotional intelligence of pre-school age children in the intervention group who experienced an increase in motivation, with a value before intervention 4.31 and after the intervention to be 5.68 with an increase of 1.37 compared to other aspects.
The results of the T-Independent statistical test found that there was no difference in the average emotional intelligence in pre-school children at pretest in both the control group and the intervention group with a p-value of 0.064. There were differences in emotional intelligence in pre-school age children at posttest in both the control group and the intervention group with a p-value of 0.001.
The results of the T-Dependent statistical test can be concluded that there is no difference in emotional intelligence in pre and posttest pre-school children in the control group with a p-value of 0.918 and there are differences in emotional intelligence in pre and posttest aged children in the intervention group with a p-value of 0.001.
The difference in the increase in the average emotional intelligence in pre-school age children in the control group and intervention group is illustrated in Graph 1:
Graph 1 Differences in the average emotional intelligence after a puzzle game intervention on pre-school
age children in Taman Kanak Suster dan Bruder Melati, Pontianak
Graph 1 shows that there is a significant difference between the average emotional intelligence in pre-school age children on day 1 and day 12 between the control group and the intervention group with differences in the average increase in emotional intelligence in pre-school children in the control group. 0.01 and intervention groups 5.59.
The difference in average emotional intelligence in pre-school children before and after intervention in the control group. The results of the statistical test in this study showed that there was no effect of emotional intelligence in the control group before and after the intervention. Emotional intelligence is not only influenced by puzzle games but there are other factors that can also influence such as parents, physical and environmental support factors. Yusiana (2012) argues that in playing activities, parents play an important role to motivate, supervise, and become a play partner for children. Support and motivation can increase the self-confidence and abilities that children have. The role of parents as play partners will create a sense of togetherness and encourage children to work together when playing.
Physical factors are factors that also determine emotional intelligence through the anatomy of the brain and the human nervous system which also regulates emotions. The brain plays a very important role in regulating all the systems of the human body. Part of the brain already has its own role in regulating each stimulus given, meaning that the more often a person is given a positive stimulus, it will give a good expression also to the emotional intelligence of the child.
Environmental factors are also a condition that allows children to be able to move such as learning, playing and working. Conditions that are comfortable for children can be active should be supported by conditions that are not too noisy, not harmful to children and good air circulation. Papila, Olds & Feldman in Dariyo (2011) argues that a good environment will have a positive influence on individuals, preferably an environment that is not good, damaged, tends to inhibit children’s emotional development.
The difference in average emotional intelligence in pre-school children before and after intervention in the intervention group.
The results of the statistical test in this study showed that there were differences in emotional intelligence in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Studies from Kayvan (2009) and Adriana (2011) also found puzzle games included in the games that can be performed by children of all ages. A puzzle is an activity that is entertaining and educational because it can make the child feel challenged to solve the puzzle and stimulate children’s cognitive abilities.
Puzzles are very often used in Kindergarten because they have educational values. Puzzle games require precision, mental focus, and concentration to arrange puzzle pieces to become a complete picture. Hidayat (2007) argues that the benefit of a puzzle game that supports children’s emotional intelligence is that this game sharpens the child’s brain by practicing nerve cell work in solving problems by thinking creatively.
The stage of the intellectual development of pre-school age children is in the pre-operational period where children develop like being able to use something to present something or an event using symbols such as language, images, signals, objects. Pre-school age children have also been able to make simple conclusions about the development of a sustainable brain and nervous system so that the brain continues to grow in the early days of the child even though the growth is not as severe as infancy (Desmita, 2012).
A similar study was conducted on children aged 4-6 years in kindergarten in Chicago, United States, puzzle games carried out for 4 weeks (6 games) for 90 minutes. The results show there is an influence of puzzle games on children’s intellectual development. Research conducted in Turkey also draws the same conclusion that puzzle games are effective against children’s development such as cognitive, language, psychomotor, social, emotional, and skills development in pre-school age children. The results also show that there is a significant influence by puzzle games on the child’s growth and development tasks.
The type of puzzle that supports the improvement of children’s emotional intelligence in this study is the puzzle floor. Floor puzzles are made of sponge (rubber or foam) so it is safe for children’s playground equipment. Floor puzzles have a variety of designs and are available in many attractive color choices. Puzzles are designed to ensure the child’s brain works so that children are more creative in completing a puzzle (Kayvan, 2009).
Lepper (2009) argues that the change in the behavior of individual motivations occurs because of genuine rewards from people who interact directly with the child. One form of motivation that can change when given a reward is that the child does not act harshly, is willing to obey the teacher’s orders, supervise the social environment and initiatives to interact with others.
Support from others is important for individuals to be able to adapt to their environment. The adaptation process is expected to maintain internal and external integrity. This opinion is in line with Myra Levine’s idea in Levine’s Conservation model of nursing theory where the function of conservation is part of adaptation.