Effect of Rooting Hormone (4-(Indol-3-yl) Butyric Acid) on Asexual Propagation of A Petersiana

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: March 15, 2019

Nowell J Chateya & Andrew T Kugedera
Midlands State University, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Gweru, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Agriculture Management, Faculty of Agriculture
Masvingo Region, Zimbabwe

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Rooting Hormone (4-(Indol -3-yl) Butyric Acid) on Asexual Propagation of A Petersiana.

Climbing wild apricot population is threatened and becoming extinct due to deforestation, veld fries and invasion by alien species among other causes. A. petersiana prove to naturally propagate through layering in its natural habitat. The explored the use of seradix (4-(Indol -3-yl) Butyric acid) to enhance the rooting of cuttings and ground layered stems. Seradix proved to have no significant effects on the rooting of cuttings and ground layered stems. It is better to use ground layering than using cuttings when propagating A. petersiana to achieve high percentage success from propagated material in to individual plants. Application of rooting hormone showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between hormones used. The results show that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between methods used for the propagation of A. petersiana. There is need for further research to identify appropriate rooting hormone and application method that can be used to enhance success of sexual propagation of A. petersiana. Need to determine the best asexual propagation method in terms of propagules and associated agronomic practices in the propagation of A. petersiana.

Keywords: Rooting, hormone, 4-Indol-3-yl, asexual propagation, Climbing wild apricot.

1. Introduction
Wild plants are less preferred in cultivation despite their contribution in preference and nutritional benefits hence the need for considerable attention being paid to wild fruit trees (Valvi et al., 2011). Valvi et al. (2011) argues that scientific research studies of wild fruits are crucial for wild fruit trees as wild fruit trees are potential sources of nutrition during time of scarcity and that wild fruit trees can be propagated to meet the food demands for increasing human population. Selection, sound breeding and application of biotechnology have made it possible to develop wild fruit tree into varieties which are more palatable and preferred by man that could be propagated under field conditions (Campbell, 1987). There was very limited focusing on African wild fruit trees due to limited knowledge, expertise and unavailability of financial funding of such developmental projects. Domestication of wild plants have influenced human diet since ancient time when man started domestication of plants and this have deviated food diversity and narrowed genetic diversity in cultivated plants. Sankaran et al. (2005) mentioned that domestication results in standardization of agronomic activities to ascertain maximum and quality yield attainment.

2. Review of literature
Priority of wild plants being selected to constitute to cultivated plants was given to wild plants that yield more benefits to man since the ancient period, nevertheless some wild plants like climbing wild apricot have not been given limited attention. This is mainly due to scarcity of the fruit tree, unavailability expertise to carry out research in the fruit tree and unavailability of financial resources to fund domestication programme in African countries where the fruit trees originates (Pye-Smith, 2010). The first collection of climbing wild apricot revealed to the scientific world was done by Professor Wilhelm Peters (1815-1863) of Berlin who made collection of the fruit tree in Mozambique in the early 19th century (Hyde et al., 2013) and from that period there was limited research being done on the fruit tree. Climbing wild apricot’s limited attention maybe attributed to the fact that the wild fruit tree is native to southern African countries (Akinnifesi et al., 2008) like Zimbabwe, South Africa, Mozambique, Zambia and Namibia which have limited resources in developmental projects of developing wild plants into domesticated plants
Climbing wild apricot population is under extinction and its natural propagation in the wild is being jeopardized by natural and man induced extinction. In the wild environment propagation of wild trees is influenced by a number of factors, which are soil moisture, planting depth, pests, and soil structure completion. There is need to take measures to conserve and manage climbing wild apricot tree population which is being threatened by natural and man induced extinction. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (1997) and Ross-Ibarra et al. (1997) argues that extinction of wild trees is mainly caused by changes in climate, invasion by alien species, deforestation and veld fires. Moreover unfavorable edaphic factors of fertility, soil structure and texture are among factors threatening the population of climbing wild apricot. Climbing wild apricot are propagation in the wild is being inflicted hence the wild tree is towards extinction and its popularity and contribution is decreasing to the rural livelihood is decreasing (Akinnifesi et al., 2008).
The whole globe is sorely growing and concentrating virtually on same types of crops in the cropping system with mainly cereals having the highest hectares of production. Some of crops are yielding higher yield in foreign areas as compared to areas of their origin (Hyde et al., 2013). With this accession climbing wild apricot can be propagated in other parts of the globe and attain better productivity. There is need to increase exploitation of important wild fruit trees through identification of propagation methods. Improvements of the wild species to obtain better varieties may be through selection, biotechnology and breeding. In Cameron people are now propagating and domesticating wild fruit trees that are sweet varieties and yield early than their natural counterparts (Pye-Smith, 2010). The domestication programme in Cameroon was made possible through the participation of farmers in selection of better tasting varieties and scientist in breeding and biotechnology application (Pye-Smith, 2010).
Communities are willing to domesticate wild fruit trees that are crucial to their livelihood (Campbell et al., 1987; Wiersum, 1997; Akinnifesi et al., 2006; Pye-Smith, 2010). Major hindrance to domestication of wild fruit trees is knowledge of propagation method(s), poverty and lack of monetary funding for domestication programme, lack of expertise for carrying out relevant researches for perpetuation of the domestication programme (Wiersum, 1997 and Pye-Smith, 2010). Wiersum (1997) mentioned that when community has knowledge of propagation method of crucial wild fruit tree, the community can easily propagate the wild fruit tree to ensure close availability and increased exploitation of the fruit tree.
Enhancement of rooting of cutting and ground layered stems has been done through use of rooting hormone. Rooting hormone is applied on propagation material and it function in stimulating formation of roots on propagation material. Enhancement of the proliferation of roots increases the chance of success of propagation material into individual plants or plantlets that can be transplanted (Blythe and Sibley, 2003; Cerveny and Gibson, 2005; Kroin, 2010 and Kroin and Hortus, 2013). There are various rooting hormone formulations and are found in different forms of liquid, gel and powder (Blythe and Sibley, 2003 and Cerveny and Gibson, 2005). Moreover there are different methods of applying rooting hormones to propagation material, which are spray drip down, total, immerse, dry dip, basal long soak and basal quick dip (Blythe and Sibley, 2003, Cerveny and Gibson, 2005). Each different rooting hormone type accompanied by application method is suitable for different tree species (Kroin, 2010 and Kroin and Hortus, 2013). This present study is going to ascertain efficacy of seradix (4-(Indol -3-yl) Butyric acid) on the rooting of cuttings and ground layered stems in establishment of individual plants that can be transplanted.

3. Materials and Method
3.1 Study area
The study was done at Masvingo Polytechnic College in Masvingo District in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe. Masvingo Polytechnic College is in Masvingo town and on the east side along Masvingo– Beitbridge road 200 51 S and 300501 E and he study site is on altitude of 1240 m above sea level. Masvingo Polytechnic College is in agro-ecological region IV (Thomas and Vincent, 1961). It is dominated by Savannah and Miombo. Mugandani et al. (2012) found out that the study area has a mean minimum temperature range of 11-20 ºC; mean maximum temperature range of 19-26ºC and a mean annual temperature range of 18-24ºC. Annual rainfall ranges from 450- 650 mm. Most of the rainfall is received in summer from October up to March. The soil is of the fersiallistic group, brown sandy soil derived from granite. The terrain generally ranges from moderate to steep slopes with shallow soils and of poor structure. Below is a map showing the location of Masvingo Polytechnic College in relation to Masvingo District.