Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: July 17, 2019
Johan Pramono, I Made Tjahyana & Lukman Budi Kusumo
College of Information and Computer Management (STMIK), Badung, Bali
Indonesian College of Computer Science (STIKI), Denpasar, Bali
The problem identification in this study is the Implementation of Integrated Application Program Policies for the Development of Online Online Work and Budget Management (PATROMAN) at the Regional Development Planning Board of Banjar City? This research is a qualitative descriptive study in the Banjar City Regional Development Planning Agency, Head of the Regional Development Planning Informant Agency, Head of Planning, Research and Development, Acting Head of Regional Infrastructure, Head of Social and Economic Affairs, Head of Government, Evaluation of Monitoring and Development, Head of Subdivision General and Personnel, Head of Development Subdivision, Head of General Subdivision and Personnel, Head of Finance and Staff Subdivision. Data collection is done through non-participation observation, in-depth interviews and documentation studies in accordance with the tradition of social studies. Data analysis using interactive models by Miles and Huberman. The conclusion of this study is that the Implementation of Integrated Application Program Policies for Online Regional Development Work Plan and Budget Management in the Regional Development Planning Board of Banjar City Based on Mayor Banjar Regulation Number 11 Year 2018 is still not optimal, and has not been able to make Regional Development Planning Organizations better. Factors that determine the implementation of PATROMAN policies in relation to the performance of the organization of the Regional Development Planning Agency internally are: Human Resources; Echelon and Facilities; while the decisive external factor is politics, in this case the regional head as a political office and regional legislature is a political representative; and applicable legal regulations.
Keyword: Implementation, Integrated, Application Program for Regional Development Online Work and Budget Management (PATROMAN).
1.1. Background Research
E-government is a government organization using information technology and telecommunications to improve the performance of government, as well as meet local needs for transparency and accountability of government financial information with the aim of achieving good governance.
Along with the development of technology and information so rapidly, the implementation of e-government is not just only in the field of public services to the community directly to provide excellent service effectively and efficiently, but the concept of e-government itself have an impact also on the planning system well at the level of central and local levels of government.
Based on initial observations in the field, namely on Implementation of E-Government Development Planning BAPPEDA Against Banjar, found a number of problems that show Development Planning has not been effective, as seen from the indicators that can be described as follows:
a. The ineffectiveness of the indicators are not yet effective Bureaucratic Structure division of duties or authorities in implementing the policy. Bureaucratic structure here is Standard Operating System (SOP) which rules or guidelines used by the user / user for RKPD Integrated Online Application Program and Budget Management (PATROMAN).
b. The ineffectiveness of the indicators Resources, which is not yet effective potential or certain elements that support the implementation of the policy. Resources here include: staff, information, Privileges and amenities.
c. The ineffectiveness of the Disposition indicator, namely the ineffectiveness of the attitude of the apparatus as a user / users on RKPD Integrated Online Application Program and Budget Management (PATROMAN).
d. The ineffectiveness of the indicators of communication, namely the delivery of information from the Mayor Banjar through the Head of Planning Agency to the apparatus and / or user in Regional Development Planning Board City of particular and generally of the Region in Banjar, so that the intended use of the Application Program Integrated RKPD Online and Budget Management (PATROMAN) is not optimal , Communication here include: Transmission, Clarity and Consistency of Information Information.
2. LITERATURE, FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING AND PROPOSITIONS
2.1 Reader Review
2.1.1 Scope Implementation of Public Policies
According to Edward, the implementation of the policy is a very complex with so many factors that influence the success of an implementation of the policy. In reviewing the implementation of public policy, Edward began by asking two questions, namely:
is the precondition for successful policy implementation?
What are the primary obstacles to successful policy implementation?
Edward III in Subarsono (2009: 90) seeks to answer two questions by examining four factors or variables of the policy that the bureaucratic structure, resources, communication and disposition. The fourth of these variables are related to one another as Figure 2.1 below:
Figure 2.1.Determinants of Implementation According to George C. Edward III
Source: Subarsono 2009: 91
1. Structure of Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy is one-on-one institutions are most often overall even be implementing activities. The existence of the bureaucracy not only in the structure of government, but also in private organizations, educational institutions and so on. Even in certain cases the bureaucracy created just to carry out a particular policy.
Understanding the structure of the bureaucracy is a fundamental factor for assessing the implementation of public policy. According to Edwards III in Winarno (2005) there are two main characteristics of bureaucracy are: “Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and fragmentation”. Standard operational procedure (SOP) is the development of internal demand will be the certainty of time, resources and the need for uniformity in the organization of complex and extensive work “(Winarno, 2005). The basic measure SOP or work procedure is commonly used to combat common conditions in various public and private sectors. By using SOP, the executor can minimize the time available and can serve to unify the actions of officials in the organization of complex and widespread,
According to Edward III in Agustino (2006), the resource is important in the implementation of good policies. The indicators used to see the extent to which resources to influence policy implementation consists of:
Edwards (Winarno, 2008: 175) discusses three important things in the process of policy communications, namely transmission, consistency and clarity (clarity). Dimensions transmission requires that public policy is delivered not only submitted to the executive (Implementers) policy, but also delivered to the target group policy and other interested parties, either directly or indirectly to the policy was, therefore, the dimensions of the communication includes a transformation policy, clarity and consistency (Widodo, 2009: 97).
2.1.7. Scope E-government
E-governmentis a government organization using information technology and telecommunications to improve the performance of government, as well as meet local needs for transparency and accountability of government financial information with the aim of achieving good governance. E-Government may be applied on the legislative, judicial, or public administration, to improve internal efficiency, deliver public services, or processes of democratic governance.
Indonesia defines the E-Government as a telematics technology used by government officials to support good governance and accelerate the democratic process.
According to Presidential Decree No. 20 2006 E-Government is the use of information and communication technologies in the process of government to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, and accountability in governance. The role of IT in business processes create an organization seeking to implement IT for integrated processes.
1.1.8. Online RKPD Integrated Applications Program and Budget Management (PATROMAN)
According to the Banjar Mayor Regulation No. 11 Year 2018 About the Use and Management of Online RKPD Integrated Applications Program and Budget Management, that is Patroman Data Processing Applications in the process of local development planning in Urban Banjar.
Basically, in the framework of the planning process that is effective, efficient, accountable and accountable, it is necessary to develop integrated planning and information system with integrated online system through the Integrated Management System RKPD Online Application Program and Budget Management (PATROMAN). System PATROMAN itself is an information system planning as part of the embodiment of the planning data in Banjar, which can document the stages of the planning process to a specific period and set the program plan and the annual activity area as well as a common reference for all development stakeholders in each process and stages Regional development planning Banjar.
1.1.9. Development Planning
Development is a process of community activities on the preface itself or the government in improving the economic conditions of the social and cultural communities, mengintrogasikan various communities into national life, creating the nation’s ability to promote an integrated manner. Regional development is the process of activity, local communities in improving economic, social and cultural conditions of residing in a particular area.
According to Law No. 25 Year 2004 on National Development Planning System Article 1, paragraph 3, of the National Planning System is the unity ordinances development planning to produce a plan – a plan of development in the long term, medium term and yearly conducted by an element of the state and society at the central level and Area.
2.2 Framework of Research
Based on the description above concept, the characteristics of the existing problems in the field, and theoretically relevant studies, the authors use the concept of implementation of the policy proposed by C. Edward III, communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure. This writer used for the formulation of the problem closer to that theory.
Based on the identification of problems and the framework that has been stated above, the proposition of research is the Policy Implementation Program Application Integrated RKPD Online and Budget Management In Bappeda Kota Banjar determined by Communication (Communication), Resources (Resources), Dispotions or attitudes (attitude) and Buereaucratic structure (bureaucratic structure) as expected by the service users.
3. RESEARCH METHODS
Based on the background of the problem and the purpose of this study, the researchers say that in accordance with the method of this research is using qualitative research. The use of such methods is based on the consideration that this method is intended to describe and assess qualitatively, how the perception or view of the apparatus and the public on the Implementation of Integrated Applications Program Policy and Budget Management Online RKPD in Bappeda Kota Banjar. All data is obtained directly from informants in the field by using interviews and observation.
3.1. Parameter Study and Operational Aspects
Aspects that were examined in this study are the factors or variables of Policy Implementation Program Application Integrated RKPD Online and Budget Management In Bappeda Kota Banjar, which consists of a Communication (Communication), Resources (Resources), Dispotions or attitudes (attitude) and Buereaucratic structure (bureaucratic structure).
Operational parameters is one of the reference which is used by researchers as a guide in the preparation of the thesis / research. because with this parameter operations researchers can conduct research sesuia dengaan what is already set.
Table 3.1 Parameter Operational Research
3.2. Data collection technique
3.2.1 Observation & Participation
Data collection techniques with participatory observation, commonly known by observation participate, a data collection technique, which the researchers participating in activities the object studied. By combining their own observations and knowledge, ethnographers (researchers) can reach a depth and assess the relevance of meaning gently, in ways that are unlikely to achieve as outsider. Thus, if an ethnographer (researchers) is capable of functioning as informants and observers, most problems can be resolved verification and correction of the speculation could be given.
3.2.2 In-depth Interviews
In-depth interviews (In-depth Interview) or also called unstructured interviews. In this context Mulyana (2001: 180-181), suggests that this method aims to obtain certain forms of information from all respondents, but the wording and the order is tailored to the characteristics of each respondent. This technique is flexible, question formation and arrangement of words in each question can be fickle at the interview and adapted to the conditions of the study subjects (informants). When researchers conducted interviews, the researcher guided by the guidelines for the interview (interview guide) and assisted voice recorder tool (Hp), recorder (book and pen). All information is recorded accurately and carefully, and always be reconfirmed if there are less obvious.
The number of informants needed adjusted by watching what they want to be known in accordance with the required data and information, support resources of the informants and researchers as well as after the repetition of information from informants keinforman.
3.2.3. Study Documentation
Besides the two above data collection techniques, the researchers also used the study of documentation to support the information and data required in accordance with the focus of the research undertaken. Study the documentation, namely collecting secondary data needed to support research for the documentation study, researchers will collect books, journals or scientific sources other relating to the Implementation Program Application Integrated RKPD Online and Budget Management in Banjar conducted by Bappeda Kota Banjar apparatus. This activity researcher deliberately did as the theoretical foundation for understanding the phenomena related to the object of this study.
The validity of the data is an important concept that is updated from the concept of validity (validity) on the reliability (reliability). The degree of certainty or truth of an assessment will be determined by what standard is used.
While the position of the researcher as an insider, will allow researchers to categorize and interpret the meanings of behavior patterns and information from the apparatus. According Moleong (2007: 324), there are several criteria that are used to check the validity of data, among others:
a. The degree of confidence (credibility)
The application of the degree of confidence in essence replaces the concept of internal validity and nonkualitatif. The function of the degree of confidence is, first, the findings can be achieved; Second, showing the degree of confidence the results of the invention by way of evidence by investigators on the fact under investigation. Criteria examined with some degree of confidence in investigation techniques, namely:
2) Referential adequacy
b. Keteralihan (transferability)
Keteralihan as an empirical question depends on the context of the observations between sender and receiver.
c. Dependence (Dependability)
Dependence is a substitution of reliability in research nonkualitatif. In qualitative research, dependence test is done by examining the whole process of research.
d. Certainty (Confimability)
In qualitative research, a test similar to the test of certainty dependence, so that testing can be performed simultaneously.
3.4. Data analysis technique
Data analysis is the process of preparing the data so that the data in the study can be interpreted. Compiling data means to classify the patterns, themes, or categorization. Data analysis is the process of drafting, simplification of data for a more simple and easy to read and easy to integrate. Analysis of the data has started to formulate and explain the problem, before plunging into the field and continue until the writing of the research results. In this context, Sutopo (1999: 82) argues that “in qualitative research there are three main components in the data analysis process, namely: (1) data reduction, (2) the presentation of the data, and (3) conclusion or verification. The third process data analysis plays an important role in the process and inter-related as well as determining the outcome of the analysis.
The third stage in the analysis process is interrelated parts between stages one another. The analysis will be carried out continuously since the beginning of the study until the end of the study. Data analysis model has researchers have described can be described as shown in the figure 3.1 below:
Picture: 3.1 Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques.
Source: Matthew B. Miles and Michael Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis
Tr. Tjetjep Rohendi, UI-Press (1992: 20).
3.5. Location and Time Research.
This study will be conducted at Bappeda Kota Banjar, tahapan planned research process lasted for 8 months starting Months Months July 2018 until February 2019.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Research result
4.1.1. Bureaucratic structure in BAPPEDA
Implementing the policy may know what to do and have the will and adequate resources to do so, but they may still be hampered in the implementation of the organizational structure in which they serve. The bureaucratic structure that will be discussed here is Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and fragmentation as follows:
126.96.36.199. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in the Bappeda
From the information it can be said that in Bappedahas not there a standard operating procedure on the implementation of the basic tasks and functions of Bappeda itself, including SOP PATROMAN, and even these are almost all SKPD not have any standard operating procedures, unless the institutions dealing with direct services to the community such as Hospital, Health Center or the Department of Investment and Integrated Services One Stop. So what happens now is a habit or routine that is already there and is valid since the first in Bappeda, while regulations on standard operating procedures of each field yet, so just do the routine work by the existing bureaucracy and superior orders alone,
188.8.131.52. Fragmentation in Bappeda
From the information it can be said that in Bappeda, fragmentation on PATROMAN’ve been able to run well, meaning it has spread responsibility for a policy to several different areas and coordinated by the Planning, Research and Development
4.1.2. Resources BAPPEDA
Command implementation can be appropriately channeled, clear, and consistent, but if implementers lack the resources that are essential to implement the policy, implementation becomes ineffective (George C. Edwards III: 1980). There are several variables including resources, namely: Staff, information on the operations and compliance, the passage of authority, adequate facilities. The following discussion of the resources in Bappeda Kota Banjar.
184.108.40.206. Staff at Bappeda
From the information can be seen that in terms of numbers is quite a lot of staff in Bappeda, but who has the ability and willingness to work only about 80 percent of it, such as the results of observations in the field, especially in Sub Division of General and Civil Service of some 10 existing staff both civil servants and THL / honorarium, only about 8 people who enter the office and work, so that work is always done by the same staff, so that the staff themselves feel heavy to do all the work load because of all the work given to him.
Moreover, because there are no people or staff who are given the task of functional positions planner, this led to the function of the functional positions itself can not function as it should, when it should be functional planner it has a very important role in Bappeda and should be filled by people who have good technical ability or young people who have the educational background and competence were good.
220.127.116.11. The information About How It Works BAPPEDA
From the interview, it’s pretty obvious that the information on the system PATROMAN BAPPEDA which is one organizational device pernerintahan in Banjar is quite obvious, since every work in governmental organizations must be essentially in the form of regulations that are already in the set as implementing / operational guidelines and technical guidance / technical guidelines, which have been previously disseminated. So the rules of action that is the basis of staff or employees carrying out their work.
18.104.22.168. Authority passes BAPPEDA
Of information and for researchers working in Bappeda Kota Banjar, the authority of the planning set out in PATROMAN and on controlling and evaluating the implementation of regional development planning is already well underway for the role and functions in the Bappeda, this can occur because of a policy of regional leaders ( Mayor), which gives that role to the government officials, both in the activities sourced from City budget, provincial budget or the state budget. The passage of this authority which makes the role and function of Bappeda be strong, and can work well, because it should measure and evaluate a development activity, tool ukumya is a plan that has been created previously contained in PATROMAN whether appropriate or not, are making plans Bappeda and monitoring and evaluation as well Bappeda. So we can say BAPPEDA authority to evaluate and monitor the development of the area is already well underway. As for the internal authority Bappeda interdisciplinary field has also been quite clear rules.
22.214.171.124. Amenities BAPPEDA
From the information it can be said that to be an organization that modem BAPPEDA still lacking in facilities and equipment, especially related to information technology of space and territory, supporting the invalidity planning contained in PATROMAN, but when compared with other SKPD BAPPEDA among the most complete amenities , In the implementation of the role and functions of institutions Planning Agency as Regional Development Planning is enough support with tools and equipment owned at this time, although not optimal.
4.1.3. Disposition BAPPEDA
According to George C. Edwards in Leo Agustino (2006: 152) Disposition or attitude of policy implementation is the third important factor in the approach regarding the implementation of a public policy. If the implementation of a policy to be effective, then the policy implementers must not only know what to do but also must have the ability to carry it out, so that in practice no bias. The important things that need to be observed in the variable disposition, according to George C. Edward III in Leo Agustino (2006: 152), is; Appointment Bureaucrats and Incentives.
126.96.36.199. Appointment Bureaucrats BAPPEDA
From the information it can be said that the removal of existing Servants its own procedures, Regional or planning agency could not do the hiring, as it relates to employee payroll issues that will be accepted or those appointed under the authority of the central government. However, the further problem of staffing the reception results sometimes do not fit the needs of SKPD in this case Bappeda, because there are certain interests. But for staffing within the internal BAPPEDA full authority in the Head of Planning Agency, only because the employee who entered does not match the required BAPPEDA the internal staffing in Bappeda is not too influential, usually placed in the general section.
188.8.131.52. lnsentif BAPPEDA
Based on the information and facts that exist in the field, the incentives prevailing in Bappeda was indeed generally accepted as a whole for each employee in Bappeda because it is based on Regulation Mayor of the incentives that apply to all employees in the Bappeda not based on performance, or level of ability to complete a work. So we can say that there are incentives that do not add to or improve the performance / desire and willingness to perform the command executing well, as diligent or not diligent, capable or not capable of carrying out a job, still get incentives / allowances for the same workload.
4.1.4. Communication in Bappeda Kota Banjar
So that implementation can be effective, they are responsible for the implementation of decisions need to know what they should do. Commands for policy implementation should be disseminated to the appropriate personnel, and such orders must be clear, accurate and consistent (George C. Edwards: 1980).
184.108.40.206. Transmission / Channel Communications in BAPPEDA
Based on the responses of informants and field observations conducted by researchers can be said in general transmission / communication channels in PATROMAN BAPPEDA as the leading sector, there is no problem, in the sense that has been running well, because it is clear the plot is bureaucracy in which policies are made from the top will be forwarded to the underlying structure of the communication channel can be in the form of a direct order, through written letters, and means of communication.
Based on the theory of communication according to Onong Uchyana Effendi, in his book Dimensions Kornunikasi “halarnan 50 (www. Herwanparwiyanto. Staff.uns.ac.id/…/komunikasi-dalam-organisasi.doc), communication can be classified into three categories , ie interpersonal communication, group communication and mass communication. Based on this theory, the three categories of this communication has been running in Bappeda Kota Banjar, so communication in PATROMAN BAPPEDA not encounter any obstacles and run well. communication between individuals in Bappeda Kota Banjar underway between the leadership with the staff that aims to convey the information (command) in order to achieve that goal together in common understanding can be reached. Communication group in Bappeda Kota Banjar takes place between the existing field.As for the mass communication performed in whole beijalan staff meetings regularly every month or when necessary.
220.127.116.11. Clarity command BAPPEDA
Based on the responses of informants can be said that almost every command of the structure above was never specific, just as the command associated with the work routine, the staff can understand the command, except in the implementation of a new regulation despite clear guidelines and juknisnya still it will be meetings to discuss at the official level of structural, so that there is a common understanding and a more clearly what you want from a policy included on Integrated Application Program Policy and Budget Management Online RKPD itself.
Lack of specificity orders given by the employer to his staff as stated by George C. Edwards (1980) that sometimes orders given to the performer vague and does not specifically mention when and how a program will be carried out. One possible cause is usually a given command is something new, so that the top-level decision makers do not have knowledge about this, besides the top-level decision makers to give freedom to the implementers to interpret the command, in order to obtain a number of alternatives of the program to be executed. As I walked in Bappeda Kota Banjar, vagueness common command, but because it is a routine matter, it is not a problem, while for new activities,
18.104.22.168. Consistency command BAPPEDA
The statement indicated that the consistency of commands can sometimes change because there is interest from policy makers, or the interests of government leaders, it is visible from a planning process that goes from the bottom is musrenbang from the village level up to musrenbang town and already inputted in the system PATROMAN, but when it will be ratified became Mayor Regulation on the budget, which is a legal product Perwal involving Parliament and Mayor of the proposal of the program under can not be accommodated in the activities budgeted for will be lost with the interests of Parliament or government leaders,This is proved by the research ever conducted Novi Widyastuti with a thesis entitled Evaluation Formulation of Local Government Work Plan Musi Rawas (the study of the absorption of the aspirations of the community planning forums) which concluded that the aspiration of society results musrenbang against the work plan Musi Rawas is still low, and still dominated planning Top Down or the interests of the government and parliament leaders.
Besides an understanding of the basic tasks and functions that should have been obvious, but because of longstanding some of the work taken up by parts / other fields, it will be difficult to restore the function goto / fields that are supposed to deal with the problem, because it would lead to conflicts of interest that impact will damage the working relationship between departments / fields.