Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: November 2018
Qori’atul Adawiyah, Imam Suroso & M. Dimyati
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
This study aims to determine the direct influence of brand personality, promotion, and servicescape on impulse buying through the mediation of wardah shopping emotion products in Roxi Banyuwangi. The research was also conducted to find out indirect brand personality, promotion, and servicescape knowledge on impulse buying through wardah shopping emotion in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. This study was conducted in Roxi Banyuwangi at the wardah cosmetic outlet. The population in this study was 140 people. The analytical tool used in this study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to determine the direct and indirect effects of independent variables with dependent variables. The results of this study are that brand personality has a significant effect on shopping emotion. Promotion has a significant effect on shopping emotion Servicescape has a significant effect on shopping. Brand personality has a significant effect on impulse buying. Promotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Servicescape has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shopping emotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shoping emotion mediation in the influence of brand personality on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive effects. Shopping emotion mediation in the influence of promotion on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive results. The shopping emotion mediation in the servicescape influence on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi showed significant results and had a positive effect.
Keywords: Brand Personality, Promotion, Servicescape, Impulse Buying, & Shopping Emotion.
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are related to the brand. Brand personality is important because it can add more value to the eyes of consumers for a brand and is also able to influence consumer purchasing decisions (Best, 2007). Promotion is one element that has an important role in marketing. Sales promotion is a form of direct persuasion through the use of various incentive tools to encourage the purchase of a particular product or service quickly and increase the amount of goods purchased by consumers (Tjiptono, 2008: 86). The various forms of sales promotion are the best known POP or point of purchase. POP includes all visual forms created by brand owners, starting from display installation, floor advertising to product placement with attractive shapes or sequences. Besides POP sales promotions can also be done in the form of contests. Usually, product brand owners set up their booths and hold several prize competitions. Another form is to give prizes that can be exchanged directly by making discounts or providing gifts and samples attached to the products sold. In addition, retailers have the ability to manipulate store environments in order to encourage impulse buying, one of which is to create a convenient and attractive shopping environment so that consumers can enjoy shopping activities (Tjiptono, 2008: 97). Emotion shoping also includes one that affects impulse buying. Emotions are generally triggered by environmental events (Solomon, 2007: 114). A person’s mood or emotions or a person’s psychological condition at the time of purchase can have a big impact on what he buys or how he values his purchases.
At present the development of the Indonesian cosmetics industry is relatively solid. Wardah’s cosmetic product sales increase occurred from 2011 to 2012. In 2011, Mustika Ratu’s products were the first place to achieve the biggest sales in the cosmetics category, but Wardah took second place. In 2012 until 2015, Wardah took the position and conversely Mustika Ratu was second after Wardah. Although it is at the top of 2012 until 2015, Wardah must remain vigilant against its competitors. It can be seen also from the table above, that Wardah’s sales increase was not too significant. For this reason, it is necessary to carry out various ways so that consumers still decide to buy wardah cosmetic products.
The formulation of the problem in the research is:
a. Does the Brand Personality influence the shopping of consumer emotion and the impulse buying of wardah products that buy in Roxy Banyuwangi?
b. Does the promotion affect the shopping of consumer emotion and the impulse buying of wardah products that buy in Roxy Banyuwangi?
c. Does the influential servicescape of shoping emotion consumers and impulse buying wardah products buy in Roxy Banyuwangi?
d. Does the consumer emotion affect the impulse buying of wardah products that buy in Roxy Banyuwangi?
2. Literature Review
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that have relevance to the brand Best, et al (2007) stating that. Brands with personalities tend to be more impressive and better than brands with no personality, just as human brands can have various personalities such as being professional or being competent in Aaker (2008). Based on this understanding, it can be concluded that brand personality is a characteristic that exists in someone who has a relationship with a brand. Brand personality is important because it can add value to the eyes of consumers for a brand. Aaker has developed a brand personality dimension which is a framework for describing and measuring brand personality in five core dimensions.
Promotion is one part of a series of marketing activities for an item. Promotion is an activity in the field of marketing which is a communication carried out by the company to buyers or consumers that includes reporting, persuading, and influencing everything about goods and services produced for consumers, while the activity aims to increase sales volume by attracting consumers’ interest in making decisions buy at the company. To clarify about the notion of promotion, here are some definitions of promotion (Tjiptono, 2000: 219).
The Servicescape model shows that there is a balance between the response of customers and employees. This means the same service environment can have a different impact on various customers, depending on who the customer is and what he likes and is subjective. Servicescape is a style and physical appearance of the elements of experience encountered by consumers in service delivery places (Lovelock, 2011).
Solomon (2012) Shopping Emotion a person’s mood or someone’s emotions or psychological condition at the time of purchase can have a big impact on what is bought or how he judges his purchase. From this definition it can be seen that emotions consist of three components, namely physiological, behavioral and cognitive. Emotions which include feelings and moods are important factors in making decisions by consumers.
Levy (2012) states that impulse buying is a purchase decision made by consumers in the place after seeing the goods. Impulsive purchases of consumers often buy a product without being planned in advance and not thinking about the consequences. The desire to buy without being planned often appears in stores or in retail. Many factors cause consumers to buy goods without being planned. One factor that can cause unplanned purchases is the display.
This study uses confirmatory research because it aims to explain and test or prove a theory or hypothesis to strengthen or reject existing research theories or hypotheses. The influence in question is the brand personality influence of sales promotion and servicescape on impulse buying with shopping emotion as an intervening variable. This study uses quuneruner and likert scale measurements to measure research variables.
The population of this research is all consumers of wardah products who are making unplanned purchases on wardah products in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. The sampling technique used in this study is non-probability sampling, namely the purposive method (purposive sampling) because there are no data, names and addresses of the population. Purposive sampling, namely choosing a sample so that the sample criteria obtained are really in accordance with the research that will be conducted. This is done because researchers have understood that the information needed can be obtained from certain target groups who are able to provide the desired information because they have such information and they meet the criteria determined by the researcher. Roescoe (2003) states that more than 30 and less than 500 sample size are appropriate for research. Ferdinand (2006: 62) states that the determination of a representative sample size depends on the number of indicators multiplied by 5 for the minimum limit and 10 for the maximum limit. Refer to the three opinions and based on the above considerations. The total indicator in this study was 21, so this study used 147 samples (21×7 = 147). However, from the research conducted, samples that met the requirements were only 140 samples.
Operational variables used in research;
a. Brand Personality (X1), the indicator (X1.1) Satisfaction, (X1.2) Attraction, (X1.3) Excellence, (X1.4) Perfection.
b. Promotion (X2), the indicator (X2.1) Product tester, (X2.2) Price discount, (X2.3) Contest competition.
c. Servicscape (X3), the indicator (X3.1) Ambient Condition Dimension, (X3.2) Spatial Layout and Functionality Dimensions, (X3.3) Dimension Signs, Symbols and Artifacts.
d. Shopping Emotion (Y1) indicator (Y1.1) Pleasure, (Y1.2) Arousal, (Y1.3) Dominance.
e. Impulse Buying (Y2) indicator (Y2.1) Urgency to buy, (Y2.2) Positive effect, (Y2.3) Negative effect, (Y2.4) Looking at the store, (Y2.5) Enjoyment spending, (Y2.6) Time availability, (Y2.7) Availability of money, (Y2.8) Trend of impulse purchases,
Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS software program, as one of multivariate analysis techniques, confirmatory allows analysis of a series of simultaneous relationships so as to provide systematic efficiency.
4. Research Result
4.1 Characteristics of Respondents
The respondents with the most or the majority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are respondents aged between 20-30 years, are 52.86%, while the minority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are respondents aged between 31-40 years 30%, 41-50 year 10.71% and more than 50 years 6.43%. The majority of wardah users are between the ages of 20-30 years because young people have a high curiosity so they are very enthusiastic to try a new product other than that it is supported by endorser from public figures who may be some of their endorsers.
The respondents with the most or the majority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are 57.86% of respondents who work as private employees, while the minority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are respondents who work as civil servants 2.86%, entrepreneurs 19.29% , housewives 17.14% and students 2.86%. Why in terms of characteristics based on the profession, the majority are private employees because private employees of beauty are important things in supporting their work.
The respondents with the most or the majority of respondents who were consumers of Wardah products were income earners of between 2 million and 5 million, 67.14%, while the minority of respondents who were consumers of Wardah products were respondents with income of less than 2 million 5 million 13.57%. Because by looking at this condition Wardah products are demanded by the majority of middle class people because with a salary of 5 million and above they will tend to look for other products that are more expensive.
The respondents with the most or the majority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are 56.43% unmarried respondents, while the minority of respondents who are consumers of Wardah products are 43.57% married. People who are not married tend to want to try new things including beauty products to support their appearance.
4.2 Instrument Test
The results of validity and reliability test show that the value of t (indicated by the value of C.R) for loading significance of 0.05 (critical value = 1.96), as well as the probability value is smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that all variables are significantly related to the construct (all indicators are valid). The construct reliability is 0.782, 0.654, 0.721, 0.655 and 0.858, above the recommended value of at least 0.6 – 0.7 so all indicators or variables are reliable.
4.3 Structual Equation Modelling Assumptions
a. Normality test
The results of the normality test (assessment of normality (CR) (attachment 5) give a CR value of 1.803 located between -1.96 (-1.96 ≤ 1.803 ≤ 1.96 (α = 0.05), so that it can be said that the data is normal multivariate, in addition to normal non-variate data also indicated by all critical ratio values of all indicators between -1.96 (-1.96 ≤ CR ≤ 1.96 (α = 0.05).
b. Multicolinierity test
A very small or near zero determinant value indicates an indication of a multicollinearity or singularity problem, so that the data cannot be used for research. The determinant of sample covariance matrix is 57,051.
c. Outliers test
The value of the expensive distance based on the value of Chi Square on the free degree (the number of indicator variables and variables) at the significance level of 0.05 was 32,671 (based on the X2 df 21 distribution table). The outlier test results showed that none of the cases had Mahalanobis distance values greater than 32,671, so it could be concluded that there were no multivariate outliers in the study.
4.4 Structual Equation Modelling Analysis
a. Model Confirmatory Test (Goodness-Of-Fit Test)
Table 1. Model Suitability Index
Criteria Cutt Off Value Result Explanation
Chi-square Less than (< X2 with df 149 is 178,485) 158,807 Good Sig. > 0,05 0,303 Influence
RMSEA ≤ 0,08 0,042 Influence
GFI ≥ 0,90 0,963 Influence
AGFI ≥ 0,90 0,847 Not Influence
CMIN/ DF ≤ 2 or 3 1,065 Influence
TLI ≥ 0,90 0,968 Influence
CFI ≥ 0,90 0,957 Influence
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
Based on Table 1, it is known that out of the eight criteria used to assess whether or not a model is feasible, there is only one criterion that is declared non-influential, but overall it can be said that the suitability of the model is good and acceptable which means there is a match between the model and the data.
b. Causality Test
Figure 2. Results of Structural Equation Modeling
Table 2. Causality Testing Results
Variable Path CR Probability Explanation
X1 Z 0,349 3,733 0,000 Significant
X2 Z 0,254 2,747 0,000 Significant
X3 Z 0,292 3,173 0,000 Significant
X1 Y 0,327 3,471 0,000 Significant
X2 Y 0,221 2,381 0,002 Significant
X3 Y 0,264 2,815 0,000 Significant
Z Y 0,483 5,155 0,000 Significant
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
Based on the results of testing the path coefficients in Table 2;
Z = 0,349 X1 + 0,254 X2 + 0,292 X3
Y = 0,327 X1 + 0,221 X2 + 0,264 X3 + 0,483 Z
4.3 Direct Effect
Table 3. Direct Effect
Direct Effect Estimate
X1 Z 34,9%
X2 Z 25,4%
X1 Y 32,7%
X2 Y 22,1%
X3 Y 26,4%
Z Y 48,3%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
a) The direct influence of brand personality on shopping emotion for consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 34.9%;
b) The direct effect of sales promotions on shopping emotion for consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 25.4%;
c) The direct effect of servicescape on shopping emotion for consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 29.2%;
d) The direct influence of brand personality on the impulse buying of wardah product consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi is 32.7%;
e) The direct effect of promotion on the impulse buying of wardah product consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi is 22.1%;
f) The direct effect of service scape on the impulse buying of wardah product consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi is 26.4%;
g) The direct effect of shopping emotion on the impulse buying of consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 48.3%.
4.4 Indirect Effect
Table 5. Indirect Effect
Indirect Effect Estimate
X1 Z Y 29,6%
X2 Z Y 20,9%
X3 Z Y 23,5%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
a) The indirect influence of brand personality through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of wardah product consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi is 29.6%;
b) The indirect effect of sales promotion through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 20.9%;
c) The indirect effect of servicescape through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi was 23.5%.
4.5 Total Effect
Table 6. Total Effect
Total Effect Estimate
X1 Z Y 45,3%; 62,8%
Z X2 Z Y 30,5%; 44,9%
Z X3 Z Y 39,1%; 53,2%
Source: Data Analysis, 2018
a) The total influence of brand personality on impulse buying is 45.3% and the total influence of brand personality through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of wardah product consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi is 62.8%;
b) The total effect of sales promotion on impulse buying is 30.5% and the total effect of sales promotion through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 44.9%;
c) The total effect of service scape on impulse buying is 39.1% and the total effect of service scape through shopping emotion on the impulse buying of consumers of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi is 53.2%.
The research conducted shows that the brand personality that exists in the consumers of wardah products has provided a tendency of influence of 34.9%. Customers who have a connection with wardah products, of course, will be able to find out that the products in the cosmetics are of good quality. Customers from wardah cosmetic products that have relevance to the products offered because they have a good impression will certainly have an effect on these customers to find and buy a new product that they find useful. Wardah cosmetics products also have a brand that attracts interest from their customers to be able to buy products offered at Roxy because the products are affordable to their customers. Kosmetik wardah also has the advantage of giving a halal label to the products it offers so it will still be able to attract customers to buy and use it. The research shows that the consumer brand personality of wardah Roxy Banyuwangi cosmetic products has provided an influence tendency of 32.7%. The brand personality of wardah products offered to its customers will certainly attract interest from its customers to be able to buy the products they offer. Wardah products that continue to develop according to the needs of their customers and follow a growing trend will trigger customers to find out about products that are in trend and become a necessity for them. When a product is sought according to the trends and needs of its customers, customers will immediately buy the product even though the product is bought based on a purchase that was not planned by him beforehand. Wardah products do give a pleasant impression on the use and appeal of the use of cosmetic products that have been demonstrated by the cosmetic services in Roxy, customers will see the influence of the use of these products, and often customers immediately decide to buy them because they have seen results awesome.
The research conducted shows that the sales promotion of wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi has provided an influence tendency of 25.4%. Sales promotion is done by giving an example to its customers to try it, of course it will be felt very beneficial for prospective customers, so that prospective customers will be able to try and feel then will decide to buy products that suit their needs. Wardah cosmetic products also provide discounts that are in accordance with the expectations of their customers, so the price offered will be cheaper than the actual price. Benefit from wardah cosmetic customers is to be able to buy at a cheaper and affordable price. Sales promotions conducted at Roxy also provide a demo to its customers so that their customers can try and find out the quality of new products offered so that customers will properly understand the products being offered to them. The research conducted, showed that sales promotion carried out by service officers from wardah cosmetic products had provided a tendency of influence of 22.1%. For customers who are looking at wardah cosmetics products for sale, of course the service officers will provide a tester or trial to their customers. The tester given will determine the next process because the customer has tried the product as the tester. Customers who are suitable and suitable with the new product offered by considering the availability of money they have will then quickly decide to buy the product being offered because the tester with good results, and also an affordable price discount. Customers’ interest in wardah cosmetic products also lies in demonstrations or performances given by cosmetic officers who provide services and offers to their customers, customers will have more trust when they know the results of using wardah products that are very good for the face. Customers will not hesitate and will decide to buy spontaneously for products that have been seen before because they have good results.
The research conducted shows that service scape from wardah products in Roxy Banyuwangi has provided an influence tendency of 29.2%. The sale of wardah cosmetics products at Roxy is also triggered by the presence of friendly servants in serving their customers, customers will accept it as a sense of respect and customers will be very happy with the service. Friendly service by offering certain product offers will stimulate buying the product even though the product is already owned by its customers, but for backup products and additions it is a natural thing to be bought by its customers. The place provided in product offerings is also important in getting its customer, customers who feel comfortable with the place that is used as a place for demonstrations and good product offerings will certainly provide an appropriate feeling and provide a good image that wardah cosmetic products have an image place of offer in accordance with the products it offers. The research conducted shows that the servicescape at wardah cosmetics product offerings in Roxy has provided an influential tendency of 26.4%. Customers will greatly consider the existence of friendly service to visitors of products that only find out and then buy it. Service officers will provide good use instructions to prospective customers to stay interested and buy the product. Many of the customers, with friendly service and adequate facilities in the location of offering wardah cosmetic products, are tempted to be able to buy the product, and then buy it. A good arrangement of places where wardah cosmetics products are offered that do provide an image of beauty and hygiene in a product will certainly give customers the confidence to be interested and trigger a purchase process that is not actually planned beforehand. There are also many customers who remain interested because they have the characteristics of the product to be maintained in wardah packaging and cosmetic products, this will be a symbol for customers to be able to easily find the original and new products offered. Products with distinctive features will be able to trigger the purchasing process because customers understand quality products and new products that suit their needs.
Research shows that shopping emotion from customers of wardah cosmetic products in Roxy Banyuwangi has provided a tendency of influence of 48.3%. Shopping emotion from wardah cosmetic product customers is very important in purchasing wardah products. Lots of prospective customers at Roxy are happy to see a variety of products that are neatly arranged and their hearts are happy, of course, the existing offers will get a good response from the prospective buyers. Prospective buyers who are feeling happy will certainly be very easily triggered by a quality product offering with good tester results and according to the needs of their customers. Customers will not hesitate to buy spontaneously even though previously they did not plan to buy wardah cosmetic products, but with the pleasure and tester that has been given, the customers will buy the product without much thought, but the product is still in accordance with their needs. New products at relatively affordable prices will certainly give good consideration in triggering the purchase of a new product offered at Roxy. Customers will sympathize with new products at relatively affordable prices, and customers will continue to buy these products based on prices and new products that suit their needs.
The conclusion of this study are ;
a. This proves that a brand personality that is attractive and provides trust will increase shopping emotion for consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
b. This proves that sales promotions carried out by giving a tester and also discounts will increase shopping emotion for wardah consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
c. This proves that servicescape is good and has a characteristic and also the type of layout that will increase shopping emotion for consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
d. This proves that brand personality that has the attraction and satisfaction created by wardah cosmetics will increase impulse buying for wardah consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
e. This proves that attractive promotions such as conducting a demo or discount on the latest products will increase impulse buying for wardah consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
f. This proves that attractive and appropriate servicescape as well as layout according to the type of cosmetics or friendly service will increase impulse buying for wardah consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
g. This proves that shopping emotion that is fun and creates a good mood will increase impulse buying for wardah consumers in Roxy Banyuwangi.
Recommendation based on the results of this study are ;
a. The provider of wardah cosmetic product is encouraged to increase the brand personality of existing products and new products offered by their customers.
b. Wardah cosmetics product providers are encouraged to be able to further increase sales promotion by providing a tester and price offer that is more suitable for the new products they offer.
c. The provider of wardah cosmetic product is encouraged to further evaluate and improve the servicescape of the services used in the product offerings that have been made to their customers.
d. It is expected that the next researcher can include male respondents because the presence of female respondents only shows the results that shopping emotion is not so important in the indirect effect. Maybe with some reason include male consumers because it can be a male person in impulse buying more using his mood than the factors in the indicator of impulse buying.
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