Learning Content Sn, Fe and Pb in Food with Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

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Published on International Journal of Food & Nutrition
Publication Date: June 14, 2019

Abdul Bahrawi, Sumartini & Eka Sarkasih
Nusantara Business Institute, East Jakarta
Kalbis Institute, East Jakarta
Bina Nusantara University, West Jakarta
Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Learning Content Sn, Fe and Pb in Food with Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.

Abstract
The purpose of this research were Provided information about the presence of the heavy metal Fe, Sn and Pb in some canned foods. The material of packaging are Fe, Sn and Pb in food product can solve. The heavy metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Model 3110). In part of the yield were Showed that tinned food B1 (Ranesia Sardines, B2 / Cip Sardines) and B3 (Yoko Sardines) were disccorerd with the label inpackaging; but inport of the yield were accord with the label. The heavy metal analisys of all samples did not showe on Sn or Pb, but did show a 0.22 ppm Fe in sample A2 (milli lychee cocktail); 49.15 ppm in sample B1 (Ranesia Sardines); 42.79 ppm Fe in sample B2 (Cip Sardines); 23.89 ppm Fe in sample C1 (Yoka sardines); 14.86 ppm in the sample B3 (Prornas beef); 24.96 ppm in sample C2 (Great Wall Corned Beef).

Keywords: Heavy Metal & Canned Foods.

1. INTRODUCTION
Tin container is generally used for a variety of products that undergo thermal sterilization process. At first the tin container is made of tin plate (tin plate) consisting of a base sheet steel and tin (Sn) hot (hot dipping) or by the electrolysis process. Then developed a variety of different types with standard tin plate, such as a tin-free steel cans (tin-free steel). The shape of the cans itself divided into two types, namely canned two piece cans and three-piece cans. Three Fiece tin cans is composed of three connections that body part can, at the top of the can lid and cover partly under the tin. While two piece cans are cans that overall only have one connection, yitu at the top of the can lid.
Damage canned food products primarily due to the interaction between the base metal tin maker, namely Sn and Fe which can cause undesirable changes such as discoloration, occur off-flavor, loss of nutritional value, turbidity in the syrup and the formation of rust on cans. In addition cans soldered connection part can cause contact between Sn and Pb from solder with food products that have lower acid levels resulting sulfide stain or black stain on canned products.
Metal Sn and Fe which is a base metal cans maker belongs to the class of heavy metals. If canned food products contaminated with heavy metals into the human body will cause a poisoning. This is due to toxicant of heavy metals have the ability to function as a co-factor enzyme, the enzyme consequently unable to function normally so that the metabolic reaction is inhibited. The purpose of this research is to study whether food products are packaged using tin packaging can be contaminated by packaging material (Sn, Fe and Pb) or not.

2. METHODOLOGY
2.1. Research Tools
The materials used in this study are lead (II) nitrate (pa), FeSO4 (pa), SnCl2 (pa), nitric acid 1N, HNO3 (p) distilled water, stone boiling, filter paper, 3 brand corned beef, 3 sample brand sardines, and 3 brand lychee coctail samples.
The tools used in this study is a flask of 100 ml, pipette measuring, electronic scales, pumpkin kjeldahl, pole stative, clamps, Atomic Absorption Spektrofotometry (AAS) Perkin Elmer (3110) which are equipped with lights Hollow Cathode lead (Pb), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) and other tools used in the study in the laboratory.

2.2. Experimental methods
2.2.1 Sample preparation
The experiment starts by preparing samples to be analyzed to facilitate the next process, ie the sample preparation for the preliminary analysis and the main analysis. Sample preparation for the preliminary research conducted by weighing the gross weight of tin and its contents, and then weighing the net weight of the cans. The net weight of the can be obtained by reducing the net weight of tin and its contents with a net weight of tin.
Sample preparation for primary research in the form of destruction of solid samples which sardines and corned beef. While specific to the liquid sample, the lychee coctail after homogenized using a blender taken as much as ± 10 g sample is added to 20 mL of HNO3 (p) in a flask Kjeldhal which already contains a stone boiling in the hood, and then heated initially with a small fire last high heat until it is translucent color solution.
After the pumpkin kjeldahl cold, destruction resulting solution is inserted into the 100 ml flask and add distilled water to mark boundaries. The solution is ready to take measurements and testing.

2.2.2 Preliminary treatment Samples
To assay Sn, Fe and Pb, performed pretreatment as follows:
– Preparation of standard solution of Sn
– Preparation of standard solution of Fe
– Preparation of standard solution of Pb

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Preliminary research undertaken is analysis of net contained in the packaging of food and beverage cans. Net research results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Netto in the Sample Analysis Results

Information :
A1 = Panda lychee coctail
A2 = Mili lychee coctail
A3 = Aroy-D lychee coctail
B1 = Ranesa sardines
B2 = Cip sardines
B3 = Yoko sardines
C1 = Pronas corned beef
C2 = Greatwall corned beef
C3 = Cip corned beef

From the results of research and calculation, the entire sample has a corresponding net with a net contained in the packaging, except for B1, B2 and B3. This is due to perfect the process of filling the product sample. Other than that, the samples are owned by large companies that have been recognized by consumers that prefer the satisfaction and safety of consumers. While the sample B1, B2 and B3 are samples of trademarks that are not so well known by the public and belong to small and medium companies.
Research results for the samples B1, B2 and B3 stated discrepancy between net contained in the packaging with the actual net. Under Law No. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection, violations of Article 8 of Chapter IV of the act which is prohibited For business communities, namely: “Businesses are prohibited from producing or trading of goods or services which are not in accordance with the net weight, the content or the net and the count as stated in the label or the label of the goods “, the President [1].

3.1. Major Research Results
The main research undertaken is analysis of heavy metals Sn, Fe and Pb using AAS method (Atomic Absorption Spektrofotometry) in the samples of food and beverage cans.
The results of the analysis of heavy metals in the sample Sn, as listed in Table 2, the analysis of heavy metals Sn in the entire sample showed absorption ranged between 0,000 and 0,001, or it can be said not indicate contamination by heavy metals Sn.
The net samples from heavy metal contamination originally suspected Sn generated from packaging cans, due to perfect the process of packaging and manufacturing process of cans itself. In this case, the lacquer coating process has an important role. For more details on the analysis of heavy metals can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Result Analysis of Heavy Metals in the Sample Sn

From Table 2 above it can be seen that the highest levels of Fe in the sample B1 (Ranesa sardines) that is equal to 49.15 ppm. The iron content in the sardine less when compared with the levels of iron in the corned beef. This is because the corned beef contains a lot of hemoglobin and myoglobin compared with sardines.
According to SNI for canned marine fish products, the maximum allowable Fe content is 25 ppm. From the results of the sample B (sardines), only a B3 sample (from 23.55 to 23.89 ppm) which meets the ISO standard. As for (from 42.45 to 42.79 ppm) did not meet ISO standards for levels of Fe contained in excess of 25 ppm. Levels of iron are formed can be caused by rust in cans or detachment layer of lacquer so that iron ions dissolved in the liquid sardines. Other than that, the iron content which is formed can also be caused by the water used for the production process already contains ions Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. Nevertheless, usually iron metal is not toxic. Elements Fe toxicity in humans occurs because it takes about 1 g ion Fe, although probably ingested more, Darmono [2].
In the sample C (Corned Beef) highest Fe content in the sample C3 is equal to 25.60 ppm, and the lowest in the sample C1 is equal to 14.36 ppm. According to SNI for Corned Beef products, the maximum allowable Fe content is 30 ppm. So overall sample C has met the ISO standards have been determined. According to the Nutrition Directorate of the Ministry of RI [3], the composition of the iron in 100 g of beef can be seen in Tables 3 and 4.
Differences Fe content in each sample was influenced by the content of Fe in myoglobin that vary by sex, age, physical activity of individual people and animals in the samples analyzed.

Table 3. List of compositions Foodstuffs (DKBM) on Animal Products

Corned beef including the type of food that has a high iron content. The iron content of beef is higher than the iron content of the meat of other animals. It berlkaitan closely with other animal flesh color, levels of myoglobin in the meat of other animals. Iron of livestock products more easily absorbed than iron from plant-based results. Iron in beef comes from myoglobin and little hemeglobin, Muchtadi and Sugiyono [3].

Table 4. Levels of Iron (Fe) pad Some Animal Products (mg / 100g)

In the sample A can be said there is no ferrous metal content. This is because coctail lychee products are food products that do not contain iron. Although the A2 samples contained Fe content of 0.14 and 0.22 ppm, but this amount is not considered influential. A2 Fe content in the samples derived from the destruction of defective cans or production process, Buckle, et al [4]. Although the results of studies suggest that 6 of the 9 samples containing Fe metal, does not guarantee that the foodstuffs are harmful to consumers. This is because although metallic Fe into the body and a slightly excessive amount will not cause a bad influence on the body. Since the element Fe is needed in the blood to bind oxygen, Palar [5].
Almost 90% Fe in the animal body associated with proteins, but the most important is the bond with hemoglobin (Hb). It contains iron Hb 3.4 g / kg. Iron also plays a role in the activity of some enzymes such as cytochrome and flavoproteins [2]. Fe binding requirement if there is bleeding, in this konsisi, Fe deficiency in the diet lead to iron deficiency, leading to anemia, Darmono [4]. Although the results of the study of heavy metals Pb on smeua samples showed negative results, but need to know if a positive Fe contained in the sample interacts with Pb, then akanmenimbulkan unfavorable impact. This is because as is well known, Fe role in the formation of hemoglobin and Pb otherwise be toxic to the hematopoietic system (formation of erythrocytes). It is estimated that for every adult male must obtain about 1 mg Fe per day to replace Fe excreted through the digestive tract, urinary and skin. In adult women, blood loss during menstruation need to be replaced with a 1.4 to 2.2 mg Fe per day.

3.2. The results of the analysis of Heavy Metals Pb in the sample.
Pb heavy metal analysis in all samples showed negative results or not show any contamination by heavy metals Pb. The net sample of Pb heavy metal contamination originally suspected generated from solder on the tin body connection (soldered side seam) can not be separated from the imperfect switching process itself, [4]. For Pb can be seen in the table below.

Table 5. Result Analysis of Heavy Metals Pb in Samples

The inside of the cans which have been cleaned did not show any splashes former soder, which melelh solder or solder that mengelembung. 9th overall packaging tin solder samples studied had a good, smooth and neat. This is what causes the sample free from contamination of heavy metals Pb, [4] In addition to the parts soldered side seam, lacquer coating also has a great influence in determining the kiss Pb contamination on food products’d packed. This is because the connection is soldered cans coated with lacquer to avoid direct contact between the solder with’d packed foodstuffs.
Despite the heavy metals Pb research results in all the samples analyzed were negative, but we need to know the dangers of poisoning by heavy metals Pb as knowledge, [5].

Typical symptoms of lead poisoning is divided into three forms, namely:
 gastroenteritis, These stimuli caused by the reaction of salt Pb digestive tract mucosa, causing swelling and movement rumen and intestinal contractions stopped, peristatik decreased bowel causing constipation and sometimes diarrhea.
 Anemia. Lead is carried in the blood and more than 95% bound to erythrocytes. This leads to easy rupture of red blood cells and affect the synthesis of hemoglobin, causing anemia. Anemia is characterized by anisitosis, polikromasia, reticulocyte count rises and nucleated blood cells. The discovery of basophilic stippling was a hallmark of lead poisoning.
 Encefalopati, Lead poisoning and blood capillary endothelial cells in the brain. In general, the blood-brain barrier very easily traversed by water, CO2 and O2 but slightly permeable to electrolytes such as Na, Cl and K and impermeable by sulfur and heavy metals, [2].

4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. Conclusion
From the results obtained, it can be concluded as follows:
a. All samples were analyzed is not contaminated by heavy metals or heavy metals Pb Sn.
b. Samples A1, A2 and A3 that Panda coctail lychee, lychee Mili and Aroy-D coctail coctail lychee not contaminated Fe.
c. Samples B1, B2, B3, C1, C2 and C3 are Ranesa saerden, Cip sardines, Yoko sardines, corned beef Pronas, Greatwall corned beef and corned beef Cip positive for the metals Fe.
d. The samples with the highest content of Fe metal is a sample B1 is Ranesa sardines, with levels of 49.15 ppm and confidence limits are 95% confident that the average content of Fe in the sample B1 which actually lies between 48.43 ppm and 49.48 ppm ,
e. The samples with the lowest metal content Fe is a sample C1 is Pronas corned beef, with levels of 14.36 ppm and confidence limits are 95% confident that the actual C1 is between 13.87 ppm and 15.23 ppm.

4.2. Recommendations
a. Require analysis of heavy metals Pb, Fe and Sn using a tool other than AAS (Atomic Absorption Spektrofotometry) for comparison purposes.
b. Endeavored to find the same production date for each sample analyzed.
c. Need to do deeper study of the Fe contained in the sample using the method of release of Fe.