The Influence of Work Motivation and Work Culture on Employee Performance through Work Discipline as an Intervening Variable

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International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: April, 2021

Janarko Surfiandri, Abadi Sanosra & Toni Herlambang
Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: The Influence of Work Motivation and Work Culture on Employee Performance through Work Discipline as an Intervening Variable.

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of workload and work culture on employee performance through work discipline as an intervening variable in Bondowoso District Office Staff. The number of samples of this study was 115. The analysis technique used was the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using WarpPLS 5.0. The results of data analysis show that (1) workload has a significant effect on work discipline, (2) work culture has a significant effect on work discipline, (3) workload has a significant effect on employee performance, (4) work culture has a significant effect on employee performance, (5) work discipline has a significant effect on employee performance. (6) workload affects employee performance through work discipline. (7) work culture influences employee performance through work discipline.

Keywords: Workload, Work Culture, Work Discipline and Employee Performance.

1. INTRODUCTION
Human Resource Management seeks to improve human resource support in an effort to increase organizational effectiveness in an effort to achieve goals.MHuman resource management is in the process of obtaining, training, recruiting, and compensating employees and managing labor relations, health and safety, as well as matters that synergize with justice. The importance of human resources in carrying out their main duties and functions is also inseparable from providing motivation which is the spirit in carrying out performance. Anoraga (2014) argues that work motivation is something that creates enthusiasm or work motivation. According to Hasibuan (2015), motivation comes from the Latin word movere which means encouragement or provision of a driving force that creates a person’s enthusiasm for work so that someone is willing to work together, work effectively, and be integrated with all his efforts to achieve satisfaction.
The integration of one employee with other employees as well as with existing resources will form an effective work culture. Robbins (2003) states that work culture is “a system of shared understanding held by members of an organization that differentiates the organization from other organizations”. According to Mangkunegara (2005) concludes the definition of work culture as “a set of assumptions or belief systems, values and norms developed within the company which serve as a code of conduct for its members to overcome problems of external adaptation and internal integration”.
The achievement of optimal performance is often assessed based on the level of work discipline of the employee / employee in carrying out the performance. Discipline focuses on helping employees to develop good attitudes towards work. Good employee discipline will accelerate the achievement of organizational goals, while low discipline will become a barrier and slow down the achievement of organizational goals. According to Mangkuprawira (2007), employee discipline is the characteristic of an employee who consciously obeys certain organizational rules and regulations. Discipline greatly affects employee and company performance. Discipline should be seen as forms of training for employees in implementing company rules. The more disciplined the higher the employee’s work productivity and company performance. According to Hasibuan (2009) states that: “Discipline is the awareness and willingness of a person to obey all company regulations and prevailing social norms.” Fathoni (2006) states that: Discipline is the awareness and willingness of a person to obey all company rules and be aware of their duties and responsibilities.
The results of work, both the quality and quantity of employees, are seen how they carry out their main duties and functions. Performance is the result of work and work behavior that has been achieved in completing the assigned tasks and responsibilities within a certain period. Performance is a function of motivation and ability. To complete a task or a job, someone should have a certain degree of willingness and level of ability. Kasmir (2015) states that individual performance is the basis of organizational performance which is strongly influenced by individual characteristics, individual motivation, expectations, and assessments made by management towards the achievement of individual work results.
Based on the main duties and functions of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service employees, it can be seen that there are still problems faced, as for problems based on Problem Identification based on the Duties and Functions of Regional Apparatus Services, based on the duties and functions of services carried out by the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service related to services in the field. agriculture, livestock, and plantations as follows:

Table 1 Identification of Problems based on the Duties and Functions of Regional Apparatus Services of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Office
No. Problem Identification Target Realization
1 Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Quality. 100% 86.5%
2 Availability of facilities and infrastructure for agriculture, livestock and plantations. 100% 85.1%
3 Improving the quality of human resources and skills of farmers, plantation farmers and breeders. 100% 91.3%
4 Pressing the limitations and decreasing the capacity of agricultural resources, livestock and plantations. 100% 82.1%
5 Increase production and competitiveness of agriculture, plantations and animal husbandry and develop agricultural, plantation and animal husbandry businesses through regional potential approaches. 100% 92.3%
6 Low knowledge of agricultural technology knowledge. 100% 80.5%
7 Pressing the rate of conversion of agricultural land functions. 100% 83.4%
8 Improvement of farmer institutions. 100% 93.5%
9 Processing of agricultural products needs to be developed optimally. 100% 90.3%
10 Handling the decline in cattle population due to the high rate of slaughtering productive female cattle. 100% 92.6%
11 Optimizing the use of slaughterhouses and
animal market as a public service. 100% 81.4%

Based onThe main problem discussed in this study is what factors affect the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of each variable in the service of the regional apparatus of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service.

2. RESEARCH METHODS
Methods for analyzing data by describing or describing the collected data as is without the intention of making generalized conclusions or generalizations. The research sample of the Bondowoso Regency Agricultural Service staff, amounting to 115 employees. Data collection obtained from the results of observations, interviews, documentation. The data collection methods used were observation, questionnaires,Documentation, Interview. In this study, the data analysis technique used is Partial Least Square (PLS).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Calculation of the Direct Effect Path Coefficient
This section describes each path in the model section using Path Analysis. Each of the pathways tested showed a direct and indirect effect of work motivation (X1) and work culture (X2) on work discipline (Z) and employee performance (Y) of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Office. by knowing whether or not the significance of each of these lines will answer whether the proposed hypothesis is accepted or rejected. Each of the paths tested represents the hypothesis in this study. The path coefficient value can be seen in the following table:

Table 2 Direct Effect Path Coefficient Value

3.2 The Effect of Work Motivation (X1) on Work Discipline (Z)
Based on Table 2, it can be seen that for testing the work motivation variable (X1) on work discipline, the Path coefficient value is obtained at 0.271 with a ρ-value of 0.001. Because the value of ρ-value is smaller than α (0.001 <0.05), H0 is rejected, thus there is a positive and significant effect of work motivation (X1) on work discipline (Z).

3.3 The Influence of Work Culture (X2) on Work Discipline (Z)
Based on Table 2, it can be seen that for testing the work culture variable (X2) on work discipline (Z), the Path coefficient value is 0.387 with a ρ-value of 0.001. Because the value of ρ-value is smaller than α (0.001 <0.05), H0 is rejected, thus there is a positive and significant influence of work culture (X2) on work discipline (Z).

3.4 Effect of work motivation (X1) on employee performance (Y)
Based on Table 2, it can be seen that for testing the work motivation variable (X1) on employee performance (Y), the Path coefficient value is 0.254 with a ρ-value of 0.002. Because the value of ρ-value is smaller than α (0.002 <0.05), H0 is rejected, thus there is a positive and significant effect of work motivation (X1) on employee performance (Y).

3.5 The Influence of Work Culture (X2) on Employee Performance (Y)
Based on Table 2, it can be seen that for testing work culture variables (X2) on employee performance (Y), the Path coefficient value is 0.354 with a ρ-value of 0.001. Because the value of ρ-value is smaller than α (0.001 <0.05), H0 is rejected, thus there is a positive and significant influence of work culture (X2) on employee performance (Y).

3.6 The Effect of Work Discipline (Z) on Employee Performance (Y)
Based on Table 2, it can be seen that for testing the work discipline variable (Z) on employee performance (Y), the Path coefficient value is 0.329 with a ρ-value of 0.001. Because the value of ρ-value is smaller than α (0.001 <0.05), H0 is rejected, thus there is a positive and significant effect of work discipline (Z) on employee performance (Y).

3.7 Influence Pathways of Indirect Influence
Testing the indirect effect is done by looking at the results of the pathway test, if all the paths that are traversed are significant then the indirect effect is also significant, and if there is a path that is non-significant, the indirect effect is said to be non-significant. The path coefficients of the indirect effect are presented in Table 3.
The indirect effect of work motivation (X1¬) towards the employee performance variable (Y) through the intervening variable work discipline (Z) of 0.089 which is smaller than the direct effect of the work motivation variable (X1) on the employee performance variable (Y), which is 0.254. Besides, the indirect effect of work culture variables (X2) on employee performance (Y) through the intervening variable work discipline (Z) is 0.127 which is smaller than the direct effect of work culture variables (X2) on employee performance variables (Y), namely of 0.354, thus it can be stated that work motivation (X1) and work culture (X2) affect employee performance (Y) through work discipline (Z) with a value smaller than the direct effect.

Table 3 Path Coefficient of Indirect Effect

3.8 Calculation of the Total Effect Path Coefficient
The calculation of the total effect or total effect is the sum of the value of the direct and indirect effects. The total effect path coefficient is presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Total Effects

Based on the results of the path coefficient calculation, it appears that:
(1). The total effect of work motivation (X1) on employee performance (Y) is 0.343 with details of the direct effect of 0.254 and the indirect effect of 0.089. (2). The total effect of work culture (X2) on employee performance (Y) is 0.481 with details of the direct effect of 0.354 and the indirect effect of 0.127.
From the above calculations, the independent variable that has the strongest influence on the work discipline variable (Z) is the work culture variable (X2), which is equal to 0.387, while the independent variable that has the strongest influence on the employee performance variable (Y) is work culture (X2) which is equal to 0.354. And the independent variable which has an influence on the employee performance variable (Y) through the work discipline intervening variable (Z) is the work culture variable (X2) which is equal to 0.127.

3.9 Hypothesis Model
Hypothesis testing is based on the analysis results of the PLS SEM model which contains all the supporting variables for hypothesis testing. The PLS model with the addition of work discipline variables as a mediating variable explains that the addition of variables will provide additional contributions as an explanation for employee performance.

Figure 1. Hypothesis Model

(1) Structural Model Testing
The research model test was conducted to see the suitability of the model built in the study. A good research model will be able to describe the suitability of the relationship between the variables in the study. The use of WarpPLS 6.0 has provided calculation results that indicate the criteria used to judge whether the model is appropriate.

Table 5 Research Model Test

Based on the table aboveIt can be seen that each value in the study has met the ideal criteria. APC, ARS, and AVIF values that meet the ideal criteria indicate that the overall model of this research is good. Model fit can also be calculated using the goodness of fit index. The goodness of fit index (GoF) is defined as the geometric or root mean of the communality mean and the mean of R2 for all endogenous constructs (Tenenhaus et al., 2005). The GoF index shows the power of predictions over the overall model. GoF values have an interval between 0 to 1. GoF values that are close to number 1 indicate a good path model estimate (Akter, D’Ambra, and Ray, 2011). The GoF index for this research model is 0.514, thus, the structural model that explains the relationship between the four variables has a good predictive power (fit).

(2) Coefficient of Determination
The results of the structural model test (inner model) can be seen in the R-square (R2) for each endogenous construct, the path coefficient value, the t value and the p value for each path relationship between constructs. The path coefficient value and the t value for each path will be explained in the sub discussion of the hypothesis testing results. The value of R2 is used to measure the level of variation in endogenous variables which is explained by a number of influencing variables (Hartono and Abdillah, 2015). The higher the R2 value means the better the prediction model of the proposed model.
Hair et.al (2014) states that in general the coefficient of determination is low if it is 0.20, while in the results of this model both coefficients are worth more than 0.20. So that based on these results the fit of the model is quite good. Analysis of Variant (R2) or the Determination Test, which is to determine the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the value of the coefficient of determination can be shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Coefficient of Determination

Based on the r-square value in Table 6, it shows that work motivation and work culture are able to explain the work discipline variable by 31.7% or categorized as weak correlation, and the remaining 68.3% is explained by other constructs outside those examined in this study. Meanwhile, work motivation, work culture and work discipline are able to explain the performance variables of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service employees by 58.5% or categorized as strong correlation, and the remaining 41.5% is explained by other constructs outside those examined in this study.

3.10 Discussion
3.10.1 The Influence of Work Motivation on Work Discipline
Based on the first hypothesis, work motivation has an effect on work discipline. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that work motivation has a significant effect on the work discipline of employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which is proven to be true or H1 is accepted. This could be due to aspects related to work motivation that has an impact on work discipline. Aspects of work motivation include: job design, work environment conditions, excessive work, unclear roles, changes in all forms and disputes. This is supported by the results of descriptive analysis which states that in general the respondents agree or give a positive response to aspects of work motivation at the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Office.

3.10.2 The Influence of Work Culture on Work Discipline.
Based on the second hypothesis, work culture has an effect on work discipline. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that work culture has a significant effect on the work discipline of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which is proven to be true or H2 is accepted. This is due to aspects related to work culture. which has had a positive impact on the work discipline of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service. The aspects of work culture include: leader behavior, organizational culture, formulating a mission, prioritizing mission and motivation. This is supported by the results of the descriptive analysis which states that in general the respondents agree or give a positive response to aspects of the work culture of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Office.

3.10.3 The Influence of Work Motivation on Employee Performance.
Based on the third hypothesis, work motivation has an effect on employee performance. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that work motivation has a significant effect on the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which is proven to be true or H3 is accepted. This can be due to aspects related to work motivation that have been able to create employee performance. Aspects of work motivation include: job design, work environment conditions, excessive work, unclear roles, changes in all forms and disputes.
3.10.4 The Influence of Work Culture on Employee Performance.
Based on the fourth hypothesis, work culture has an effect on employee performance. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that work culture has a significant effect on the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, it is proven to be true or H4 is accepted. This could be due to the aspects related to work culture that have been able to create the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service.
The work culture of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Office is unique because the working area is all of Bondowoso Regency, where each village has 1 agricultural extension officer and each sub-district has 1 artificial insemination officer. So that the work culture in each sub-district and village will affect the work culture that is in the Bondowoso District Agriculture Office. This could be due to the influence of socio-cultural factors as well as geographical factors in each work area.These diverse work cultures shape the character of the performance of the Agriculture Office employees in Bondowoso Regency which also lead to innovations in working to solve problems that occur in their working areas.

3.10.5 The Influence of Work Disciplines on Employee Performance.
Based on hypothesisThe five work disciplines have an effect on employee performance. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that work discipline has a significant effect on the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which is proven true or H5 is accepted. This could be due to aspects of work discipline related to the performance of the employees of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service.

3.10.6 Influence Motivation for Employee Performance through Work Discipline
Based on hypothesis The sixth motivation affects employee performance through work discipline. After testing and analyzing the data, the results show that motivation has an effect on employee performance through the work discipline of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which is proven true or H6 is accepted.
Resulttesting shows that there is an indirect effect of work motivation (X1¬) to the employee performance variable (Y) through the intervening variable work discipline (Z) of 0.065, which is smaller than the direct effect of the work motivation variable (X1) on the employee performance variable (Y), which is 0.254.

3.10.7 There is Influence Work culture on employee performance through work discipline
Based on the seventh hypothesis, work culture affects employee performance through work discipline.After Testing and data analysis were carried out. The results showed that work culture had an effect on employee performance through the work discipline of the Bondowoso Regency Agriculture Service, which was proven or H7 accepted.
Result of penThe objective shows that there is an indirect effect of work culture variables (X2) on employee performance (Y) through the work discipline intervening variable (Z) of 0.127 whose value is smaller than the direct effect of work culture variables (X2) on employee performance variables (Y ) which is equal to 0.354.

4. CONCLUSION
The results of the analysis and findings in the study were based on a research sample of 115 respondents with the analytical technique used the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using WarpPLS 5.0. can be concluded: (1). The test results prove that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on work discipline; (2). The test results prove that work culture has a positive and significant effect on work discipline. These results are successful in answering from previous research which states that work culture affects work discipline. (3). The test results prove that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (4). The test results prove that work culture has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (5). The test results prove work discipline, positive and significant effect on employee performance. (6). The test results prove that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through work discipline. With the value of the indirect effect is smaller than the direct effect. (7). The test results prove that work culture has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through work discipline.

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