Gender Injustice of Women’s Figures on the Education Aspect: Feminist Literary Criticism Approach

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Published on International Journal of Art, Language & Linguistics
Publication Date: July 16, 2019

Ari Minarni, Samudji & Dina D. Kusumayanti
Department of Linguistics Studies, Faculty of Culture Sciences, University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Gender Injustice of Women’s Figures on the Education Aspect: Feminist Literary Criticism Approach (In the novel “Kenanga” by Oka Rusmini).

The studies in this research problem is the existence of gender inequality in education aspects experienced by female characters in the novel Kenanga Oka Rusmini work. This study aims to analyze and describe the form of gender inequality on the female characters in the novel aspects of education Kenanga Oka Rusmini novel. The theory used to examine forms of gender inequality on women figures is Systemic Functional Linguistics theory and feminist literary criticism. This study is a qualitative descriptive study. The data in this study intangible complex clauses that are focused on gender inequality shape female figures on the educational aspect. Data were analyzed using analysis of Functional Linguistics approach to feminist literary criticism. The results showed that there are three forms of gender discrimination against three female characters, namely violence against Kemuning character, subordinated to the character and Luh Kenanga Intan, stereotypes at Kenanga and Luh Intan. There is a logic of semantic relations and taxis in complex clauses, among others, extension and enhansi. The process that occurs in the form of the material, mental and relational in every part.

Keywords: Gender inequality, parataxis, hipotaksis & process.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background
Gender inequalities that affect women are often due to a perception or view of society that embraces the culture of patriarchy, thus placing the male as the ruling party and the woman as the second party that ignored its existence. The role of women is very limited especially when a woman wants to show his existence before the public. Women will be viewed negatively if successfully demonstrated the existence of himself in public because it is considered as a form of resistance by patriarchal society. Patriarchal culture makes the female body as a barrier to actualize, to create, and to transcend self-Beauvoir 2012 (in Emzir, Saifur, & Rohman, 2015:150).
In a patriarchal society, men dominated the role of women in education, employment, political, and socio-cultural. The state of one of them available in the community in Bali. Balinese community has long been dominated by a very patriarchal culture. Men put themselves in a subordinate position in all aspects. The position of women Bali to make the role of women feel marginalized, because they are weak and not able to actualize in the public sphere (the Goddess, 2018).
Scope of society which still adheres to the traditional rules assume that women should not need to be educated. This is because in the end she will return to the domestic sphere. Unlike the men, the men are given opportunities to high school because at later he served for a living and as a leader. Men are more entitled to education with those reasons than women.
Dayugayatri (2011) in his article says that the reality of the family is Hindu Balinese, most families are expecting a boy. Boys can be used as purusa, heir, successor lineage or bloodline. More men have the right to take on the role of public decision-making, whereas women are more assigned as implementing the decision taken men.
Gender inequalities affecting women had occurred around the year 1266 in western Europe. Thomas Aquinas in 1266 (in Marzuki, 2007:70) writes in his book Summa Theologica that women are men who are disabled or have a deficiency. Women have a strong sense of beauty, elegance, but lacking in cognitive and can not decide moral action. Labeling negative against women still occur until the year 1560. According to McKay, Matthew, Martha Davis, and Patrick Fanning (2009) in (Marzuki, 2007:70) says that women are regarded as inferior beings, means that women are creatures of the low and do not have pride. Women are considered second-class beings.
Kenanga novel Oka work Rusmini raised about the lives of Balinese women in facing various problems which were never apart from the customs and cultural traditions of Bali and requiring them to live under the rule of men. Novel Kenanga give some picture of gender inequality and the struggle for gender equality between women leaders and men, especially in the aspects of education, marriage, and customs. Some female characters are presented as Kenanga, Luh Intan, and Kemuning received unfair treatment against their rights, especially in education.
Penulusan based library that has been done, the research approach of literary criticism have been conducted, but the researchers took the gaps from previous studies, so that there is a difference between this study with previous research. One study that discusses the feminist literary criticism that has been done is research Sri Yuniarti Tripungkasingtyas (2016) with the title Struggle Equality, Values Character Education in Novel Kenanga Oka Rusmini work, and its Relevance in Learning Literature in High Perhuruan (Feminist Literary Criticism). Sri Yuniarti study discusses gender injustice and the struggle for gender equality in all the female characters in all aspects of life, whereas this study discusses gender inequality and the struggle for gender equality in the three female characters, namely Kenanga, Luh Intan, and Kemuning which focused on the educational aspect. In this study analyzes using Functional Linguistics approach feminist literary criticism to discuss forms of gender discrimination and the struggle for gender equality in education in the novel aspects of the work of Oka Rusmini Kenanga.
Gender is defined as an inherent nature of men and women who are socially and culturally (Fakih, 2013:8). Gender may occur in a society because it is supported by the gender belief system that occurs within the rules of society. Gender belief system in a society based on the beliefs and opinions about men who are masculine and feminine women.
Gender inequalities is a system and a structure in which men and women are victims of the system. To understand how gender differences lead to gender inequality, can be seen through the various manifestation of injustice. Gender inequalities are manifested in various manifestation of injustice, namely:marginalization or impoverishment, suobordinasi or assumption is not important, the formation of stereotypes or labeling negative, violence (violence), the workload of a longer and more (burden), and dissemination of the ideology of the value of gender roles. Manifestation of gender inequality can not be separated, as interrelated and connected and influence each other. So that no manifestation of gender inequality is more important, more essential, than others.
Feminist literary criticism approach is one way to assess literary works by exploiting the framework of feminist theory in interpreting and provide an evaluation. Feminist literary criticism is one of a variety of literary criticism that is based on the idea of feminism who want equality or justice in view of the existence of women (Wiyatmi, 2012:11). Interest feminist literary criticism one is analyzing gender relations, determine the relationship between women and men is socially constructed, where men are more dominant against women. Through feminist literary criticism will be described the oppression of women contained in the literary work.
Language of the authors have the meanings with intent to convey expressions writer through stylistic author. The use of the language of the author in obtaining the meaning did not escape from a context and has a specific purpose. This is in accordance with the opinion of Leech and Short (1984:10) who said that the author’s style is a style which leads to the way we use language in a particular context, by a certain author, and for a specific purpose in a literary work.
Meanings are done either by watching clause contained in the literature, the use of Functional Linguistics can be used as a tool to reveal the meaning of a literary work. Functional Linguistics can prove how the relationship between the clauses can generate a specific meaning, which involves the context and authorship in a work of literature.
Halliday (1994:221) says the clause complex is divided into two types, ie parataxis complex clauses and complex clauses hipotaksis parataxis complex clauses are clauses that shape and can stand on its own and not depend on other clauses. Parataxis is the relation between two like elements of equal status, one initiating and the other continuing (Halliday, 1994:221). Halliday said that clause parataxis complex is the relationship between the two parallel clauses. Whereas clause hipotaksis complex function combines multiple independent clauses with several dependent clauses. In theory, Halliday (1994:223) states that the clauses are connected by several conjunctions are as nominal group, adverbal group or prepositional phrase, and verbal group.
Among the complex relationship clause contained logiko semantic relationships. Relationships that make the clause by clause others into a coherent and related to each other, marked by the conjunction (conjunction) as mentioned in the theory of Halliday (2004:540) that in relation logiko-semantics there are two types of relationship expansion and relations projection, Projection relationship is a relationship in the form of statements and quotes. While the expansion relationship is divided into three types, namely elaboration (elaboration), extension (extanding), and enhansi (enhancing).
The process is the flow (flow) of an action, event, or circumstance which is realized by a verb or verb group (Halliday, 1994:109). The process is a function that shows activity, circumstances, and conditions. So that the process used in the analysis of this study was to demonstrate a series of circumstances, conditions and events that occur in the female figure gender inequality in education aspect. The process according to Halliday divided into six types, namely the process of material, mental processes, Relational Process, Behavioral Processes, Process Verbal and Sirkumstansial process.
In this study using Functional Linguistic theory which refers to the use clause of gender inequality on the educational aspect. In addition, the Functional Linguistic relevant to all areas related to the use of language, especially the language in literature, for the purpose of the use of language in any field or discipline will understand the meaning of the particular language.

1.2 Problem Formulation
Based on the above background exposure, the problem in this research is how forms of gender inequality in educational aspects as outlined in the novel Kenanga Rusmini Oka work?

1.3 Objectives
The purpose of this study is expected to provide empirical evidence that purport to literature can be demonstrated through the analysis of complex clauses and process analysis in the study of Functional Linguistics approach feminist literary criticism. The Making of proving that there are forms of gender inequality, especially in terms of education is happening in society as outlined in the form of fiction that is novel.

2. Method
This study used a descriptive qualitative method application. The data in this study a clause parataxis and hipotaksis sourced from Kenanga novel published works Oka Rusmini year 2017.
Data collection method used in this research is the method of documentation. Documentation method is the method used to investigate objects in writing, in this study investigated the written text in the form of a novel Kenanga Oka Rusmini work. Techniques used in data collection, the technique refer to note, this technique is done in order to record and view the use of parataxis and hipotaksis in a clause closely related to gender inequality in three female characters, namely Kenanga, Luh Intan, yellow.
This research looks at the use of complex clauses relating to gender inequality in the educational aspect through three female characters in the novel Kenanga Oka Rusmini work with LFS study. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using the method of description, which is a technique that seeks describe or depict various existing data (Hilmiyatun, 2015:105). In addition, analyzing the data in this study was done by using qualitative descriptive and refers to the opinion of Miles and Huberman (in Emzir, 2012:129) says there are three kinds of phases in qualitative analysis, namely data reduction, data modeling, and verification phases.
Data that has been found to be described using the approach of feminist literary criticism to elaborate forms of gender inequality in education in the novel aspects of the work of Oka Rusmini Kenanga.

3. Results and Discussion
This section discusses the findings by focusing on features prominent findings and considered important to serve. The findings are in the form of complex clauses that contain any form of gender inequality of women leaders in the educational aspect.
Complex clauses are found in this data in the form of clauses that contain aspects of gender inequality in education are divided into three types, namely sobordinasi, violence and stereotypes.

a. Subordination
Attitudes put women at a disadvantage importance arises from the notion that women are emotional or irrational, so that women could not perform lead (Fakih, 2013:15-16). The powerlessness of women can be found in Boxwood figures, especially from the aspect of education. Subordinated aspect of education on female characters in the novel Kenanga work looks pada`kutipan Oka Rusmini follows.
However, the man was never satisfied. As there is no iota of gratitude in her. For him, a boy is the most genuine Balinese royalty, while a worthless daughter. “I need a boy. The boy will make family life more prosperous! “Koarnya often. He wanted his wife gave birth again and again and again, until it managed to get a male heir. And if that does not work? “I was forced to marry,” he said lightly (Rusmini, 2017:163-164).

The form of subordinated seen in the analysis of the following clauses.
/// A boy is the most genuine Balinese royal x// while girls worthless ///

There are two clauses in the above data, the independent clauses and dependent clauses. The first clause A boy is the most genuine Balinese royal referred to as the independent clause and the second clause worthless daughters called the dependent clause. Due to the dependent and independent clauses are marked with conjunctive while, then the complex clause by clause complex called hipotaksis. In theory, Halliday (1994:254) states that the clauses are connected by several conjunctions are as nominal group, group or preposotional adverbial phrase, and verbal group.
In the analysis of the above clause independent clause is owned by clause A boy is the most genuine Balinese royal. It dimaknakan that boys in Bali as an independent person, or a man who can stand alone and free-spirited. Boys will have the freedom to live a life in the world, both in the family and society.
Whereas clause worthless daughter is positioned as a dependent clause which implies that the girl is someone who is dependent on others, do not stand alone, not independent. Women are considered as people who are oppressed and unappreciated. Balinese women are often portrayed stereotypes, so that the heavy burden that carried the women Bali is not commensurate with the rights they get (Gayatri, 2011).
In the hipotaksis complex clauses, conjunctive while combining both clauses and bring meaning enhansi. So it can have significance compared between persons with clause 1 and clause 2. The functions of conjunctive while is to explain and expand the meaning, thus combining a conflict between persons with clause 1 and clause 2. Therefore, logiko semantic relationship that emerges is that enhansi characterized by the conjunction while, then the relationship is symbolized by “x” and for hipotaksis complex clauses marked.
Clauses A boy is the most genuine Balinese royal clause included in Relational Process Attributes. Relational process is a kind of process that serves to connect one entity to another entity (Halliday, 1994:123). The first entity in the data above is in terms of a boy and the second entity is the most genuine Balinese royal. Relationships are formed may be a relationship between the owners and termilik called property relations relationship. This property relations is a boy as the owner and most genuine Balinese royal as termilik. Relational process is a relationship between one entity to another entity called attributive relationship. Attribute relationship is a relationship descriptors between entities 1 with the entity 2. In the first clause A boy is the most genuine Balinese royal attribute relationships contained in a word that has a Relational Process. Use of the Relational Processes mean that men are positioned in the highest strata of society Bali. It is shown in the following table.

Disability Process:Relational Attributes Value
A boy constitute The most genuine Balinese royal

While in the second clause worthless daughter is Relational Identification Process clause. Relational Identification Process according to Halliday (1994:119) is an element that is used to identify the elements of the other or give the nature of the noun, either a phrase or a noun phrase.

Disability Process:Relational Identification Attribute
Girl (is) worthless

Another characteristic of the process is the identification Relational if the nature that gives the noun can be inverted position as in the following sentence.

Tom is the leader
The leader is Tom

In the example above clause in a process known as an exchange or reversibility. Relational identification process has two pastisipan and can be exchanged so as to change from active to passive clauses clause.
In the above data worthless phrases identifying the girl. Signification seen that girl at Bali identified as women who do not have a price. Women who do not have value and denigrated in society. In connotation can dimaknakan only men who have self-esteem and value. In accordance with the opinion of Adam Jones, 1996 (Randydiansyah, 2015) in his work entitled Does ‘Gender’ Makes the World Go Round? That women historically have always despised, are not taken into account, and even considered absent existence.
Based on these data, forms of gender injustice experienced by a female character on the educational aspects seem that men in Bali is prioritized over women. Men are considered to have the status and self-esteem is high, while women become secondary. Obtaining education for men take precedence over women. Men may be educated, while women only intended for use in the domestic sphere alone.

Boy in Balinese culture will inherit parental ideals and reliable. Megawati (2015:47) said that in view of the Balinese, the boy has important value in running life, both in family life and society. The boy has a responsibility as the successor generation, nurture and provide for if the parents are not able to, as well as the place of the father in family life.
The clause citation describes the life of a female character who regard women as the second sex. Women experience gender discrimination and women are considered no role in family life. It can be seen from the figures that are not dominant Kenanga in decisions for the right to education. Only men alone should have an education. That said, for the people of Bali, women do not have to have a degree of higher education to be respected. Most of the Balinese see the degree of women based on social strata owned (Megawati, 2015:48). Women were stratified Brahmins are considered to have the degree, if married to a man who sederat anyway. Kenanga leaders want to break it. Kenanga want women respected not only for the position of caste,
Pada`kutipan such a clause, in a family of boys mengiginkan became heir keturutan. According Utari (2006) in the culture of Bali boy is very necessary and preferably in a family, because the only boy who could continue the family line. Boys will be favored in all of life including education acquisition. Those rules so as to make women is considered low because the girls are not expected in the birth. On the acquisition of girls education was not a priority.
Based on this phenomenon, gender injustice experienced by the Boxwood figures including gender inequality shapes the form of subordination, which put women in positions that are not important and men are placed in the primary position (Isna, 2014). Gender inequality at Kenanga figure is experienced as a classy woman brahmin. Although already classy brahmin, it is possible when women still experience gender inequality to education. Brahmin class women do not have to study up high, let alone to decide not to marry. Kenanga leaders choose not to get married and he decided to study the highest. If women brahmin determine such decisions, it is considered to break the tradition of Bali and the corresponding customs confidence will get the curse.
Intan griya never seen a woman who is not married to the man Ida Bagus title. His family threw it away, ashamed to admit it as a child. He is considered to have made a disgrace. Lowering the degree of nobility, does not know himself, defiles ancestors. Women’s TVC damned if it violates the customary stamped as such. As if in rank as a human being only calculated based on who he married (Rusmini, 2017:187-188).

Analysis of complex clauses against gender inequality shapes shown in the following clauses.

/// Women’s TVC branded damned +// if indigenous violate such ///

There are two clauses in the above data, the independent clauses and dependent clauses. Women’s TVC branded cursed clause referred to as the independent clause and clauses break the tradition as it is referred to as a dependent clause. Due to the dependent and independent clauses are marked with conjunctions if, then the complex clause by clause complex called hipotaksis. Conjunctive if it has a function that states the terms. Said terms have the meaning according to KBBI demands or requests to be met. So that at such a clause, women griya or brahmin woman sued and must be damned if he break the tradition.
In the hipotaksis complex clauses, conjunctive if you combine both clauses and bring meaning extension. Extension of meaning is the meaning which serves to add or expand the meaning of the primary clause (Halliday, 1994:223). The second clause serves a meaningful break the tradition of adding information to the second clause meaningful griya women. Therefore, logiko semantic relationships that emerge are extensions characterized by the conjunction if symbolized by the “+” and for hipotaksis complex clauses marked.
Women’s TVC branded cursed clause included in clause Relational Process Attributes. Relational Process Attributes by Halliday (1994) is a relational process that serves to affirm the role of an attribute of the participants. In the Attribute Relational Process there are two components that can not be exchanged position. The component that is the subject of the so-called carrier and atributte as an object or information. Carrier in Relational Process Attributes are someone who has character or attributes. This is shown in the following table.