Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: January, 2020
J. S. N. Kalupokuna, C. J. P. J. Kulathilaka & K. J. T. Perera
Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellasssa University
Badulla, 90000, Sri Lanka
Journal Full Text PDF: Entrepreneurship Development as a Rural Tourism Destination (Studied in Meemure, Sri Lanka).
Meemure is an isolated village in the Central Province of Sri Lanka, it is an emerging tourism destination not only for locals but also for foreigners. With that entrepreneurs are enhancing many opportunity to their paths for new income generation methods. This study is fulfilling a theoretical gap by investigating the relationship of entrepreneurial development with tourism and its performance towards the Meemure as a fresh tourism destination for the development of the Meemure society. Snowball sampling selected the sample of 25 personalities in the community from five divisional villagers. Based on qualitative approach, thematic analysis was used to generalize the findings through semi structured interview transcriptions and observations. Findings reveals that, the leisure and business activities are vastly focusing on travelers nowadays and Meemure evidence for one of the richest diversified rurally which empowers the Meemure as a rural tourism destination. And also the entrepreneurship development have been derived by the production, employment and marketing. Thereby, study generates a new insight for the readers and the government have identified the value of Meemure as a tourism destination and they can adopted that and been moved into the entrepreneurship development in that area.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship development, Rural tourism destination, Landscape architecture, Income generation methods, Sustainable development.
1.1 Background of the Study
Meemure is a rural tourism destination. The importance of the rural tourism for rural development is not only measured in terms of money, but also by creation of new jobs which add vitality to a traditionally poor economy. The village itself gets rich water as waterfalls that have their sources in the evergreen timberlands of the Knuckles. East of the village lies the pyramid shaped Lakegala Mountain; while the west is governed by the charming Knuckles broaden. The northern limit of Meemure outskirts backwoods which hurries to the ‘Pitawala Pathana’ meadow; and the south is limited by Heen River. Pack-bulls used to be the lone strategy for transport to Meemure until 2004. Groups of steers conveyed sacks brimming with products and hardware to the town. Because of the ripeness and success of the town; the pack-bulls were just used to convey salt, materials, tobacco and calcium bicarbonate. Be that as it may, with the intrusion of present day innovation, the trails have been extended to permit three wheelers, jeeps and little trucks.
One of a dominant definition of entrepreneurship in Small Enterprises (Ireland et al., 2003), (Hitt et al., 2011) thoroughly focuses on resource-based theory that rejects the role of entrepreneur’s plays in creating new opportunities for firm’s future performance. Engaging in Entrepreneurial activities in Meemure may effect on Economic support, Income of farmers, Arrangements in funds difficulty, Increase employment opportunities. Connection among sightseers and villagers they may get such a large number of issues associated with qualities, traditions and appropriateness are raised, watched, talked about and remarked on. At the fundamental level, there is a crisscross of introductions amongst Western and Eastern societies. It might be conceivable to list prudent things identified with social conduct as cases of such a mismatch. But in this phenomenon considerations will be only in economic perspective. So in this study, it is important identifying the entrepreneurial development of the Meemure society with the collaboration of tourism.
1.2 Problem Statement
Meemure is an upcoming tourism destination which is full of heritage values and natural attraction. Through inherent tradition those unique to Meemure, tourism industry is vastly amplification in recently to Meemure. It is an opportunity for Meemure people to gain income through tourism industry.
As Meemure is an emerging tourism destination, many entrepreneurs getting chance to interact with income generation methods. Entrepreneurship has its roots in economics; it has also developed into a multidisciplinary field. As a result, entrepreneurship has been viewed from many different perspectives in Meemure. (Hart et al., 1995).
Meemure has inherited an amazing unique culture and environment. This might be the most powerful factor to engage with entrepreneurial orientation. In the rapidly evolving environments of competition and change, incorporating an entrepreneurial approach as a foundation of strategic management is necessary (McGrath and MacMillan, 2000). Meemure got a thorough foundation to build up through the tourism. And further more Meemure have its unique traditions on cultivation and other similar crops. These can play a major role in revenue generation. But as a village Meemure is spending a less infrastructural facility. Poor education, infrastructure, living standard are covered the village. It has not yet open to the world. Least amount is browsing (results of the pilot survey). Eventually they have got an opportunity. This should be discloser to them, to stand towards the development of country. Meemure can enhance to the world as a major rural tourism destination in Sri Lanka.
The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of entrepreneurial development and performance of Meemure as a tourism destination with the purpose of developing the Meemure society. And this research contributing to the field by full-filing a theoretical gap with related to the entrepreneurial development in Meemure as a rural tourism destination.
1.3 Research Objectives
Research objectives have been developed in line with the research gap.
a. To identify the kind of tourism activities taken place within the Meemure society.
b. To discover factors that empowers the Meemure as a rural tourism destination.
c. To understand the best forces that encourages the entrepreneurial development in Meemure.
2. Literature Review
Recently tourism sector has been experienced a rapid growth and gained in importance for the economies of many developing countries and also for several developed countries.
Tourism can be defined as the activities of persons identified as visitors. That visitor may be a person who is doing a visit to a main destination outside his/her usual environment for less than a year for any main purpose (including) holidays, business and education recreation, leisure, recreation, health or other purposes. This scope is wider than the traditional perception of tourists, which included only those travelling for leisure. [UNWTO statistics Guidelines: 2010]
Tourism is a dynamic and everchanging industry in modern economies. Its developing structure with animating impact on different ventures has been straightforwardly and in a roundabout way giving a huge commitment to the nation’s economies (Russell and Faulkner, 2004).
2.2 Tourism Destinations
Destinations are the core of the tourism product. The desire to visit them is the main motivation of most trip. In this way goal can be considered as the draw factor for traveler and might incorporate components like attractions, facilities, framework, transportation, and friendliness (Mill and Morrison, 1985). Tourist destinations can also be framed as amalgam of services and activities (Eg: Lodging, attractions) that create an overall experience of the area visited. The powerful experiences created by destinations can be a reason for travelers to create an emotional attachment to destinations (Hidalgo and Hernandez, 2001) and become loyal visitors. Therefore, the value of destination lies in the quality and quantity of the experience it offers (MacCannell, 1999).
2.3 Rural Tourism Destinations
Tourism has begun to spread into more remote and fringe regions throughout the most recent couple of decades dynamically and expanding consideration has been given to evaluate the part and effects of tourism in the improvement of those zones (Pearce, 2002).
In any type of tourism, the nature of the items and administrations slope to take care of travelers demand and desire (Sharpley, 2002); (de la Torre-Gutiérrez et al., 2008). The type of rustic reasonable tourism desires to coordinate both country asset base and desire for sightseers.
There are identified models of a rural tourism appeal. A thematic Map of findings on Rural Tourism Destination Appeals.
Figure 1: Tourism Destination Appeals
Source: Samuel Adeyinka-Ojo, Vikneswaran Nair, 2015
Figure 2: Tourism Destination Appeals.
(Vaso Jegdic, Iva Skrbic, Srdan Milosevic, 2017)
2.4 Entrepreneurial orientation in Meemure as a tourism destination
The entrepreneurial orientation to rural development accepts entrepreneurship because the central force of economic process and development, while not it different factors of development are going to be wasted or frittered away. However, the acceptance of entrepreneurship as a central development force by itself won’t result in rural development and also the advancement of rural enterprises.
There is a lack of evidences in Meemure as a tourism destination. But with empirical studies there a many clue to evaluate rural (village) as a tourism destination. From them the major one is the inherited cultivation. (Nilsson, 2012), in his work on farm tourism, defines it as a subset of rural tourism. According to Nilsson, rural commercial enterprise relies on the agricultural setting generally whereas farm commercial enterprise relies on the farm and farmer. It explains that among the framework of rural commercial enterprise, farm commercial enterprise enterprises square measure a lot of familiarly regarding agriculture than different rural commercial enterprises operations.
Busby and (Busby and Rendle, 2000) claim that the link between farm tourism and agriculture is getting weaker. This “need of tourism” term is strengthened by Walford’s exploring that successful farm accommodations must located in an aesthetically pleasing, tranquil countryside environment; there is no reference to farm activities. But in accordance with the Meemure, it is a tourism destination which is beyond the farm tourism.
Entrepreneurship is a critical factor in tourism development (Russell and Faulkner, 2004); (BAYTOK et al., 2009); (Zapalska and Brozik, 2007); (Koh and Hatten, 2002). Because the richness of the touristic attractiveness is important in the destination to be visited for tourism purposes, but it is not adequate as a touristic product, in terms of attractiveness and forming economic value.
2.5 Entrepreneurial Development
Entrepreneurial development theory views entrepreneurship as an extension of the process of occupational choice in the individuals. This in turn is part of the individuals total striving for an adequate life adjustment, and as such supportive training and development must be given to such individuals (Rao et al., 1990). The theory focuses on the development of entrepreneurial skills.
Rural development is more than ever before linked to entrepreneurship. Institutions and individuals promoting rural development now see entrepreneurship as a strategic development intervention that could accelerate the rural development process. We need ED because: To gear and speed up the process of activating the factors of production, To lead a higher rate of economic growth and development, Scattering of economic activities in all the areas of the country, To develop the backward and tribal areas, To create more /additional employment opportunities for youth, To ameliorate the living standard of weaker-section of the society, To participate and involve all the sections of the society in the process of growth, To utilize and explore the abundant natural resources of our country.
Furthermore, institutions and individuals seem to agree on the urgent need to promote rural enterprises: development agencies see rural entrepreneurship as an enormous employment potential; politicians see it as the key strategy to prevent rural unrest; farmers see it as an instrument for improving farm earnings; and women see it as an employment possibility near their homes which provides autonomy, independence and a reduced need for social support. To all these groups, however, entrepreneurship stands as a vehicle to improve the quality of life for individuals, families and communities and to sustain a healthy economy and environment.
2.6 Tourism in Meemure
Literature evidences as (Reid, 1998) claims that a greater consideration of effort is needed for regulating and also protecting the resource base to maintain viable and sustainable rural tourism enterprises. The high-end tourists coming through tour operators, stay in five-star hotels and travel by luxury buses owned by the same companies may earn a higher revenue but there is no trickle down of benefits to the people. This would lead to widening inequality in income distribution.
“The lodge owner does the bookings and Rajapaksa looks after the management side – cooking and care-taking of the lodge and he said that with extra income from tips and hiring the tuk-tuk he earns a good income.
P.D. Navarathne, a resident of Meemure was the first person in the village to provide accommodation to tourists. Although there are not many facilities in his house, he has two rooms to hire out and his wife supplies the meals.
He too has visitors on most days and especially during week-ends and school vacations. Navarathna has expanded his business to new areas and he now has camp sites and camping facilities for tourists. Although there is no professionalism, he provides tourism experiences such as trekking, hiking and bird watching.”
Another way of achieving competitive advantage over other tourism destinations is to establish rural tourism as a tourism development strategy (Petrzelka et al., 2005). Climbing Lakegala, the symbol of Meemure, is an exciting experience. Mini world’s end, trekking on a foot path along the Heen Ganga are other interesting experiences here. Not only residents of Meemure, people migrating from Colombo too have occupied land here and provide accommodation for tourists at camp sites.
The main livelihood of the people in Meemure is agriculture and with tourist attractions they have new opportunities. Village youth earn an income as tourist guides. These evidences are most powerful that there is a potential on making opportunities for the growing income.
“I would say that Meemure is a sleepy place, except that according to the residents of the area there were 500 other ‘tourists’ when we were there as well. Those 500 other outsiders who’d gone to chill, to camp, or to explore. We ran into quite a few of them at watering holes, and while it was annoying to deal with overly-friendly drunkles, even they weren’t able to completely detract from the splendor of the pools. The colors and clarity of the water were amazing.
Hike, camp, swim, climb. Lakegala, is in the region, but is quite tough I’ve heard, so make sure it’s not the rainy season before you decide on climbing that. The residents would offer activities, so there is water based fun stuff to do. They also take you on hikes, and to waterfalls atop hills. The villagers are a close-knit bunch, but arrange with them for food and lodging if you can.” (Reviewed by Aisha / Api yamu)
Literature says that, “The majority of the visitors are local tourists who come in small groups are expect improvement of infrastructure and strengthening of the institutional capacity to enable the environment of local people to interpret the ecological and social heritage.” (Bandara, 2015).
So, evidences explain the tourism attraction of Meemure and the engagement of villagers with the tourism.
3. Research Methodology
In the study of entrepreneurial development in Meemure, a deeper investigation is required in order to disclose numerous major and minor factors that induce them to engage in entrepreneurial activities with related to tourism. So, qualitative approach is used for this research in order to get the support of involved respondents more actively than in a structured survey as it uses dynamic processes such as interviews and group discussions.Snowball sampling was applied in this study for two primary reasons. The population of this study is comprised with the Villagers of Meemure village. Meemure village consist with five sub divisional villages and they all together considers as the whole population. Further all the localities from those five divisional villagers are the subjective population for this study.
Figure 4 : Profile of the sample
4. Results And Discussion
4.1 To identify the tourism activities taken place within Meemure society
This research is directed with entrepreneurial development and tourism within the selected area in Meemure. The objective of this research is to identify the entrepreneurial development in Meemure as a rural tourism destination. To be a tourism destination there must be evaluated, specific tourism practices within the place. So, researcher has defined the first objective as to identify the tourism activities taken place within Meemure society. Under the particular objective researcher has identified two themes, leisure activities and business activities. Objective 1: To identify the tourism activities taken place within Meemure society.
Table 1: Themes for the first objective
Parent Theme Child Theme Study results
Leisure activities Camping “I have an ongoing business which is supplying camping facilities for up to 100 persons group of visitors.”
“We are supplying camping tents and other equipment such as mattress, BBQ machines for guests who are visit Meemure.”
“I am supplying very attractive places to camping in Meemure village area.”
Hiking “Tourists can climb the Lakegala Mountain with our experienced guides.”
“We are supplying guiding service to visitors who are coming for getting hiking experience.”
Water Activities. “Most of the villager are always ready supply facilities for their guests to getting that experience in safely by supplying safety jackets etc.”
“Most of the visitors are like to get experience of “Burus Gala” (People can get slipping down on water)”
Trekking “Usually I take visitors into the jungle who are like to get wild life experience”
“I have seen there are many people come Meemure to walk into the jungle. They love that experience.”
Business Activities Food Production
“In my guest house I am giving special foods for my guests as their requirements. Some of them are “Madu Thalapa, madu pittu, roti etc.”
“Some visitors required usual foods like fried rice, chicken, BBQ, Noodles etc.”
“Of course, we have many special foods. But some tourists don’t prefer them and they ask fried rice and noodles. They don’t know the nutrition value of our products.”
“I am operating a guest house which is having up to 25 head capacity.”
“I have an ongoing business which is supplying camping facilities for up to 100 persons group of visitors.”
“Most of the people visits here with the purpose of having a camping experience. So you can see there are some sites help them to camp.”
Accommodation “Earlier we didn’t have any method to travel to the town. But after the travelers started to come our village, one of our villagers bought a jeep”
“I have a safari jeep for giving transport facility from Hunnasgiriya to Meemure village.”
“I am giving to my guests, a safari tour experience all over the village”
4.2 To discover factors that empowers the Meemure as a rural tourism destination
Krippendorf’s claim suggests that tourism can be viewed as a form of leisure (Norris and Wall, 1994); (Thornton, 1995). There are camping, hiking, water sports and trekking activities to make tourists pleasure. Respondents evidences that they have started many guiding industries and advisory personals to increase the security of the tourists. Literature clearly mentioned that hiking is not food production or pure nature, but beautiful, recognizable and accessible landscapes that people look for in their free time (Steg and Buijs, 2004). So, for those kinds of visitors Meemure villagers help to view the nature.
Mill and Morrison (1992) note that tourist destinations are composed of attractions, facilities, infrastructure, transportation and hospitality. Above statements are stating that there are many businesses started focusing on tourism. Van Westerling (1999) marks a new trend in the study of food-motivated tourism. Transportation is attributed to the ease and accessibility of modern transport that has spurred the widespread growth of nature tourism within the United States and overseas (Honey et al., 1999). It has been an important factor that destination marketers are increasingly focusing on the tourist experience, and creating marketing messages based on these experiences that will appeal to the emotions of potential travelers. Above mentioned statement stated that their ultimate goal to enhance the travelers experience. Objective 2: To discover factors that empowers the Meemure as a rural tourism destination.
Table 2: Themes for the second objective
Parent themes Study results
“We are always trying give an unforgettable hospitality service to both local and foreign visitors.”
“As I know there were few complaints from the visitors about our service.”
“Always I try to give our traditional foods to give them a new food experience.”
“Meemure has a unique climate. So mainly people visit here to get an experience of that.”
“After 2004 people got to know about our village by making the film “Sooriya Arana””
“The location that called as “Avani wala” is created with “Dhimigolla oya” and “Kaikaawala oya”. It is a “Y” type river.”
Destination awareness and identify “Most of the traverrels who visits here love to take photos. They tell us they are posting them on internet. And some have told me they got to know us by seeing the photos though internet”
“Some TV channels come here to produce documentary about our village traditions and serenity, as an example “Travel with Chathura”.”
“I have an official web site for continuing my business, “Meemure Jungle Resort” and I have mentioned my all package details, booking facilities and other details related to my services in that site.”
Destination accessibility “There is only one vehicle to fulfill the common transportation of villagers. It is start from Meemure around 8.00am and return from Hunnasgiriya around 1.30 to2.00 pm.”
“Some of villagers have safari jeeps to transport their guests from Hunnasgiriya to Meemure village.”
“Because of the dilapidated road condition, we need vehicles like Trucks, Jeeps to transport visitors and others.”
Community based tourism and cultural events ““Madu thalapa” is a delicious food made by “Madu peas” and we are serving it to our visitors as an endemic food of our village.”
“Some of our villagers are producing toddy for selling. Some guests are come here to drink pure “Kithul Toddy”.”
“Still we are using traditional methods in our agriculture works. As an example, using buffalos to all works of paddy fields”
“We have finished our harvesting period and tomorrow we are going to conduct a “Pirith Program” and “Aluth Sahal Mangalyaya”.”
“We have enough food such as mun, thala, iringu, kurakkan, undu and there are more. We try to give them for the travellres as they don’t get a chance to experience them in towns.”
“Some of our villagers (especially seniors) are still living in their old houses which made by clay and other materials.”
“Ancient people said that the King Rawanaa’s tomb is in the Lakegala Mountain, and also the King raawanaa’s dandumonara is in there.”
“There is a well called as “Katupandura Lindha” which is used by daughters of king Rajasingha.”
“We always try to treat visitors very friendly way. Travelers love to experience our familiarity. The way we talk, way we treat them, make a sense to them. And they hear our stories, they want to visit our elders to absorb information.”
“We are living here happily and peacefully and we invite people to visit and get that experience.”
Characteristic of rural tourism destination “We always try to treat visitors very friendly way. Actually, anyone who is coming to our house we offer them a cup of beli-mal with juggry.”
“Living Meemure is easier that been in urban area. We share our products, we take care of others. Everyone willingly participates for every function in the village. We don’t want to invite them one by one.”
“We are living here happily and peacefully and we invite people to visit and get that experience.”
“We don’t have that much of facilities here. We don’t have signals, well build roads, supermarkets, and internet. But we live peacefully.”
4.3 To understand the best forces that encourages the entrepreneurial development in Meemure
It has been generally accepted in the literature that destination image has influence on tourist behaviors (Bigne et al., 2001); (Fakeye and Crompton, 1991); (Ma et al., 2005). According to the responses there are evidences to certify that destination image of Meemure. A rural hospitality experience, farming and food destination, experience in forest and geographic location fits with the literature.
Today, most destinations claim to have spectacular scenery, superb attractions, friendly people, and a unique culture and heritage (Hudson and Ritchie, 2009) Through a strong destination awareness those destinations gain higher rate of travelers than earlier days. Meemure is a great indication for the destination awareness and identity as it opened for the tourists in most recently. In this dissertation according to the respondents Meemure has made awareness through television and a jungle resort owner is conducting an official website for his business. That’s how they have built their identity to attract more travelers to the Meemure.
(Griffin et al., 2008) found that these studies have focused on a wide range of subjects relevant to tourism, although mention of the area of destination accessibility was absent (Amsler et al., 2008) so as Meemure. This accessibility allows the travel to rethink on the decision. To reach Meemure there was only a road which used to for bulk carts. Most recently with the emergent of tourism there are some jeeps which owned by the transportation service providers at and around the Meemure.
Theme four of this objective has been developed to explore how the community of Meemure making tourism as their basis and any cultural activities effect on that. According to the respondents from the samples food make the best based for the tourism. And also households are largely dependent on chena, cardamom cultivation, kithul products and forest resources (Bandara, 2009). During the time when villagers depended on Chena and Paddy cultivation they had enough food such as mun (green gram-Phaseolus aureus), thala (sesame), iringu (wheat), kurakkan (Eleusine coracana), undu (Phaseolus mungo) etc. They have their own cultural ceremonies. Further, considering about Meemure day today life Meemure villagers have developed specific cultural traits from the beginning. Religious practices and rituals, food customs, Chena cultivation practices, paddy cultivation practices are among the unique traditional systems they developed and maintained (Ananda and Nahallage, 2015). (Murphy, 1988) argues that tourism planning and implementation should incorporate resident values and visions, whilst Haywood believes that ‘healthy, thriving communities are the touchstone for a successful tourism industry’ by Harper (1997).
The simple architecture of the houses with thatched roof and granaries to store their gain harvest, traditional home gardens that emulate the forest, and the beautifully terraced paddy field are typical of the landscape in these villages (Forest Deoartment,2003) has been stated in literature and those narration have been confirmed this by this dissertation. According to the respondents their physical environment makes the image of rurality. For the cultural attractions, (Munsters, 1994) identifies regional gastronomic routes as a specific cultural tourism product. One of the basic reasons for this is the strong relationship between certain localities and certain types of food (Hughes, 1995). Research findings explains further about rural gastronomy which build a nutritional value for the tourists and some of them are refusing the rural foods and requiring them new varieties of foods like BBQ, noodles. And according to the observations in present villagers have been adopted those urbanized food practices for the purpose of tourism.
Liu (2003) notes that, the sustainable tourism should meet the needs of the local population’s standard of living over the short and long terms. Meemure also having many social norms, values, history and cultural heritage to compete with other destinations in Sri Lanka. Yakkama and Adukku rituals and are religious performances which are distinctive among the Meemure villagers and these are carried out according to their traditional beliefs to pay respect to the village deities. The tourist culture is responsible for the hedonistic behavior demonstrated by the tourists, (Leontido, 1994) and Shields (1990) observed.
Typically, rural areas have low population densities; this is a result of small settlements, widely spaced apart. There are few people in the Meemure. And they have wonderful authentic experiences. As a key concept of occidental thought for many centuries (Steiner and Reisinger, 2006) authenticity became a central subject in tourism research during the 1960s. And this community symbolized as “art” and “folk” encompasses agriculture and artisan machines, tools, vehicles the traditional business together with domestic and recreational life of families and business people.
Thereby, it is revealed that Meemure is a rural tourism destination. Objective 03: To understand the best forces that encourages the entrepreneurial development in Meemure.
Table 3: Themes for the third objective
Parent Theme Child themes Study
Production Consumer Purpose
“Farming is conducting from generation to generation in our village. We cultivate for ourselves and the excess quantity, we take to the town and sell them.
“And also, we are producing kithul and Bee honey as a food and also as a medicine. Bee honey is a good medicine for many diseases.”
“Recently, most of our village people are directed to produce pepper, because the government has made regulations to chena cultivations.”
“I have owned many paddy fields. I’m cultivating them to sell at the town. There are some people have paddy fields cultivating them with selling purpose.”
“We sell toddy, pepper, rice, juggry for those who travels here. If they want them we supply those products and get some money from them.”
Employment Agricultural Base “Most of the people of our village engage with agricultural works such as chena cultivation, paddy and vegetables etc.”
“Few people work in government jobs and also in private sector, but they also doing agricultural works in the village.”
Service Based “After 2004 many people came here to visit our village serenity and it has become an income generating source to the villagers.”
“Now we are engaged with tourism sector and our living status has been increase than before 2004.”
“Many of the villager are now supplying several services to visitors who come to our village as tourists. Some of them are, safari, guest houses, food and beverages etc.”
Marketing Interior “I have the best camping site in the Meemure village and I am supplying many facilities to my guests such as delicious foods, safety equipment etc.”
“I help travelers to take experiences in jumping and sliding and I provide them tents which quantify for 15 passengers”
“I can’t supply fine meat because hunting is prohibited by the government. Therefore, I supply them BBQ.”
Exterior “There is an accommodation place called “Meemure Jungle Resort” and it has an active web page, it facilitates online booking service and other necessary services for anyone who like to come to Meemure”
“Travelers have known our village by several articles and documentaries. Some local travelers told me about that they have known us by “Travel with chatura program” and “Trip Advisor”.
5. Conclusion And Recommendations
Conclusion for the 1st objective – To identify the kind of tourism activities taken place within Meemure society.
Therefore, researcher had built two main themes and their subthemes. From the dissertation identified tourism activities are Leisure activities such as camping, hiking, water activities and trekking. These findings run counter to the conventional researches by many authors. The participants of this research showed their perceived influence on tourism practices and they explain the practical adaptations towards the tourism by business activities focusing on tourists. The findings suggest that tourism is a strong motivational factor for them to engage in business. The villagers play a vital role in encouraging rural tourism destination in Meemure. They produce food, accommodation and transportation for the travelers who visits Meemure.
Conclusion for the 2nd objective – To discover a factor that empowers the Meemure as a rural tourism destination
To explore the rural tourism destination appeal of Meemure, researcher’s findings suggest that Meemure is enriched as a rural tourism destination and these findings are broadly harmony with those of researches such as Adeyinka – Ojo et al., in 2015 and Jegdic et al. in 2017. These researchers had discovered many themes to identify a rural tourism destination and my research findings are strongly compatible with them. As Meemure has the qualities such as destination image, destination awareness and identity, destination accessibility, community-based tourism, characteristics or rural tourism destination, hard factors attractions and soft factor attractions. This confirmation widely attaching with prior researches within the field. The research founds that rural destination appeal of Meemure has a major perceived influence on tourist attraction. So, this objective has achieved its aim that witnessing the rural tourism destination appeal in Meemure.
Conclusion for the 3rd objective – To understand the best forces that encourage the entrepreneurial development in Meemure
As the third objective designed to identify the most emerging trend in the world. Entrepreneurial development has been explored from the Meemure society. The informants showed specific entrepreneurial areas in the Meemure through their descriptions. In production the villagers producing paddy, toddy, pepper, bee honey with the purpose of income generation. Earlier they had only cultivation and foresting as the economy. But with the government interfere for forest conservation they have turn towards pepper which takes higher price in commodity market. Villagers have been employed through agricultural sector and service sector. The entrepreneurship has built through service sector. It has been the significant by the tourism emergence. With the tourism Meemure became as a rural tourism destination. And then the stake holders of that commodity have changed according to the expectations of the travelers. Villagers have adopted to the service sector as well as their traditional agricultural sector. The rise of the independent traveler, seeking a non-resort-based or rural holiday, has now added a new dimension to the travel industry (Plog, 1991); (Weiler and Hall, 1992). In marketing perspective, Villagers are exploring Meemure to the world by word of mouth marketing, social media marketing and also by digital marketing. They are doing entrepreneurial marketing to attract customers at the first physical meeting with them. That is their entrepreneurship in marketing. They express their knowledge regards the Meemure and confidence that they make on the maturity is the strategic point they are using to retain a traveler. Through the responses from the selected sample this objective has been came up to its prime findings. Entrepreneurial development can be seen in the Meemure as a rural tourism destination.
5.2 Developed Concept Indicator Model
Figure 5 : Developed Concept Indicator Model
a. Designing a season for tourism in “Meemure” village. (Unless the balanced environment would be affected)
Travelers visit “Meemure” all over the year. There is no any special time period for “Meemure” visit, so it can be harmful to the village tradition and also the serenity of the village. Because of the tourism the environment can be polluted with humans’ activities during the visiting period. By declaring seasons, it will help to protect the village as its origin.
b. Increase the concentration of government for developing the tourism in “Meemure”.
Still the government doesn’t have enough concentration about the development of “Meemure” through tourism industry. Government can interfere by developing infrastructure facilities such as road, telecommunication, transportation and tourism related facilities. It will be helpful to gain the attraction of foreign tourists.
c. Build an association within the communities of “Meemure” village area
There are five main “Grama Seva Vasam” around “Meemure” area including “Meemure”. Villagers of these five areas and the out siders are engaged in many businesses related to the rural tourism in “Meemure”. But they don’t have proper coordination for managing the quality of services that supplying to travelers. And also they should have a self-discipline about protecting the serenity of environment.
d. Promote unique products and services which can found in “Meemure”.
Community of “Meemure” is usually consume kithul and bee honey, toddy, and various products from “Madu plant”. Further there are unique services like experiencing the village life, 12 feet waterfall jump, and waterfall sliding etc. There by the government can involve for increasing the quality and productivity of those products and services. Through giving knowledge and proper training government can build standards for the unique experiences.
e. Designing the landscape architecture feasibility on several places throughout the journey to “Meemure”.
There are several places throughout the journey to “Meemure” can be developed as resting areas as well as viewpoints. As examples corbert gap (Attala Wettuwa)
f. Introducing different markets for productions come from “Meemure” village.
“Meemure” community can produce many things for selling to visitors like souvenirs, ornaments, bangles, neck less, statues. So it can be an opportunity to villagers to gain a considerable income. Involving with creating a profitable market is help to develop entrepreneurship among the communities of the “Meemure” village.
g. Increasing accessibility
There are main two path to “Meemure” village. One is through Hunnasgiriya, Kaikawala, Attala wettuwa “Meemure”, and other one is from mathale through Attala wettuwa to “Meemure” village. These two roads are very difficult roads so the government should develope those roads and introduce new transportation opportunities. It helps to increase tourists’ attraction as well as convenience of the communities.
h. Giving motivations to increase the engagement in tourism industry.
Many people in the village are engaging with their own jobs and traditional works and only few people have engaged with tourism industry. If they are having motivations to start a new business apart from jobs and traditional works, will help to develop entrepreneurship skills and also helps to increase their life status.
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