Published on International Journal of Engineering & Industry
Publication Date: July 5, 2019
Slamet Poerwadi, Febry Nasution & Subroto Ali
Satya Negara Indonesia University
The increasingly competitive corporate competition, pushing the company continues to innovate in creating a product or service is superior to its competitors. Innovative companies, requires a means for employees to convey an idea or ideas such as through knowledge sharing activities. Analysis of the data obtained, it is known that the knowledge sharing activities at PT. PLN East Java, Surabaya has done routinely and integrated. However, the resulting innovation is still relatively minimal. While the role of knowledge sharing in the improvement of employee innovation is very important to do. Non-formal knowledge sharing more effective in encouraging employees creates a useful innovation for the company in the future.
Keywords: Knowledge Sharing, Innovation, Ideas and Non-Formal.
Increasing development of science and technology from time to time, the more the innovation that can be produced by humans. The phenomenon is present and the development of an innovation is a form of logical consequence of the dynamics of the problems and needs of human life which is always present and is increasing (Yogi Suwarno, 2008: page 2). In order to keep the constantly evolving process and continuous innovation that is dependent on having the means or activity that is able to facilitate each individual or member of an organization to be able to convey the idea or ideas. This is because according to the Delphi Group Research shows the knowledge or the knowledge of the organization stored in the structure include 42% of the minds or brains of employees, 26% of paper documents, electronic documents 20% and 12% of electronic knowledge base (Bambang Setiarso, 2009: p.8 ). This means that 42% of knowledge that is still in the mind or brain of each individual is what needs to get a room or facilities that can be delivered or communicated to others. So that not only adds to the person’s knowledge or information but also can encourage the birth of an idea or bring up new ideas for creating a new product or system or also make improvements to the product or the old system. One of the activities of an organization that can do is to share knowledge or knowledge sharing.
Knowledge sharingare the stages of dissemination (spread) and the provision of knowledge at the right time for employees who need (Paul L. Tobing, 2007, p 9). Knowledge sharing can be done in various ways such as face-to-face (face to face) eg meetings, discussions, exchange of documents, training or training, up through the intranet or internet media. With the knowledge sharing activities, one can menshare or to distribute all their knowledge to others so beneficial both to other people or organizations.)
In addition, knowledge sharing activities have an important influence in improving the individual innovation. According WP2 Partners (2002) explains that knowledge sharing can speed innovation by facilitating synergies and combining the idea of taking into account all available input simultaneously. Opinion was supported by Lin (2007) which states that if the company is able to encourage its employees to contribute knowledge possessed into a group of organizations will have a greater opportunity to improve the ability of employees to create new ideas and develop new business opportunities, which in turn activity will encourage the development and improvement of individual innovation or employee (Hilmi Aulawi, 2009).Based on belakakang which has been described above, researchers interested in conducting further research on the role of knowledge sharing in the improvement of employee innovation at PT. PLN East Java distribution, Surabaya.
2. SECI models
SECI model of Nonaka and Takeuchi belonging to explain the formation of new knowledge for the interaction or change (conversion) between two kinds of knowledge that is tacit knowledge or knowledge that is still in the mind or the human brain and explicit knowledge or knowledge that has been recorded or documented. Through two kinds of knowledge, a process of socialization, ekternalisasi, combination and internalization which is named as a knowledge spiral.
The socialization process is a change from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge. The socialization process can be conducted through face to face meetings such as meetings, discussions, monthly meetings, education and training (training) with changing trainier tacit into tacit knowledge of employees. As for the externalization process is a change from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Externalization process can be realized particularly through the documentation of the minutes or the results of the discussion (which is an explicit form of knowledge that is created when the holding of the meeting) into electronic form to be stored and published for those who needs to have some through the existing information systems in the organization. Then for the combination process occurs when knowledge that is explicit transferred into explicit knowledge. The media for this process can be done through the exchange of working documents, intranet (discussion forum), database organization and the Internet to obtain external sources. While the process of internalization is formed through changes explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Sources explicit knowledge that can be gained through the media intranet (database organization), circulars / decree, bulletin boards, internet, media as well as all document data, information and knowledge that has been documented to be read by others, which is useful for improving knowledge of human resources (Bambang Setiarso, 2009). Intranet (discussion forum), database organization and the Internet to obtain external sources. While the process of internalization is formed through changes explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Sources explicit knowledge that can be gained through the media intranet (database organization), circulars / decree, bulletin boards, internet, media as well as all document data, information and knowledge that has been documented to be read by others, which is useful for improving knowledge of human resources (Bambang Setiarso, 2009). Intranet (discussion forum), database organization and the Internet to obtain external sources. While the process of internalization is formed through changes explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Sources explicit knowledge that can be gained through the media intranet (database organization), circulars / decree, bulletin boards, internet, media as well as all document data, information and knowledge that has been documented to be read by others, which is useful for improving knowledge of human resources (Bambang Setiarso, 2009).
According to Thompson in Hurley and Hult (1998) defines innovation as the classic is the implementation of new ideas, products or processes. Meanwhile, Duncan and Holbek, in Hurley and Hult (1998) define innovation as ideas, practices, and material that’s new to the adoption of the relevant unit. Broadly, Amabileet alin Huley and Hult (1998) define innovation as the successful implementation of a creative idea (yudhia Putu Bagus Kurniawan, 2011: page 50). Meanwhile, according Mulgan and Albury (2003) innovation is the creation and implementation of processes, products, services and methods of the new service is the result of real development in terms of efficiency, effectiveness or quality of results (Khairul Muluk, 2008: p. 22). From some of these definitions, it is common sense to focus on product innovation, process, ideas or improvement of products, processes and the idea itself that’s new to someone and adaptable in its implementation. Invovasi attributes are used to determine what is the nature of innovations are created, which may include a relative advantage (relative advantage),
This study uses a quantitative approach with descriptive type. The purpose of descriptive research is to create a description, picture or painting in a systematic, factual and accurate information on the facts, nature and the relationship between the phenomenon investigated. In addition, the researchers also used a survey approach, because it allows researchers to generalize a social phenomenon or social variables specific to a social phenomenon or social variable with a larger population. In this study, researchers focused on an overview of knowledge sharing as well as its role in the improvement of employee innovation at PT. PLN East Java Distribution.
The location of this research is done in the office of PT. PLN Surabaya East Java (Jl. Embong tengguli 19 Surabaya). Some considerations chosen location of PT. PLN East Java Distribution is because as one unit PT. PLN has implemented a knowledge sharing activities are routine and integrated. In addition, because the PT. PLN East Java Distribution is one productive unit in following the creation of the innovation race. This would greatly support the research, because the data that is expected to describe the role of knowledge sharing in the improvement of employee innovation became more precise.
The population in this study were all employees of PT. PLN East Java Distribution, amounting to 239 employees. As for the sampling method used is non-random sampling technique proportional or proportional sampling. The reason that the sampling technique is that researchers do not have a clear sample frame of data in the form of employee name PT. PLN East Java Distribution, but only in the form of data on the number of employees and the number per field or division. So to calculate so that samples can be represented and balanced in every unit, used estimation proportion of the population using the Yamane formula. The result is the number of samples taken in this study were 70 respondents.
To obtain the necessary data, the authors use the technique of collecting primary data obtained from a questionnaire given to respondents as well as in-depth interviews (probing) for certain questions produce more in depth data related to this study. In addition, secondary data collection was also done of the data taken from the agency or institution. For example, the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), website, portal or other data that has been processed by PT. PLN East Java Distribution. Literature study also used namely through previous research, for example journals, research reports, theses, thesis and other publications are generally obtained via the Internet.
Data processing techniques performed in this study include editing the activity to check or correct one by the data collected by giving identity to the research instruments that have been answered. Coding is classifying data is data that has been analyzed edited by identity according to certain criteria that has meaning when dinalisi and tabuasi data that enter or move all data from questionnaires on specific tables, set numbers and counting.
a. Socialization process
In this study indicate that the process of socialization among employees of PT. PLN East Java Distribution is already quite high. Almost all respondents, amounting to 97.1% or 68 respondents out of a total of 70 respondents, never making knowledge sharing. This means that the exchange of knowledge or knowledge from one employee to another employee more often occur directly (face to face), such as through meetings meetings both formal and informal discussions that are not. In addition the culture of knowledge sharing at. PLN East Java Distribution is already integrated and regularly held in every field. Examples of knowledge sharing activities such as knowledge sharing by employees who completed follow the training or training. Employees are required to share knowledge or information obtained from training or training to other employees. Thus, the knowledge or the knowledge of the employee can be transferred into collective knowledge.
In addition, the activities of the non-formal discussion carried out by employees of PT. PLN East Java, such as time off (break) or time huddled together outside the office. The majority of respondents considered by the direct knowledge sharing, not only gain knowledge but also be able to solve the problem or to support the work. Because when sharing knowledge, they not only discuss the employment system in PLN or also in each division but also the knowledge or information such as hobbies outside of work and so forth. Moreover, seeing the results it can be seen if the employees of PT. PLN East Java Distribution does not experience any significant obstacles in making knowledge sharing as if his knowledge nor diminished fear of insecurity as to share his knowledge. That is a trust factor or trust among employees is high enough. Employees are no longer reluctant to share their knowledge for a culture of trust and openness has been awakened.
b. Externalization process
Externalization process represents a change from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge that can be done by documenting the minutes of the meeting or results either printed or electronic form. In this study, more than half of the respondents said had done little documentation of knowledge sharing activities which amounted to 55.7%,Reasons respondents in doing documentation is for official purposes, as evidence of the results of activities and as other means may be used at any time if needed. Documentation of knowledge sharing activities are most often committed by employees of PT. PLN East Java Distribution is documenting the results of the meeting or discussion which amounted to 30.8% and then the results of the training or training which amounted to 23.1%. As for the documentation is quite varied forms, such as in the form of a personal journal, a report of activities and portal, blog or website.
Efforts to document the results of knowledge sharing activities that have been carried out employees, deserve special attention both from the unit level manager to general manager to be able to serve as the capital of organizational knowledge. In the opinion of Setiarso (2009) documents the results of knowledge sharing that good, we need a repository or special storage and process of continuous learning to realize the results of knowledge sharing in the form of concepts or systems that are written that will be easily understood by others who read or can be used again if needed or can also be published to those concerned.
c. The combination process
The process is a combination of changes in knowledge of explicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, which can be done by exchanging documents among employees work done. So the knowledge that has been documented through externalization process information, such as minutes of meetings, training or training results, return be shared or distributed to other co-workers to exchange information or knowledge. The results of the study, from a total of 70 respondents, the majority answered never to exchange working documents that as many as 48 respondents, or 68.6%. While the remaining 31.4% that answered never to exchange working documents. The reason given in exchange is a working document as a back-up of the performance data. As for the most frequent forms of documentation shared with co-workers is in the form of a report of activities which amounted to 50% and the private journals of 16.7%. Reason exchanging employment report is a tool that can enrich their knowledge of the activities carried out in the PLN. Then to the intensity, the majority of respondents or 50% answered every week to exchange the working document. Based on the above results, it can be seen that the employees of PT. PLN East Java Distribution already making knowledge sharing by exchanging business documents. In addition, these activities also have been quite routine.
The process combination of the above not only can be done by exchanging business documents, but also can be done by combining a variety of different explicit knowledge is then compiled into knowledge management systems. According Setiarso (2009) revealed that the combination process can be mediated via the intranet or discussion forums, databases and internet organizations to obtain external sources. Then the data that has been stored in the system (data warehouse) such as data analysis of local conditions, financial, operational and strategic such as creating employment indicators, analyzed and then put into the knowledge management systems.
d. Internalization process
The internalization process is a change from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge that can be done by gaining knowledge or information via the intranet (database organization), the Internet or the mass media. In this study, the most commonly used medium of respondents in adding information or knowledge is the internet which amounted to 20%, in addition to the use of the Internet coupled with the use of intranets are also considered effective by 14.3% of respondents. The reason that internet use in conjunction with the intranet because both media content given the specifications of each. With the internet information obtained faster and diverse because there are no constraints of space and time means the Any and want information sought or needed to be found. As for the intranet, information presented tends to be more specific about the field of work just like the system in PLN or also with information related to the PLN institutions such as decrees, policies, and so forth. Then to the intensity of the search for knowledge or information done by respondents, shows that respondents are already doing the daily routine with a percentage of 70%.
This internalization process into one piece of knowledge sharing is quite important as well as through a variety of information search with a variety of media are used not only to add to the knowledge of an employee but also to be shared to co-workers. All documents, data, information and knowledge that has been documented both printed and electronic form that can be read by others, can improve the knowledge of human resources for employees therein can learn about the activities of the acquired information. According Setiarso (2009), in order to support the process of internalization, we need a system or finding tools and document retrieval. Content Management, in addition to supporting the process of combination, can also facilitate the process of this internalisation. Because the trigger in this process is penerpan “learning by doing”. Setiarso also explained that if the lessons written or explicit knowledge acquired through education and training can be a source of knowledge or the knowledge of its employees.
6. The role of knowledge sharing in promoting innovation of employees at PT. PLN East Java Distribution
In this research, it is known that the creation of innovation among employees of PT PLN East Java Distribution is still very minimal. Of the 70 respondents, only 10% or 7 respondents who answered ever innovating. While never create innovation as much as 90% or 63 respondents. The reason they never create innovation is due to the rush and routine work is quite tight so do not have time to think and create an innovation. While those who have done the innovation, the majority argued if the results of their innovation is in the form of new services which amounted to 57.1%. In this case of course, is in conformity with the core business of PT. PLN itself of providing the best services to its customers. As for the nature of innovation created, respondents are in accordance with the needs of both the division maupu PLN institution and easy to apply with the same percentage, respectively by 42.9%. The nature of innovation that created it also fulfilled the concept of Damanpour (1991) who argued that innovation created a person should have a compatible or incompatible with the innovation that has been produced before. Because in addition to minimize cost- could also facilitate the process of adaptasiya. Besides innovations produced must also be easy to implement so that later when tested, proved to be applied. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the creation of innovation employees of PT. PLN East Java is still relatively minimal or little. This contrasts with previous data obtained suggest that creating innovation in PT. PLN East Java Distribution has increased every year.
It is also contrary to the concept expressed by WP2 Partners (2002) explains that knowledge sharing can speed innovation by facilitating synergies and combining the idea of taking into account all available input simultaneously. At PT. PLN East Java Distribution, to apply the knowledge sharing activities that have been performed routinely and integrated. However, the results showed that the resulting innovation is still minimal. This means that knowledge sharing activities that have been applied to the proved unable to encourage employees to contribute knowledge in creating new ideas.
Indications cause of low employee of PT. PLN East Java Distribution in innovation because in this study have location restrictions only on the office environment PT. PLN East Java Distribution located at Jln. Embong Wungu, not the entire part or area of PT. Another PLN in East Java. It is predicted to affect the results of studies showing the creation of innovation are still minimal. Due to the innovation in the title race PT. PLN from the center followed all areas in Indonesia, PT. PLN East Java had contributed a number of innovations from the area in East Java Bojonegoro eg, Kediri, Gresik etc. So if this study was conducted with a more wide-reaching locations for East Java, the possible creation process innovation will show greater results.
In addition, a factor that created little innovation can also be caused due to lack of reward or award given to their leader or institution that has worked. The leader’s role is expected not only to encourage and facilitate the formation of innovation, but also appreciative that have been generated in accordance with the employee. Due to the shape of an award or reward the employee may be more motivated and boost its ability to innovate. This is consistent with the concepts put forward Paul L. Tobing (2007) where the successful knowledge sharing is strongly influenced by how the organization can appreciate the knowledge possessed for example by giving an award or reward.