Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere and Product Quality on Positive Emotions to Increase Loyalty

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Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: January, 2020

Rosantika, Oliandes Sondakh & Yanuar Dananjaya
Faculty of Economics and Business, Pelita Harapan University
Surabaya, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere and Product Quality on Positive Emotions to Increase Loyalty (Studied of Cotton Ink Store, Jakarta).

Abstract
Fashion is a thing that must be had in every individual, and very active role in everyday life. One of Cotton Ink, Cotton Ink is a local Indonesian fashion brand that attracts the attention of its customers, Cotton Ink also has many competitors. Therefore, the presence of Cotton Ink as a Local Fashion Brand is very influential in the development of fashion in Indonesia. This study aimed to analyze the effect of variable interaction with other customers, celebrity images, service quality, atmosphere and product quality on positive emotions to increase loyalty at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta. The sample of this research is male and female, aged 18-60 years, domiciled in Jakarta and have made 2 purchases and use of Cotton Ink products in the past 6 months totaling 132 respondents. For data processing and analysis in this study using SPSS 20.0. These impulse findings indicate that the relationship of interaction with other customers has an influence on positive emotions with a regression coefficient of 0.170 because because interaction with other customers is important because with interaction we know about Cotton Ink’s brand, Celebrity images do not have an effect on positive emotions with a regression coefficient of 0.091 because because all respondents have the same perception between celebrity so it’s hard to tell apart, service quality has an influence on positive emotions with a regression coefficient of 0.237 because because all people always want good service because they spent money, the atmosphere has influence on positive emotions with a regression coefficient of 0.191 because because all respondent always rate the environment and enjoy the comfort zone in store, product quality has an influence on positive emotions with a regression coefficient of 0.273 because because all respondent always want good product quality cause this medium price. and positive emotions have an influence on loyalty with a regression coefficient of 0.395 because because if all respondent have positive emotions make sure they have a loyalty for Cotton Ink’ product.

Keywords: Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere, Product Quality, Positive Emotions, Loyalty.

1. INTRODUCTION
In 2019 fashion is increasingly developing along with the flow of modernization. The development of fashion has become an inevitable part of the appearance and daily needs of daily life such as clothing, accessories, shoes, bags, and others. Not only used in accordance with the needs of the owner, but used for decoration and even want to be a trendsetter in the environment. These objects are a communication tool for someone to describe the identity of each individual when used. Fashion today is not only used by women but only used by Adam because of the extraordinary development of fashion in this stream of moderation.
Fashion product is rated as one of the lifestyle that cannot be released. Product fashion in a person becomes a small storefront about someone for someone who sees it. Style for fashion products is something that is important or even everything, because a year that continues to grow will make everyone interpret product fashion as a personality. What kind of personality you want to show others. Everyone is asked to be able to play and control their own role. For example, the style of dress, accessories used, hair dressing, bags used and activities carried out are part of a person’s identity and personality. His invention is everything and everything is style and fashion

1.1 Formulation of The Problem
a. Does Interaction with Other Customers have a significant influence on Positive Emotions in the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta?
b. Does Celebrity Image have a significant influence on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta?
c. Does Service Quality have a significant effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta?
d. Does Atmosphere have a significant influence on Postive Emotions in the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta?
e. Does Product Quality have a significant effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
f. Does Positive Emotions have a significant influence on Loyalty at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta?

1.2 Research Limitations
a. This study examines the effect of Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere and Product Quality on Positive Emotions to increase Loyalty in Cotton Ink Store. Cotton Ink Store only in Jakarta. This studied model uses data from the distribution of questionnaires to the object under study.
b. The characteristics of the respondents examined are as follows: respondents who have shopped at the Cotton Ink Store Jakarta, respondents who have made purchases and uses the product at least 2 times in the last 6 months. Both men and women, from the age of 18-60 years (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010).
c. Calculation and analysis of the results of the questionnaire using SPSS 20.0 software tools.

2. THEORETICAL STUDY
2.1 Interaction with Other Customers
Baswori (2015) defines interaction as a dynamic relationship that brings people, groups or groups with groups, and people with groups of people, this dynamic relationship will result in a person having a positive or negative reciprocal relationship. Walgito (2007) defines interaction as a relationship between an individual and another individual giving rise to a reciprocal relationship between two or more individuals, a reciprocal relationship results in a causal effect. Wu and Liang (2009) argue that customer experience is positively influenced by other customers. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H1. Interaction with Other Customers has a significant effect on Positive Emotions at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta

2.2 Celebrity Image
Sopiah (2013) defines images as concepts that are easy to understand, but difficult to explain systematically because they are abstract. The abstract nature of each customer arises, can not be compared to one customer with other customers. Kottler & Fox in Etta Mamang (2013) defines image as the sum of images, impressions and beliefs that a person has of an object. The object will give different views to some people to get to know an image, the easier the image that the company provides for its subscription, will make it easier for customers to remember that image. (Fang et al., 2013; Lin and Lin, 2006) argue that good interpersonal, communication skills, creativity are very important to customers. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H2. Celebrity Image is significant towards Positive Emotions at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta

2.3 Service Quality
Kotler and Keller (2009) define service quality as the totality of product or service characteristics that depend on the ability to satisfy the expressed or implied needs of the customer. Lovelock et al., (2010) defines service quality as something that consistently meets or exceeds customer expectations. (Jang and Namkung, 2009; Wu and Liang, 2009) argued that service quality in a company affects customer emotions both positively and negatively. If service to customers can help customers in asking for example product knowledge, can be relied on, then customers tend to have positive emotions. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H3. Service Quality has a significant effect on Positive Emotions at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta

2.4 Atmosphere
Kotler (1973) in Norman et al., (2016) defines atmosphere as a conscious design of space to create certain effects for certain buyers. Sutisna and Pawitra (2001) in Meldarianda (2010) define atmosphere as the affection status and cognition that consumers understand in a store, even though it is not fully explored when shopping. Kaltcheva and Weitz (2006), Koo and Ju (2010), Ong and Khong (2011) argue that the atmosphere has a significant impact on customers. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H4. Atmosphere has a significant effect on Positive Emotions at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta

2.5 Product Quality
Lei & Chu (2014) defines product quality as high quality and products with high innovation provide strength in advertising activities, can be a good store presentation, and can build perceptions of good service quality. A quality product has many positive implications for marketers. Kotler and Armstong (2009) define product quality as the ability of a product to carry out its functions including durability, reliability, accuracy, ease of operation and improvement as well as other valuable attributes. Jang and Namkung (2009) and Chen et al., (2015) argue that the quality of a product sutu can significantly influence both positive and negative customer emotions. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H5. Product Quality has a significant effect on Positive Emotions at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta

2.6 Positive Emotions
Babin and Attaway (2000) define positive emotions as a condition of one’s emotions that will affect one’s response to the environment. Pramananto (2007) defines positive emotions as feelings felt by consumers to acquire a product immediately without negative emotions. Park & Lennon defines positive emotions as an effect of mood in the form of excitement to make a purchase. Jang and Namkung (2009) argue that positive emotions or satisfaction with a product can produce a higher level of loyalty. Based on the research found before, the following hypotheses can be drawn:
H6. Positive Emotions significantly influence Loyalty at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta.

2.7 Loyalty
Sutisna (2003) defines loyalty as a liking towards a brand that is presented in a consistent purchase of that brand until a certain time limit. Durianto et al. (2001) defines loyalty as customers who use or consume these brand products, it is not easy to move their purchases to other brands whatever happens with the brand. Duffy (2003) defines loyalty as a customer’s feelings toward a brand or product and results in a positive and measurable financial result. Lawfer et al., (2004) defines loyalty as a customer’s decision to voluntarily continue to subscribe to a particular company for a long time because he likes it. Loyalty is a form of true loyalty, repeat purchase behavior, which is an actual buyback of a brand regardless of commitment.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Type of Research
This type of research is causal research because this research is used to explain the causal relationship between variables in the research model (Maholtra, 2005), namely Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere, Product Quality, Positive Emotions and Loyalty. In addition, this research is also used to develop research models that have been determined based on literature review to address the problems identified in the previous chapter. The research method used in this study is a quantitative method. Quantitative research methods are methods that are based on numerical information and quantities that are usually associated with statistical analyzes. Survey, network analysis, and mathematical modeling are included in the types of quantitative research methods (Stokes, 2007).
This research uses primary data types. Primary data is data obtained directly from respondents’ answers both offline and online, direct observation of events, and objects (Sekaran, 2003), and is used to answer specific research problems.
The next section contains questionnaire statement items about the effect of Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere, Product Quality on Positive Emotions to increase Loyalty at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta.

3.2 Population dan Sampel
Population is a generalization area that consists of objects or subjects that have certain quantities and characteristics determined by researchers to be examined and then drawn a conclusion (Sugiyono, 2002). Keller (2003) defines population as a group of elements in the form of people or objects that are relevant to the research being conducted. Based on this understanding, it can be understood that the population is an area that is determined to be studied by studying and drawing conclusions from the results of research. The population used in this study is customers who have bought and used Cotton Ink products at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta.
Samples are part or representative of the population studied (Arikunto, 2002). Sugiyono (2002) also states that the sample is a portion of the number and characteristics possessed by the population. According to Sekaran in Wijaya (2009), the sample used is at least 5 times the indicator variable. The sampling technique used in this study is non-probability sampling using a questionnaire as the main tool in data collection. According to Sekaran in Wijaya (2009), there are various kinds of techniques in non-probability sampling, in this study the technique used is snowball sampling. The characteristics of the respondents determined are men and women, aged 18-60 years, domiciles in Jakarta who have bought and used products from Cotton Ink approximately 2 times in the last 6 months, and have a minimum of high school education or equivalent on the grounds that the user has the ability to understand the questions on the questionnaire well. Sekaran (2003) states that in multivariate studies (including multiple regression analysis), the sample size must be several times (preferably 10 times or more) of the number of variables in the study. Therefore, the total sample range that will be used in this study is 132 respondents. This is because in this study there are 7 variables that will be used so that it refers to the statement of Sekaran (2003), then the minimum sample size = 70. With the determination of the minimum sample size to be used that is 70 respondents, it is concluded that this study has met the minimum criteria for sample size .

3.3 Research Methods
Questionnaires were given to users of the Cotton Ink brand, so that respondents were chosen according to what was expected. Fill out the online survey questionnaire. After the questionnaire is completed and returned by the respondent, the questionnaire will then be selected and sorted. The questionnaire chosen for use is a questionnaire that is completely filled out in full and according to the filling instructions. Data from the selected questionnaire will then be tabulated and processed.
Data tabulation is done to recap all respondents’ assessment results. After the data is tabulated, then the research model will be tested by using SPSS software version 20.0. The questionnaire in this study will be divided into two parts. The first part contains questions to get general information about the respondent’s profile that is useful to determine the suitability of the characteristics of the respondents with the sample criteria. The second part contains several statements to obtain research data and analyze the Effects of Interaction with Other Customers, Celebrity Image, Service Quality, Atmosphere and Product Quality on Positive emotions to increase Loyalty at Cotton Ink Store Jakarta
The level used in this research is the level of interval measurement. While the type of scale used in this study is a Likert scale. Statements are made using a scale of 1-5 to obtain interval data and are given the following values:
1 = Strongly Disagree (SD)
2 = Disagree (D)
3 = Doubtful or Neutral (N)
4 = Agree (A)
5 = Strongly Agree (SA)
Figures 1 through 5 indicate an assessment of the question about the object under study, where the greater the score or number chosen indicates the higher assessment. Vice versa, the smaller the score or number chosen indicates a lower assessment. The essence of the questionnaire can be seen in the table below:

Table 1. Design of Questionnaires
Variable Statement Measurement Scale
Me 1. Cotton Ink’s Customers is elegant
2. Cotton Ink’s Customers is good
3. Cotton Ink’s Customers is fun Scale 5 point
Celebrity Image 1. Raisa’s have unique taste in clothes
2. Raisa’s have innovative in clothes
3. Raisa’s have estetics in clothes
4. Raisa’s have good interpersonal Scale 5 point
Service Quality 1. Cotton Ink’s employee have good service
2. Cotton Ink’s employee have explain well when customers ask
3. Cotton Ink’s employee have serve customers professionally Scale 5 poin
Atmosphere 1. Cotton Ink’s have an attractive decorations (writing, logo, picture and flower pot)
2. Cotton Ink’s have attractive design (clothes rack, mannequin, sofa and dressinf room)
3. Cotton Ink have luxurious atmosphere (lighting, air temperature and comfort) Scale 5 poin
Product Quality 1. Cotton Ink’s product have an interasting model
2. Cotton Inks’s product have a comfortable material
3. Cotton Ink’s product have the current model
4. Cotton Ink’s product have avariety of products Scale 5 poin
Positive emotions 1. Cotton Ink’s Store make me feel happy
2. Cotton Ink’s Store make me excited
3. Cotton Ink’s Store make me comfort Scale 5 poin
Loyalty 1. I want go to back shopping in Cotton Ink Store in the future
2. I want return to visit in Cotton Ink Store in the future
3. I want to recommend Cotton Ink Store to my friends Scale 5 poin

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Most of those who filled out this questionnaire were female with ages 26-30 years and had the last education S1. The coefficient of determination (R2) in essence measures the ability to use remote models in explaining the variation of the variable requires (dependent), the higher the value of R2, the better the model. R2 value between 0 to 1. If the increase of 1, the better the independent variable (independent) in explaining the success (dependent) variable. The coefficient of determination (R2) can be seen in the table below:

Table 2. Coefficient of Determination
Variabel Adjusted R2
IWOC, CI, SQ, A, PQ*PE 0.467

Based on the output, the R2 value is 0,467 or 46.7%. The relationship between the independent variables (independent) Interaction with Other Customers (IWOC), Celebrity Images (CI), Service Quality (SQ), Atmosphere (A), Product Quality (PQ) on the positive (emotional) dependent variable (PE) of 46 , 1%. Regarding the independent variables, it can be explained that 46.7% of the variables were accepted, while the remaining 53.3% were approved by other variables not included in this research model.

Table 3. Coefficient Of Determinations
Variabel Adjusted R2
PE *L 0.149

Based on the output, the R2 value is 0.149 or 14.9%. This shows that the independent contribution variable (independent) positive emotions (PE) to the variable approved Loyalty (L) of 14.9%. Most of the independent variables can be explained by 14.9% of the variables accepted, while the remaining 85.1% are agreed by other variables not included in this research model.

Table 4. Uji- T
Variable Sign Standart Information
IWOC*PE 0.016 0.05 Support
CI*PE 0.297 0.05 Reject
SQ*PE 0.003 0.05 Support
A*PE 0.028 0.05 Support
PQ*PE 0.001 0.05 Support
PE*L 0.000 0.05 Support

Then the test criteria are as follows:
If the significance is> 0.05, the hypothesis is rejected.
If the significance is ≤ 0.05, the hypothesis is support.

Fig 1. Research Model

4.1 INTERACTION WITH OTHER CUSTOMERS ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS TO INCREASE LOYALTY
Interaction with Other Customers has an influence on positive emotions with a number sign of 0.016. The results obtained that the variable interaction with other customers has a significant positive effect on positive emotions because interaction with other customers is important because with interaction we know about Cotton Ink’s brand.
Celebrity Images do not have an effect on positive emotions with a number sign of 0.297. Celebrity image variables have a positive effect but not significantly on positive emotions because all respondents have the same perception between celebrity so it’s hard to tell apart. Service quality has an influence on positive emotions with a number sign of 0.003, Service Quality variables has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all people always want good service because they spent money
Atmosphere has influence on positive emotions with number sign of 0.028. Atmosphere variables has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all respondent always rate the environment and enjoy the comfort zone in store. Product quality has an influence on positive emotions with number sign of 0.001. Product Quality variable has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all respondent always want good product quality cause this medium price. Positive Emotions have an influence on loyalty with number sign of 0.000. Positive Emotions variable has a significant positive effect on loyalty, because if all respondent have positive emotions make sure they have a loyalty for Cotton Ink’ product.

5. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
This writing is structured as an attempt to test the effect of interaction with other customers, celebrity images, service quality, atmosphere and product quality on positive emotions to increase loyalty to the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta.
Through research that has been conducted on 132 male and female respondents aged 17-65 years and based on literature review conducted, the results obtained that the variable interaction with other customers has a significant positive effect on positive emotions because interaction with other customers is important because with interaction we know about Cotton Ink’s brand, celebrity image variables have a positive effect but not significantly on positive emotions because all respondents have the same perception between celebrity so it’s hard to tell apart; Service Quality variables has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all people always want good service because they spent money, Atmosphere variables has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all respondent always rate the environment and enjoy the comfort zone in store, Product Quality variable has a significant positive effect on positive emotions, because all respondent always want good product quality cause this medium price, and Positive Emotions variable has a significant positive effect on loyalty, because if all respondent have positive emotions make sure they have a loyalty for Cotton Ink’ product.

5.2 IMPLICATIONS
Table 5. Theorical Implications
Previous Research Research Now Theorical Implications
(Han and Ryu, 2009; King and Meiselman, 2010; King et al., 2010) argue that emotions are an affective response that is specifically generated during product use or experience while consuming a product including interacting with other customers.
Interaction with Other Customers has a significant positive effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
Support the research of Baker and Cameron, 1996; Brocato et al., 2012; Berthon et al., 2009) which states that interactions with other customers can significantly influence one’s emotions.

(Fang et al., 2013; Ko and Hsaio, 2008; Kuroshima, 2010; Lin and Lin, 2006, 2006 and Zopiatis, 2010) argue that if customers that Celebrity Image can meet the needs and desires of consumers, customers tend to feel positive emotions .
Celebrity Image has a positive but not significant effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
It does not support research Fang et al., 2013 which states that customer perceptions in assessing the overall icon of various aspects ranging from interpersonal, technical and creativity skills that significantly influence one’s emotions

Parasuraman et al., (1988) argue that service and customer quality refers to the overall understanding of the relative superiority of service providers.
Service Quality has a significant positive effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
Supporting Jang and Namkung’s research, 2009; Wu and Liang, 2009) which states that the quality of service in the company significantly influences customer emotions both positively and negatively.

Kotler (1973) argues that atmosphere as a conscious design of space to create certain buyer effects.
The atmosphere has a significant positive effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
Supports the research of Liu and Jang (2009) which states that atmospheric influences significantly positive emotions and negative emotions.

Steenkamp (1990) in Ackaradejruangsi (2013) defines product quality as product quality is understood as functional and psychological benefits provided by the product and is a major consideration in purchasing, the product is considered quality if it is able to carry out its functions properly through the emotions in yourself customer.
Product Quality has a significant positive effect on Positive Emotions at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
Supports the research of Jang and Namkung (2009) and Chen et al., (2015) which states that the quality of a product can significantly influence both positive and negative customer emotions.

Han and Ryu, 2009; King and Meiselman, 2010; King et al., 2010) argues that emotions are affective responses that are specifically generated during the use of the product or experience while consuming the product.
Positive Emotions have a significant positive effect on Loyalty at the Cotton Ink Store in Jakarta
Supports the research of Jang and Namkung (2009) which states that positive emotions or satisfaction with a product can result in a higher level of loyalty.

Table 6. Managerial Implications
Research Now Managerial Implications
Interaction with Other Customers is an important element for customers to improve and enhance Positive Emotions
• Appeal to customers to always respect between customers and employees
• Put up posters that contain positive energy when shopping
• Provides television or mix and match screens
Celebrity Image is an element that is not a focus for customers as a process to improve and enhance Positive Emotions
• Maintain all public figures for innovative dress (collaboration)
• Providing stylish fashion facilities to increase interpersonal knowledge
• Add certain uniqueness or characteristic
Service Quality is an important element for customers to improve and enhance Positive Emotions
• Retain what the customer has remembered (not discriminating)
• Providing surveys on the screen aiming at the customer choosing whether the service is good or bad
• There is training for employees
Atmosphere is an important element for customers to improve and enhance Positive Emotions
• Maintaining an existing atmosphere is also maintainance
• Change the store color by using one-tone warrants
• Add decorations so you don’t get bored
Product Quality is an important element for customers to improve and enhance Positive Emotions
• Maintain a fashion show to find out new trends
• Consistent in using cotton, which is suitable for the weather in Indonesia
Positive Emotions are an important element for customers to improve and increase Loyalty
• Play music in accordance with the state of the store that aims to increase the enthusiasm of customers
• Inform customers about new products and discounts

5.3 RECOMMENDATION
Seeing the results of existing research where there are still many limitations on the research conducted by the author, recommendations that can be submitted by the author are as follows:
a. Future studies are expected to further broaden research objects that are not only distoreed, but also through the stockist and the Cotton Ink website to get more general results on the factors that influence.
b. Future studies are expected to be able to complement the variables that already exist in this study so as to further enhance understanding of the factors that influence loyalty. For example, further research adds price variables.
c. Further research can be developed by linking the factors that influence loyalty based on income level, age and gender. Future research can also broaden the scope of respondents to be studied, or provide a broad picture of loyalty and use the Structural Equational Model (SEM) AMOS software in future research.

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