Customer Service Effectiveness an Appraisal from the Perspective

Reader Impact Factor Score
[Total: 2 Average: 5]

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: May, 2019

Ruth Erang Mbu Epse Enoanyor
University of Buea
South-West Region, Republic of Cameroon

Journal Full Text PDF: Customer Service Effectiveness an Appraisal from the Perspective (Study of Camtel in South-West Regional Office of the Republic of Cameroon).

This article intends to appraise customer service effectiveness from the perspective of CAMTEL, south-west regional office of the Republic of Cameroon. Data used in the study were collected through questionnaires administered to 90 customers of CAMTEL South-West Region. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, and the hypothesis were tested using chi-square and Ordinary Least Square regression (t-test, and p-value). With respect to customer service in CAMTEL, the study established that CAMTEL customer service effectiveness is not significant enough in bringing or meeting up with customers’ expectations. Most respondents were not satisfied with the customer service effectiveness in CAMTEL which reduced their loyalty, their level of contentment in staying with CAMTEL rather leaking on to competitors, their trust of the services and their desire to stay with CAMTEL. Despite the fact that the company can still boost of a certain number of customers, it is strongly recommended that CAMTEL management should improve its customer service, emphasizing on building a good customer relationship management, developing information systems, training its staff to be responsive, providing bonuses, and reviewing the pricing, to increase loyalty and retention.

Keywords: Customer Service, Effectiveness, Appraisal, CAMTEL, South-West Region.

Customer expectations are evolving and the customers are more vocal and willing to share both when something is good and when something is bad. Customer service is also evolving, in order to keep pace with customers. The pace of the change driven by customer’s expectation of effectiveness is accelerating because the social web (commerce and network) has enabled and empowered customers. Thinking back 10-15 years ago, customers were not able to make purchases online. They only asked friends and there were no online reviews. When a customer needed to contact a company, when something had really happen, they might have even sent a letter, or pick up a phone and call.
In today’s competitive environment, the concept of customer service effectiveness has played strategic roles in the improving, managing, retaining and developing customer’s loyalty (Oluseye et al., 2014). When industries manufacturing and large cities began to grow, the service industry began to gain ground. Due to the changing economic trend, the outlook of business activities have significantly changed and shifted from high reliance on manufacturing companies to focus on providing timely and quality service delivery. The age of the service company has been alive and strong for some time now.
Therefore, in order to provide quality service to customers in this present time, organizations must have appropriate and comprehensive knowledge of who they are meant to offer services and what form of service should be delivered. In an attempt to resolve the question on what form of service should be rendered to customers, Davis and Heincke (2003) noted that, services are intangible and therefore more difficult for both service providers and the customers to measure and evaluate objectively. They went on to say that services are produced and consumed simultaneously, meaning that either the customer or a possession of the customer is involved in the process while the service is being delivered. Aronould, Price and Zinkhand (2004) posited that no organisation can produce essential and quality service delivered without the requisite to understand further than the basic characteristics of services and what they value.
The concept of customer service has been defined by different people with different connotations. However, depending on an organization’s focus, such as retailing, industry, manufacturing or service, the goals of providing customer service may vary. In fact, we often use the term of service industry as if it were a separate occupational field unto itself; in reality, most organisations provide some degree of customer service. Balaji (2009) defines customer services as the capability of well informed, consistent, efficient, proficient and passionate employee to provide/offer products and services with a view of identifying and satisfying the needs, demands, values and expectations of the customers (Ehigie, 2006).
Globally, in the process of achieving organizational goals and objectives, better customer services is a very important aspect in retaining customers. Better customer service is therefore an important and necessary activity at all time in the life of the enterprise. Every organisation, especially in the telecommunication sectors, has to take into consideration how best to serve it potential and current customers if it intends for such customers to retain its products or service. The development and expansion in the telecommunication industry today has paved ways for economic development and satisfaction. The most important development and discovery is the wireless telephone system, which comes in either in fixed wireless telephone lines or the Global system of mobile communications (GSM) of which Cameroon system is not left out.
The advent of GSM in 2017 marked a dramatic shift in Cameroon’s telecommunication industry. The Cameroon telecommunication industry is one of those industries that have experiencing in more than a decade now an increase competition. This all started in July 1998 when there was a revival of the Cameroon telecommunication sector. This revival was to make Cameroon broke-up the long monopoly it had in this sector since 1972. This was followed by the split up of the historical public monopoly International Communication Company Limited (Intelcom) in 1999 into two entities: CAMTEL and CAMTEL Mobile. Thereafter, the first competitive private mobile license was granted to the “Societé Camerounaise des Mobiles (SCM)”. With three telecommunication companies operating then, the government created the Telecommunication Regulatory Agency (ART) which acts as the sector gendarme (it guarantees and ensures the regulation, control and monitor of the activities of operators in this sector). This new legal and regulatory framework immediately attracted foreign investors. Since then, GSM licenses were granted to three (3) providers namely MTN, ORANGE and NEXTTEL.
Telecommunication product development is easy to emulate, and when the telecommunication industry provide nearly identical services, they can only be distinguished based on the prices and quality. The service failure in service industry is predictable due to the human involvement in the service delivery process, which eventually creates vitality for service providers to obtain complaints from angry or dissatisfied customers, in order to, retain them by provisioning of quick recovery option (Kaur & Sharma, 2015). In today’s cutthroat competitive environment, negligence in customer service or service quality can lead to business loss, which is not affordable in terms of cost of acquiring new customers. It is important to formulate proactive strategies to retain customers by determining the antecedents behind customer complaining behaviour (Karatepe, 2006; Kaur & Sharma, 2015). This behaviour is developed with experience and direct or indirect interaction with service (Meyer & Schwager, 2007). Customer experience is a term that explains customer collective incident with service provider and it also helps to determine the durability of relationship of that customer with service provider (Islam & Rima, 2013). Customer experience can be enhanced only when good customer service is maintained.
Therefore, good customer services is the potential and effective tool that telecommunication industry can use to gain a strategic advantage and survive in today’s ever-increasing telecommunication competitive environment. The majorities of telecommunication companies have non-domestic owners, and are not very diversified in terms of the products and services they offer (Hull, 2002). This suggest that most organisations have reached the maturity phase of the product life cycle and has become commodities, since telecommunication companies offers nearly the same products. This carries the danger of creating a downward spiral of perpetual price discounting; fight for customer share (Mendzela, 1999).
One strategic focus that telecommunication companies can implement to remain competitive would be to retain as many customers as possible. The key factors influencing customer retention in the telecommunication industry includes the range of services, rates, fees and price charged (Abratt & Russell, 1999). Furthermore, service excellence, meeting clients’ needs, and providing innovative products are essential to succeed in the telecommunication industry. Most private firms claim that creating and maintaining customer relationships are important to them and they are aware of the positive values that relationships provide (Colgate et al., 1996).
Cameroon Telecommunication (CAMTEL) was first a private telephone company known as INTELCAM which was a branch of an American Telecommunication company. Later on it became a parastatal, part government and part private. CAMTEL was created under decree No:98/198 on the 8th of September 1998, with a staff strength of ( 2197) workers. CAMTEL deliver services such as OPTICAL FIBER and CORPORATE NETWORK, which CAMTEL uses to distribute different available Network to its competitors.
At first, CAMTEL had just the Land Line (fixed) telephone and fax, but when telecommunication competitors came to Cameroon with mobile phones, internet and (GSM), it was like an eye opener to CAMTEL. CAMTEL had to diversify its products, being the owner of the optical fiber CAMTEL had to come out with more advanced communication tools in order to retain its customers. In order to retain its customers, CAMTEL had to do everything possible to meet the expectations of the customers through improvement in technology and marketing mix.
To accomplish this target, CAMTEL had to turn a new page and came out with the following products: wireless fixed phone, mobile (CT) phone, pay phone, (GSM), smart phone, Wiffi, pack Mboa, Toli, Telecopy (fax). For internet services CAMTEL has: switching telephone NETWORK, Internet connections through CT phones, (ISDN) an internet in wireless fixed phones, internet through (ADSL) and internet connection through dedicated lines. In addition, CAMTEL has a short-term plan and a minimum investment program where: CAMTEL Laid the sub-marine optical fiber cable West Africa Festoon sub-marine Cable System(WAFS), With landing points in Kribi and Limbe, and a land extension from Limbe to Douala. CAMTEL has put in place a reliable modern system of managing Network from the technical and commercial standpoint with a view to ensuring rapid connection of subscribers and easy fault recording.
Studies on customers’ service, customer loyalty and customers’ retention are no longer a new topic in the field of customer relationship management practice and philosophies (Colgate & Norris, 2001; Bowen & Chen, 2001; Lauren & Lin, 2003; Lee & Hwan, 2005; Lucas, 2005; Mishra, 2009). However, after a thorough search, limited studies have been carried out regarding the effectiveness of customer service in the retention of customers in developing economy such as Cameroon and more precisely in a public company that had monopoly in the past and today is almost the last in the market despite urged investments. In addition, various researches (Douglas & Connor, 2003; Wong & Sohal, 2003; Parasuraman et al., 1988) have focused only on service quality in telecommunication sector while customer service being the focus of this study as well as its influence on customer retention has been given limited attention. This research therefore seeks to examine customer service (effectiveness and quality) in CAMTEL and its influence on customer retention.

1.1 Problem Statement
Telecommunication companies continuously strive to increase their customer base. They provide products and services to fulfill different needs of the customers. The focus is now moving from short-term satisfaction to long-term relationship between the firm and its customers as Grönroos (2000). Finding new customers is important for a business, but equally important is keeping the old customers since it has resultant economic benefits to the business (Buttle, 2004). The effectiveness of customer service and the delivery of high quality services are considered to be profitable strategy for success in today’s highly competitive market including the telecommunication industry.
The Cameroonian telecommunication industry has shown significant growth since 1998 with the liberalization of the sector. It was composed of a single monopoly the early days but now it is totally dominated by four companies. It is therefore crucial for companies operating in the sector to gain better understanding of their customers so that they are attracted as well as maintained for long period. If this is true for leaders companies, it is more relevant to followers such as CAMTEL which need to increase its market share. In fact, according to statistics from the Telecoms Regulatory Agency (ART in French), the telephone sector in Cameroon had 16.8 million subscribers (out of a population of 22 million inhabitants) as at end September 2015, against 16.6 million in 2014. This development is mainly due to the increase in the mobile telephone penetration rate, which now reaches 80% against 71% in 2014, according to the telecoms regulatory authority.
The couple made of the South African operator MTN and the French group Orange continues to lay down the law on the mobile market and telephone market at large, with 93.8% of market shares for both. In detail, MTN grabs 57.04% of the market, against 36.8% for Orange. The newest arrival on the market, Vietnamese operator Viettel which operates under the NEXTTEL brand, takes 4.66% of market share, a little over one year after launching its operations. At the tail end of this ranking established by ART is the historical operator, CAMTEL, sole landline telephone operator of the country, who commands 1.4% of the telephone market in Cameroon. However, from the telecoms authority’s statistics, the number of subscribers to the public operator, who at that time was preparing to start using its mobile license, reaches 412,000 clients, after stagnating for a long time at 22,000.
The competition in that sector has forced telecommunication companies to think of ways to generate profit by differentiating their products and/or services from their competitors so that customers are retained to a greater level. Nevertheless, it should be noted that, today, the differences in products or services offered among the different telecommunications providers are relatively insignificant, even the switching cost of customers is very low. To obtain an advantage in such a competitive environment, firms are now providing “value-added” service. According to Vandermerve (1993), the rationale is that the market power is in the services, because the value is in the result; which has to do with customer retention and loyalty.
As such, in this system characterised by competition, companies want to meet up with the need of customers. Due to the unpredictable behaviour of customers, they can only be stimulated to buy and because of these companies are forced to better customer services to retain their customers. These functional characteristics have brought us to develop the various ways in which companies can better customer service and customer retention. Firstly, what is the nature of customer service in companies? And how does it impact customer retention? What are those strategies that can be used in customer services in other to retain its customers? Are employees satisfied, so that they can be willing to give customers the best service? This is because when a customer receives poor service, he or she will tell up to 30 people which will tannish the image of the company. This leads us to exposing the strategies to improve customer services and its impact on customer retention.
This notwithstanding, Hopewell (2014) found that the service quality of many telecommunication operators is very poor due to high number of complaints, bad customer experiences and customer satisfaction issue. Service providers are doing service upgrades and expansions in order to meet these market challenges. Service providers need to provide better data services and they need to upgrade technology from 3G (3rd Generation) to 4G (4th Generation) mobile technology for provisioning of faster data services. During the roll-out of network and services, lack of proper planning leads to poor customer service to clients (Taylor, 2013). This can contribute to poor voice and data services. This is highly evident in CAMTEL in that even after the launching of the mobile license, its situation and position in the telecommunication sector has not change. While MTN Cameroon, ORANGE and NEXTEL are making massive moves towards attracting and maintaining customers through an efficient customer relationship management and increased service quality, the state-owned corporation CAMTEL which is the pioneer in the country has over the years recorded no significant increase in its customer base when compared with the former. Ironically, CAMTEL customers keep on switching from this sector to enjoy the quality services offered by its competitors. This can be illustrated by a drastic decrease of CAMTEL South-West Region revenues from 1,377,044,457 CFAF in 2013 to 244,240,941 CFAF in 2017 (see Appendix 2). In view of the above, there is dire need to conduct a study on customer service quality in CAMTEL and how it affects customer retention rate. In addition, it is important to consider the observations of Fluss (2010) concerning the attitudes of competitors and the annual customer attrition in some industries and more particularly in the telecommunication industry. He notes that competitors are always on the lookout to steal customers through better deals. He has observed that annual customer attrition rates range from 7% in industries that have high exit barriers such as banking and insurance, to almost 40% in the mobile phone industry. It can therefore, be concluded that customers in the telecommunication industry keep on switching network providers for better deals.

The main objective of customer service is customer satisfaction. Therefore an effective customer service is the one that provide satisfaction to customers. A satisfied customer does not mean someone who does not have complaints; he is simply someone who is genuinely happy with the service, the product and the whole experience of dealing with the organization.
The aspects that can be observed in assessing the effectiveness of an organization customer service are its staff (in terms of general appearance, mood and expression, attitude, product knowledge, training, communication abilities, etc.), the premises (special offers, etc.), the quality and the value of the products or services.
Companies with effective customer service have many benefits. Firstly, it is always cheaper to retain an existing customer than to attract a new. Secondly, it provides higher value to the customers. It is an integrated approach to marketing, service and quality and thus, helps the companies in gaining a competitive advantage over the others. Another advantage of customer service is that long term customers may do referrals and viral promotion for the companies. Moreover, with time, because of good customer relationships, customers tend to increase their purchases, and there is less need for the companies to offer certain price promotion to the retained customers (Parasuraman et al., 1988).
There are two types of services by which companies can improve their customer service; these are: Reactive and Proactive services (Alireza, 2010). Reactive service is practiced when a customer faces problem such as product failure or question about bill and contacts the firm to solve it or to get more information through e-mails, phone etc. Proactive service is a situation where firms do not wait until customers communicate and contact them. Proactive service holds information about their customers prior to use reactive solutions such as complaint handling. This can be done where employees are dealing with and interested to realize customers’ expectations (Winer, 2001).

2.1 The Leaky Bucket Theory by Andrew Ehrenberg (1988)
The leaky bucket theory is the model that seeks to describe the process of customer gain and loss, otherwise known as customer churn. Customer retention is one of the key concepts in relationship marketing. Most companies concentrate on recruiting new customers to replace customers who move on, rather than seeking to retain customers. Andrew Ehrenberg coined the phrase ‘leaky bucket’ to describe this syndrome: in effect, firms are putting customers into a leaky bucket, and instead of preventing them from leaking away through the bottom of the bucket, the firm keeps topping up the bucket with new customers.
The theory uses a bucket that has several holes in the base and its walls. A hose is put into the bucket and it is filled with water. Some of the water will run out the holes. In the analogy, water going into the bucket represents new customers being acquired and the water flowing out of the bucket represents customers lost to the firm. The amount of water in the bucket represents the total customer base of the firm at that time.

Figure 2: Customers’ attrition (Churn)
Source: Clerk (2014)

Customer attrition, also known as customer churn, customer turnover, or customer defection, is the loss of clients or customers. Banks, telephone service companies, Internet service providers, pay TV companies, insurance firms, and alarm monitoring services, often use customer attrition analysis and customer attrition rates as one of their key business metrics (along with cash flow, etc.) because the “…cost of retaining an existing customer is far less than acquiring a new one.” Companies from these sectors often have customer service branches which attempt to win back defecting clients, because recovered long-term customers can be worth much more to a company than newly recruited clients.

2.2 Theory Appreciation in this Study
The telecommunication market in Cameroon is very competitive with giant companies like MTN, ORANGE, NEXTTEL, and CAMTEL. The challenge with CAMTEL is that this is the pioneer company in the sector yet, it seems to be lacking behind companies like MTN because most of its customers have been over the years leak to MTN and others.
Thus, if the company must survive from competition then it is paramount to continuously fill the bucket with more water, in this case, new customers. After all, no water, no business. So the question is: How leaky is CAMTEL in terms of its customer survive? How many holes do the company has that are letting customers constantly pour out? There are two ways to keep the water level, that is, the customers full in the bucket (business):
a. Constantly add more water, new customers, while previous customers continue to pour out.
b. Plug the leaks in the business, and keep the water you’ve already got in your bucket.
From the customer relationship management, it’s far easier, and much more cost-effective, to keep the customers you have rather than trying to attract new ones. It’s also much more profitable.
2.3 Assimilation Theory by Festinger’s (1957)
Assimilation theory is based on Festinger’s (1957) dissonance theory. Dissonance theory posits that consumers make some kind of cognitive comparison between expectations about the product and the perceived product performance. This view of the consumer post-usage evaluation was introduced into the satisfaction literature in the form of assimilation theory. According to Anderson (1973), consumers seek to avoid dissonance by adjusting perceptions about a given product to bring it more in line with expectations. Consumers can also reduce the tension resulting from a discrepancy between expectations and product performance either by distorting expectations so that they coincide with perceived product performance or by raising the level of satisfaction by minimizing the relative importance of the disconfirmation experienced.
Payton et al. (2003) argue that Assimilation theory has a number of shortcomings. First, the approach assumes that there is a relationship between expectation and satisfaction but does not specify how disconfirmation of an expectation leads to either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Second, the theory also assumes that consumers are motivated enough to adjust either their expectations or their perceptions about the performance of the product. A number of researchers have found that controlling for actual product performance can lead to a positive relationship between expectation and satisfaction. Therefore, it would appear that dissatisfaction could never occur unless the evaluative processes were to begin with negative consumer expectations.

This study intended to appraise the effectiveness of customer service from the perspective of CAMTEL South-West Regional office and its ability to bring about customer satisfaction
The study made used of the descriptive survey research design. Descriptive research involved gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003). The justification for using this design is that it has the ability to explore the existing status of two or more variables at a given time. It is usually associated with a deductive approach and is conducted usually in business and management research to prove or disprove certain assumed propositions and hypothesis. As such, it was apt to employ this design to examine the effect of customer service especially of CAMTEL on the customer retention in the company.
The population of this study constituted all the customers of CAMTEL in the South-West Region with special focus in Buea Municipality
The sampling strategy used for the selection of a sample can either be random or purposive (Robinson, 2014). This study adopted the purposive sampling technique given that there was not a known size of the total population. As a consequent of this, respondents were selected based on their willingness to participate and their availability. This enabled to target a sample size of 150 respondents. Out of the 150 targeted, just 90 finally participated to the study, giving a response percentage of 60%. Thus, the study sample is 90 respondents who were customers of CAMTEL.
There are two sources of data collection techniques. Primary and Secondary data collection techniques. Primary data collection uses surveys, experiments or direct observations. Secondary data collection may be conducted by collecting information from a diverse source of documents or electronically stored information, census and market studies are examples of a common sources of secondary data.
Data for this study was collected mainly from the primary source using questionnaires. Questionnaires are the most regularly used data gathering method (Saunders et al, 2007) as it is a highly effective way in gathering empirical data from large samples within a short period of time. The questionnaire contained a list of questions either an open-ended or close -ended for which the respondent give answers as such this study mainly focused on the use of questionnaire for data collection
The data for the present study were personally collected by the researcher with the help of a self- structured non disguised questionnaire and interviews. Five points Likert Scale was used in the questionnaire which was a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire framed was simple easy comprehendible and consistent of closed ended questions. The focus of the questions was regarding the customer service, service quality and their impact on the retention customers in the telecommunication sector. Five points, Likert Scale was used in the questionnaires to know the responses of the customers.
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was employed to analyze the data. The collected data were first edited, coded, and checked to see whether there was any missing data. For analyzing the quantitative data, SPSS is a widely used technique for managing data adequately and analysis appropriately

This study was out to appraise the effectiveness of customer services in CAMTEL Buea. The initial point to this assessment was respondents opinions on how effective are CAMTEL services in the South-West Region of Cameroon. Data on this specific objective were collected and analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; which employed the use of non- parametric statistics. Descriptive statistics were generated through percentages, means and standard deviations and to analyze the data under study from where inferences were made. The analyzed data were then presented in tables, figures and charts.
Data were gathered using Likert scale ranking response options on a scale of 1-5 through: Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Neutral (N), Agree (A) and Strongly Agree (SA) taking into account the direction of the survey statement; positive weighted or negative weighted statements. The Likert scale data were analysed using mean and standard deviation where the mean values were used as the focal points for drawing conclusion for the descriptive findings.
Results of the survey revealed that out of 90 respondents, slightly more than half of the respondents 47(52.2%) admitted that they could describe customer service in CAMTEL South-West Region of Cameroon as effective while the remaining 43(47.8%) disregarded the effectiveness of this customer service.
As such, 15(16.7%) rated the customer service to be not effective at all, 33(36.7%) considered it less effective, 28(31.1%) ranked it ineffective and 12(13.3%) viewed it as effective and 2(2.2%) considered it very effective as seen on the figure below.

Figure 8: Rating of Customer service Effectiveness
Source: Field Survey, 2018

In addition, the examination of customer service effectiveness was done with 15 survey statements derived from the literature review and evaluated on 5-point likert scale options. In order to reduce ambiguity, the researcher collapsed the Likert scale from five point ranking to three point ranking, wherein; Strongly Agree and Agree where analysed under Agree (A), disagree and Strongly Disagree grouped under Disagree (D) and the Neutral option maintained. The respondents’ view is presented in Table below.

Table: Respondents’ View on Customer Service Effectiveness

More than a quarter of the respondents 31(34%) agreed that any time you try to call CAMTEL South-West phone, a live person usually answer to your calls and almost half of them 42(46.7%) stayed neutral while 17(18.9%) disagreed. Also, a substantial proportion of the respondents 33(36.7%) admitted that all the promises made by CAMTEL South-West are always realized on time against 19(21.1%) disagreement and 38(42.2%) neutral views.
Similarly, significant proportion of the respondents 33(36.7%) acknowledged the delivery of service in CAMTEL South-West is made as promised. This was disagreed by 19(21.1%) of them while majority of them 38(42.2%) stayed neutral. 19(21.1%) of these responses could also attest to the fact that CAMTEL staff usually listen to customers complaints and provide appropriate responses; against 40(44.4%) disagreement and 31(34.4%) indifferent views.
Equally, more than a quarter 30(33.3%) approved that CAMTEL South-West assigns adequate time to respond to customers’ complaints; though 36(40%) neither agreed nor disagreed t this assertion as 24(26.6%) who totally disagreed.
In terms of apology, a good proportion of the respondents 27(30%) actually acknowledged that South-West apologizes whenever a complaint is made. This was frowned at by 29(32.2%) a greater proportion to the former and 34(37.8%) remained neutral. This also complimented by the views that CAMTEL South-West provided information about handling customers’ complaints according to distributions of 18(20%) agreement, 27(30%) neutrality and half 45(50%) total disagreement.
In relation to socialization, 29(32.3%) admitted that CAMTEL South-West staff are friendly, helpful and always keep their eyes on customer satisfaction against a greater proportion than them 35(38.9%); yet 26(28.9%) were impartial. 20(22.2%) also, disclosed that the staff of CAMTEL South-West is courteous and knowledgeable. This was disregarded by 37 (41.1%) of them and 33(36.7%) impartiality.
With regards to staff-customer interaction, about a quarter 26(28.9%) responses approved that the staff-customer interaction was well done in CAMTEL South-West; unlike majority 40(44.4%) disagreement and 24(26.7%) neutral views. This was corroborated results of the fact that the staff of CAMTEL South-West always led you to the service customers request for.
Lastly, results on customer care revealed that only less than a quarter of the respondents 19(22.2%) acknowledged that the staff of CAMTEL South-West was well train in attaining to customers. 33(36.7%) views were impassionate but 37(41.1%) totally disagreed. 14(15.6%) respondents went further to admit that at CAMTEL South-West, additional information on how to use their services were usually provided to customers. 28(31.1%) did not accept nor reject this but more than half 48(53.3%) rejected.

The study has noted that customer service effectiveness in CAMTEL showed a dissatisfaction level from the view of customer which reduces their loyalty, their level of contentment in staying with CAMTEL rather leaking on to competitors, their trust of the services and their desire to stay with CAMTEL. There is therefore an urgent need to reestablish a sustainable customer service style that will cause customers to stay loyal to CAMTEL services.

Abratt, R., & Russel, J. (1999). Relationship Marketing in Private Banking South Africa. The Int. J. Bank Mark, 17(1), 5-19.
Agyei, P. M., & Kilika, J. M. (2013). The Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Loyalty in the Kenyan Mobile Telecommunication Service Industry. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(23), 26-36.
Ahmad, R., & Buttle, F. (2002). Customer retention management – a reflection of theory and practice: A case study. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20(3), 149-161.
Ahmad, R., & Buttle, F. (2002). Customer retention management: A reflection of theory and practice. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20(3), 149-161.
Alireza, N. (2010). The impact of CRM on customer retention in electronic banking Case of Iranian banks. Available at:…/the-impact-of-crm-on-customer-retention-in-electronic-LTU-EX-2011-32522865.pdf
Amin, M. E. (2005). Social Science Research: Conception, Methodology and Analysis. Makerere University Press, Kampala.
Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firm. Marketing Sciences, 12(2), 125-145.
Anderson, R. E. (1973). Consumer dissatisfaction: The Effect of Disconfirmed Expectancy on Perceived Product Performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 10, 38–44.
Andersson, T.D. (1992). Another Model of Service Quality: A Model of Causes and Effects Of Service Quality Tested On A Case Within The Restaurant Industry. Quality Management in Service, 3(2), 41-58.
Ang, L., & Buttle, F. (2006). Customer Retention Management Processes: A Quantitative Study. European Journal of Marketing, 40(1/2), 83-99.
Aronould, Price, & Zinkhand (2004). Customers, 2nd edition, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin Publishing House.
Awara, N. F. (2010). Strengthening Customer Retention through the Management of Customer Relationship in Services Marketing. University of Calabar (UNICAL), Nigeria; available at:
Balaji, M. (2009). Customer Satisfaction with Indian Mobile Services. IUP Journal of Management Research, 8(10), 52-62.
Bebko, C. P. (2000). Service Intangibility and its Impact on Consumer Expectations of Service Quality. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(1), 9-26. MCB University Press, 0887-6045 9.
Berry, L. L. (1983). Relationship marketing. In Berry, L.L., Shostack, G.L. and Upah, G.D. (Eds), Emerging Perspectives of Services Marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL.
Bhatti, S. A., Abareshi, A., & Pittayachawan, S. (2016). An Empirical Examination of Customer Retention in Mobile Telecommunication Services in Australia. In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications (ICETE 2016), 2, 72-77. DOI:10.5220/0005951900720077.
Bolton, R. N. (1998). A dynamic model of the duration of the customer’s relationship with a continuous service provider: The role of satisfaction. Marketing Science, 17(1), 45–65.
Bowen, J., & Chen, S. (2001). The Relationship Between Customer Loyalty And Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(5), 213-217.
Bruhn, M. (2003). Relationship Marketing Management of Customer Relationship. England: Pearson Education Limited.
Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (2003). The Practice Of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique And Utilization. Toronto: WB Saunders.
Buttle, F., (2004). Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Tools. s.l.:Elsevier: Oxford.
Chen, P. Y., & Hitt, L. M. (2002). Measuring Switching Costs and the Determinants of Customer Retention in Internet-Enabled Businesses: A Study of the Online Brokerage Industry. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 255–274.
Christianus, D. (2002). Management of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: How to profit and value of enterprise. Expert Renningenmalmsheim.
Clerck, D. P. J. (2014). Understanding the customer life cycle and calculating CLV. [Online]. Available on: understanding-customer-life-cycle-calculating-value/
Coelho, P. S., & Henseler, J. (2012). Creating customer loyalty through service customization. European Journal of Marketing, 46, 331-356.
Colgate, M., & Norris, M. (2001). Developing a Comprehensive Picture of Service Failure. Int. J. Ser. Ind. Manage. New Delhi, 12 (314), 215-235.
Colgate, M., Stewart, K., & Kinsella, R. (1996). Customer defection: a study of the student market in Ireland. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 14(3), 23-29.
Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill
Coviello, N. E., Brodie, R. J., Danaher, P. J., & Johnston, W. J. (2002). How Firms Relate to their Markets: An Empirical Examination of Contemporary Marketing Practices. Journal of Marketing, 66(3), 33-46.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.
Dambush N. H. (2014). The Role of Customer Relationship Marketing on Customer Retention: A case of Ethiopian Insurance Corporation in Mekelle Branch (Tigray). MBA Thesis, College of Business and Economics, Department of Management, University of Mekelle.
Davis & Heineke (2003). Managing Services. 1st edition, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin Publishing House.
Dawes, J. (2009). The effects of service price increases on customer retention: The moderating role of customer Tenure and relationship breadth. Journal of Services Research, 11, 232-248.
Douglas, L., & Connor, R. (2003). Attitudes to service quality- the expectation gap. Nutrition & Food Science, 33(4), 165-172.
Dubey, A., & Srivastava, A. K. (2016). Impact of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty- A Study on Telecom Sector in India. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 18 (2), 45-55. DOI: 10.9790/487X-18214555.
Ehigie, B. O. (2006). Correlates of customer loyalty to their banks. A case study in Nigeria. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 24(7), 494-508.
Ehrenberg, A. (1988). Repeat-Buying: Facts, Theory and Applications, 2nd ed, Edward Arnold, London; Oxford University Press, New York.
Erdis, C. (2009). Investigating customer services in selected restaurants in the Tshwane area: an exploratory study. University of South Africa, Pretoria,
Farquhar, S. (2004). Customer Retention in Retail Financial Service: An Employee Perspective. Int. J. Bank Mark, 22 (213), 86-99.
Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. : Stanford University Press.
Fill, C. (2005). Marketing Communications: Engagements, Strategies and Practice. FT Prentice Hall- Business & Economics.
Grönroos, C. (1984). A Service Quality Model and Its Marketing Implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36-44.
Grönroos, C. (1990). Service Management and Marketing: Managing the Moments of Truth in Service Competition, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts.
Grönroos, C. (1998). Marketing services: The case of a missing product. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 13(5), 322-338. DOI: 10.1108/08858629810226645
Gummenson, E. (1999). Total Relationship Marketing. 1st edition. Butterworth-Heinemann. Britain.
Gummesson, E. (2002). Total Relationship Marketing, 2nd ed., ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford.
Hau, N. L., & Ngo, L. V. (2012). Relationship marketing in Vietnam: An empirical study. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24(2), 222-235. DOI: 10.1108/13555851211218039.
Healy, T.J. (1999). Why You Should Retain Your Customers? America’s Community Banker, 8 (9), 22-26.
Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., Dwayne, D., & Gremler, D. D. (2002). Understanding relationship marketing outcomes. Journal of Service Research, 4(3), 230-247.
Hollensen, S. (2003). Marketing Management: A Relationship Approach, 2nd ed., Pearson, Harlow.
Hongyi, X., & Man, L. (2011). A Dynamic Model of Customer Retention in Mass Customization Services. Journal on Innovation and Sustainability.
Hopewell, L. (2014).
Hull, L. (2002). Implications for New Zealand’s Financial Stability: Foreign-owned Banks. Discussion Paper.
Jahanshahi, A. A., Gashti, M. A. H., Mirdamadi, S. A., Nawaser, K., & Khaksar, S. M. S. (2011). Study the Effects of Customer Service and Product Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(7), 253-260.
Karatepe, O. M. (2006). Customer complaints and organisational responses: the effects of complainants’ perceptions of justice on satisfaction and loyalty. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(1), 69-90.
Kaur, P., & Sharma, D. S. K. (2015). Validating scale on determinants affecting complaining intentions & its applicability for Indian Service Industry. International Journal of Applied Services Marketing Perspectives, 3(4), 1365-1372.
Kim, M. K., Park, M. C., & Jeong, D. H. (2004). The effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer loyalty in Korean mobile telecommunication services. Telecommunications Policy, 28(2), 145-159.
Komunda, M., & Osarenkhoe, A. (2012). Remedy or cure for service failure?: Effects of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Business Process Management Journal, 18 (1), 82-103.
Kotler, P. (1997). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control. 9th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2001). Wrong Veronica. Principles of marketing. 4th edition. England: Pearson Education Ltd
Lauren, P., & Lin, H.H. (2003). A Customer Loyalty Model for E-Service Context. J. Electronic Commerce Res., pp. 4- 4.
Leal, R. P., & Pereira, Z. L. (2003). Service recovery at a financial institution. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 20 (6), 646-663.
Lee, M. C., & Hwan, I. S. (2005). Relationships among service quality, customer satisfaction and profitability in the Taiwanese banking industry. International Journal of Management, 22(4), 635-648.
Lehtinen, U., & Lehtinen, J. R. (1982). Service quality: a study of quality dimensions. Helsinki: Service Management Institute, Unpublished working paper, Finland OY.
Lewis, R.C., & Booms, B.H. (1983). The marketing aspects of service quality. Emerging Perspectives in Service Marketing. In Berry, L.L., Shostack, G. and Upah, G. (Eds) American Marketing Association, Chicago,IL 99-107.
Likert, T. (1932) in Uebersax (2006 ), The Technique for Measurement of Attitude, Retrievedfrom//
Lindgreen, A., Palmer, R., & Vanhamme, J. (2004). Contemporary marketing practice: theoretical propositions and practical implications. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 22(6), 673-692.
Little, E., & Marandi, E. (2003). Relationship Marketing Management, 3rd ed., Thomson, Derby.
Lucas, R (2005). Customer Service, 3rd edition, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin Publishing House.
Malapo, M.E., & Mukwada, G. (2011). The Impact of Customer Retention Strategies in the South African Cellular Industry: The Case of the Eastern Free State. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 1(2), 52-60.
Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. (2006). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
McCrory, B. (2013). Customer Retention through the Equal Incorporation of Continuous Improvement (CI), Culture and Customer Service. DBA Thesis, Edinburgh Napier University.
Mendzela, E. (1999). Managing Customer Risk. The CPA Journal, 69, (6).
Menon, K., & O’Connor, A. (2007). Building customers’ affective commitment towards retail banks: The role of CRM in each moment of truth. Journal of Financial Services Marketing,
Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 116-130.
Michel, S., Bowen, D., & Johnston, R. (2009). Why service recovery fails. Journal of Service Management, 20(3), 253-273.
Mishra, A. A. (2009). A study on Customer Satisfaction in Indian Retail Banking. IUP Journal of Management Research, 8(11), 45-61.
Mostert, P.G., Meyer, D, & Rensburg, L.R.J. (2009). The influence of service failure and service recovery on airline passnger’s relationships with domestic airline: an exploratory study. South African Business Review, 13 (2), 87-98.
Mugenda, M., & Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Labo/Graphics Services.
Narteh, B. (2013). Key determinant factors for retail bank switching in Ghana. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 8 (4), 409-427.
Ngo, V. M., & Nguyen, H. H. (2016). The Relationship between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty: An Investigation in Vietnamese Retail Banking Sector. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(2), 103-116. DOI: 10.7441/joc.2016.02.08
Njane, J. G. (2013). An Investigation of Factors Affecting Customer Retention in Barclays Banks of Kenya. MBA project, School of Business, University of Nairobi.
Oluseye, O. O., Odunayo, S., Adeniyi, S., & Borishade, T. T. (2014). Evaluation of Customer Service and Retention; A comparative Analysis of Telecommunication Service Providers. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3 (8), 273-288.
Omotayo, O., & Joachim, A. A. (2008). Customer service in the retention of mobile phone users in Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management, 2(2), 26-31. Available online at
Orodho, A., & Kombo, D. (2002). Research Methods. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Institute of Open Learning.
Padhy, P. K., & Swar, B. N. (2009). A Study on Customer Satisfaction and Service Gaps in Selected Private, Public and Foreign Banks. Paper presented at the 3rd IIMA Conference, Marketing Paradigms for Emerging Economies, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India.; also available at:
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and its Implication for Future Research. Journal of Marketing, 49, 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Customer Perceptions of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing, 64, 12-23.
Parker, K. V., Nitse, P. S., & Tay, A. S.M. (2009). The Impact of Inaccurate Color on Customer Retention and CRM. Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 12, 105-122.
Peelen, E. (2005). Customer Relationship Management. Harlow: Prentice.
Raab, G., Ajami, R. A., & Gargeya, V. B. (2008). Customer Relationship Management: A Global Perspective. Farnham, Surrey, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group. Retrieved from
Ramakrishnan, K. (2006). Customer retention: the key to business performance (online). Available:
Ranaweera, C., & Neely, A. (2003). Some Moderating Effects on the Service Quality Customer Retention Link. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(2), 230-248.
Reichheld, F. (1996). The Loyalty Effect. Massachusetts: Bain & Company, Inc.
Reichheld, F. F., & Kenny, D. (1990). The Hidden Advantages of Customer Retention. Journal of Retail Banking, 7(4), 19-23.
Reichheld, F. S. W. (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68, 105‐111.
Robert-Lombard, M. (2011). Customer retention through customer relationship management: The exploration of two-way communication and conflict handling. African Journal of Business Management, 5(9), 3487-3496.
Roberts-Lombard, M. (2009). Customer retention strategies implemented by fast-food outlets in the Gauteng, Western Cape and Kwazulu-Natal provinces of South Africa-a focus on Something Fishy, Nandos and Steers. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1(2), 70-80.
Robinson O. (2014). Sampling in Interview-Based Qualitative Research: A Theoretical and Practical Guide. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 11(1), 25-41.
Rowley, J. (2006). Information Marketing. Abingdon, Oxon, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group. Retrieved from
Sasser, W. E., Olsen, R. P., & Wyckoff, D. D. (1978). Management of Service Operations. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. 4th Edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. Fifth Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Harlow. England.
Singh, H. (2006). The Importance of Customer Satisfaction in Relation to Customer Loyalty and Retention. UCTI Working Paper. pp. 12-19.
Smith, A. M. (2006). A cross-cultural perspective on the role of emotion in negative service encounters. The Service Industries Journal, 26(7), 709–726.
Sterne, J., & Cutler, M. (2000). E-Metrics, Business Metrics for the New Economy.
Taylor, J. (2013). Optus loses customers amid 4G growth.
Tsai, S-P (2013). Discussing Brand Information on Social Networking Sites: Implications for Global Brand Marketing. Journal of Organisational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 23 (4), 372-391.
Turban, E. (2002). Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. Prentice Hall.
Van Der Merwe, J. H. (1993). Theoretical considerations in growing uniform epilayers. Interface Science, 1(1), 77-86.
Van Riel, A. C. R., Liljander, V., & Jurriens, P. (2001). Exploring Customer Evaluations of E-Service: A Portal Site. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(4), 359-377.
Venetis, K. A., & Ghauri, P. N. (2004). Service Quality and Customer Retention: Building Longterm Relationships. European Journal of Marketing, 38(11), 1577-1598.
Ward, S. (2007). Good Customer Service Made Simple ( ).
Winer, R. (2001). A Framework for Customer Relationship Management. California Management Review, vol. 43, (4): pp. 89−105.
Wong, A., & Sohal, A. (2003). Service Quality and Customer Loyalty Perspective on two Levels of Retail Relationships. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(5), 495-513.
Woo, K., & Fock, H. (2004). Retaining and divesting customers: an exploratory study of right customers, at-risk right customers, and wrong customers. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(3), 187-197.
Yuktanandana, A., & Prasertsakul, D. (2008). The Effects of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction on Customer Loyalty: A Case of Thai Mobile Network Industry. Interdisciplinary Management Research XI, 808-823.
Zeithml, V. A., & Bitner, M. J. (2003). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Relationship between Types of Problems and Customer Responses”. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 13 (3): 264-276.