Published on International Journal of Teaching & Education
Publication Date: April, 2020
Yanuar Prayudi Alief & Nugroho Edie Santoso
Faculty of Education, IKIP PGRI Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia
Ideal local history learning is able to develop students’ competencies and achievements actively and chronologically. Planting and learning local history is very important in order to increase historical awareness in a student. This research produces local history booklet Batu Kenong Site, and the development of this booklet can increase students’ historical awareness about the history that is in their homes. This type of research is research and development. This study uses the Dick and Carey development model to produce a booklet development product based on local history learning in Indonesian history learning. Individual trials have a value of 95.55%, meaning that the product qualifications are very good. Test the level of awareness of small groups, indicator 1 of 76% lives up to the meaning and nature of present and future history, indicator 2 of 70% recognizes identity both for oneself and the nation, indicator 3 of 77% makes history as a tool for fostering the nation, an indicator 4 by 75% preserving historic relics. Test the level of awareness of large groups, on indicator 1 of 75% live the meaning and nature of history for the present and future. in indicator 2 66% of identity both for themselves and the nation, then indicator 3 of 94% makes history as a tool for fostering the nation. indicator 4 by 74% preserving historical heritage.
Keywords: History Learning, Booklet, Research & Development, Dick & Carey, Test Results.
The implementation of history lessons according to 2013 curriculum is an advantageous subject, the portion given in the form of more time than other subjects (Sardiman in Haniah, 2017). However, this is not well reflected, due to the facts in the field many educators who only teach material on National History and do not teach Local History material. The influence of learning with optimal harmony becomes the expected learning goal. Technological developments have an impact on learning, teaching and research in the world of Education (Johnson et al; 2016). History subjects have a strategic position to teach character education. Other subjects can contribute to a sense of national identity, such as Literature, Music, and Geography, but the main purpose of these subjects is not to instill a sense of national identity or character, but an understanding and expansion of cultural horizons (Beer, 2003).
In learning objectives, students are directed to understand that the history of the process of the formation of the Indonesian nation is not only fought for by one character, but is formed from the union of other figures with differences in ethnicity, religion, gender, and thought. Then from this understanding, students are expected to develop behavior based on values and morals contained in history. To achieve the goal of character education that is planned by the curriculum, especially collaboration, certainly not only through books and presentations from history teachers. To foster student collaboration through learning history, there is a need for direct action taken by the teacher. So, from these actions, students can take the characters that can be taken. The teacher’s actions are in the form of learning methods that can foster student collaboration and make history learning fun and not boring.
Local history is an ideal learning that gives students the ability to chronologically develop their competencies. Planting local history in students is very important in order to increase historical awareness. One such aspect is the availability of historical learning facilities such as supporting books. Facilities that are not fulfilled will cause problems in learning history, one of which is about electronic school books (BSE) or textbooks made by the government. Historical material is developed based on the integration of basic competencies (KD) into relevant learning content (Permendikbud, 2014).
Each subject has different learning resources according to the needs of the subject, as is the case with history learning. Historical learning has a wide range of material so it requires appropriate learning resources so that a lot of historical material can be conveyed to students. Learning resources have important meaning in learning history. The important meaning of learning resources in learning history is to provide new knowledge that has not been obtained by students before, help students in terms of understanding historical material, make history more real, interesting, clear and as if alive, add to the fun and interest of students in learning history, and assist teachers in developing learning materials.
Learning resources can come from local wisdom around the school environment. Local wisdom provides many forms of learning resources that can help in learning. Local history learning can bring students in real situations in their environment. These innovative characteristics, as well as the professionalism of the history teacher, will play a large role in the search for breakthroughs for possible developments in the teaching of local history (Widja, 1989:116).
The results of the performance analysis that was adapted aims to find out how big the problem is in Arjasa Jember SMAN 1, SMAN 1 Pakusari Jember, and SMAN 1 Balung Jember schools. Some historical education experts and historians give opinions about the phenomenon of historical learning that occurred in Indonesia including the problem of the model of history learning, history curriculum, material problems and textbooks or text books, the professionalism of history teachers and so forth.
The first problem is the learning model of history. According to Hamid Hasan in Alfian (2007) that the reality that exists now, learning history is far from expectations to allow children to see its relevance to the life of the present and the future. From elementary to high school, history learning tends to only use historical facts as the main material. It is not strange if historical education feels dry, unattractive, and does not provide opportunities for students to learn to explore the meaning of a historical event.
Taufik Abdullah gave an assessment, that the pedagogical strategy of Indonesian history was very weak. Historical education in schools is still focused on the chronicle approach and tends to require children to memorize an event (Abdullah in Alfian, 2007:2). Students are not accustomed to interpreting an event to understand the dynamics of a change.
The history learning system that was developed actually could not be separated from the influence of culture that had taken root. A one-way learning model where the teacher becomes the main source of knowledge in learning activities becomes very difficult to change. Learning history at this time resulted in the role of students as historical actors in his day being neglected. Experiences that have been owned by students before or the social environment are not used as learning material in class, so placing students as participants of passive history learning (Martanto, et al, 2009:10). In other words, the lack of careful selection of teaching strategies will have fatal consequences for the achievement of the teaching objectives themselves (Widja, 1989:13).
The second problem is the history curriculum, because the curriculum is one component that is a reference for achieving national education goals. In general it can be said that the curriculum is a written plan and implemented in an educational process in order to develop the potential of students to become quality. In a curriculum contained various components, such as, objectives, content and content organization, a process that describes the position of students in learning and assessment of learning outcomes. In addition to these components, the curriculum as a written plan can also contain learning resources and learning tools and curriculum or program evaluation.
Since Indonesia’s independence, there have been a number of changes to the curriculum and historical subjects within it. However, the material provided in the curriculum that often gets criticism from the public and historical observers both from the election, the theory of its development and its implications are often used to support power (Alfian, 2007:3).
When the New Order intends to reorganize the life of the nation and state in accordance with Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, the goal of national education is directed to support these goals. Of course the school curriculum is developed in accordance with the objectives of national education. The 1986 curriculum which was in effect at the beginning of the New Order period then underwent a change to the 1975 curriculum, the history curriculum also underwent refinement. And so on there were several changes to the curriculum curriculum 1984, 1994 and 2004 (Umasih in Alfian, 2007:3). The curriculum used is unclear and very political in nature, meaning that the curriculum used cannot be separated from the interests of the ruling regime. History is used as a tool to build a paradigm of community thinking about the history of the nation by glorifying regimes that have power. The learning system applied does not lead students to think critically about an historical event, so students seem to be deceived by lessons about the past (Anggara, 2007:103).
In addition to the curriculum problem that is always changing, a problem that is no less important is the problem of material and textbooks / history textbooks. According to Lerissa (in Alfian, 2007), the problem of this textbook has existed since the national education system began to be implemented in Indonesia in 1946. When the textbook used as historical teaching material was written by Sanusi Pane entitled Indonesian History (4 vols) written on request from the Japanese in 1943-1944, which was reprinted in 1946 and 1950. In 1957 Anwar Sanusi wrote Indonesian history books for secondary schools (3 volumes). After that, various laniya textbooks appeared, written by various parties, especially by the teacher, one of which was a book written by Subantardjo.
In 1970, historians gathered in the Indonesian Historian Society (MSI) held a “History Seminar II” in Jogjakarta and produced a decision to write a history book for college needs and could be used as a source of textbooks in junior and senior high schools. The book, which consists of 6 volumes, was then also not spared from its problems and had raised conflicts. Not all authors use the same method, which has been determined by the general editor, Prof. sartono Kartodirdjo (structural approach); each writer carries a scientific tradition inherent in him (i structural or narrative / story). At that time the difference between the structural approach and the narrative approach methodologically could not be bridged at all. Each has its own domain. This prolonged conflict caused Sartono to resign and was followed by other writers. After the book was reprinted (1983-1984) as a general editor only listed the name Prof. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto and Prof. Dr. Marwati Djoned Poesponegoro (Alfian, 2007:5). In 1993 there was a revision by RZ Lerissa and Anhar Gonggong and friends, but somehow the book was reportedly not distributed (Purwanto and Adam, 2005:105).
Almost all textbooks, both published by the private sector and the government are actually not worthy of being used as a reference. Almost all book authors only read curriculum documents literally and are unable to understand the spirit of the curriculum well. Most of the authors of the book also do not understand history as science, historiography, and are left very far behind in the reference to the latest writing (Purwanto, 2006:268).
The third problem of history teacher professionalism is also still being questioned, to this day there is still a growing impression of teachers, policy makers in schools that teaching history in teaching it is not so important to pay attention to professional issues, so that not infrequently the task of teaching history is given to teachers who are not their profession. As a result, the teacher teaches history by lecturing to repeat what is in the book (Anggara, 2007:102). Meanwhile there are too many schools that position history teachers as outcasts, and history subjects are merely complementary. In fact, many cases are found, history teachers are being targeted to increase student grades so that they can move up the class. In addition, most of the teachers also did not follow the development of the results of research and publishing the latest Indonesian history. The last thing is also related to the fact that the official institution which is a place of additional education for history teachers is only focused on the historical substance and methods of teaching history that lags far behind (Purwanto, 2006:268).
Teaching history in schools so far is often done less than optimal. History lessons are very easy and easy to understand. Many educators who have no historical education background are forced to teach history in schools (Hariyono, 1995:143).
2. RESEARCH METHOD
This research is a type of research and development or Research and Development (R&D). According to Sugiyono (2012:407), research and development are research methods used to produce certain products, and test the effectiveness of these products. Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (2006:169) defines research and development as a research approach to produce new products or improve existing products. So development research is a method for producing certain products or perfecting existing products and testing the effectiveness of those products.
In this development research using the development model of Dick and Carey to produce a product of the development of a local history-based booklet on the subjects of Indonesian history in class X high school with the sub-topic is Evidence of the relics of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Jember Regency. The reason researchers chose the Dick and Carey development model is because the steps and stages possessed by this model are very systematic and more complex so it is suitable for use in developing a product such as a Booklet in the field of education.
Learning Design According to Dick and Carrey the model is a mental picture that helps us to explain things more clearly to something that cannot be seen or not experienced directly (Dorin, Demmin, and Gabel, 1990). The model is the concept of sequential devices for realizing a process, such as a needs assessment, media selection and evaluation (Briggs, 1978). The model is a form of accurate representation as an actual process that allows an attacker or group of people to try to act on that model (Nunan, 1995). Various models can be developed in organizing teaching. One of them is the learning model of Dick and Carrey (1985). The learning steps include (1) identifying general learning objectives, (2) carrying out teaching analysis, (3) identifying input behaviors and characteristics of students, (4) formulating performance goals, (5) developing benchmark reference test items, (6) developing teaching strategies, (7) developing and selecting teaching materials, (8) designing and implementing formative evaluations, (9) revising learning materials, (10) designing and conducting summative evaluations.
According to Uno (2007), in general, the use of the Dick and Carrey teaching model is as follows. 1. The Dick and Carrey model consists of 10 steps. Each step is very clear intent and purpose so that for novice designers is very suitable as a basis for learning other design models. 2. The ten steps in the Dick and Carrey model show a very clear and unbroken relationship between one step and another. In other words, the system contained in Dick and Carrey is very concise, but the contents are dense and clear from one sequence to the next. 3. The initial step in the Dick and Carrey model is to identify the teaching objectives. This step is very much in accordance with the curriculum, both in tertiary institutions and high schools and elementary schools, especially in certain subjects which have learning objectives in the curriculum to be able to give birth to a learning plan. The use of the Dick and Carrey model in the development of a subject is intended so that:(a) at the beginning of the learning process, students or students can know and be able to do things related to the material at the end of learning, (b) there is a link between each component, in particular the learning strategies and desired learning outcomes, (c) apply the steps that need to be taken in planning the learning design.
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The results of the research on the development of the Batu Kenong historical site Booklet at the results of the validation stage experts explained about the results obtained about the feasibility of the booklet to the product trial stage. Expert validation was carried out by content experts in the fields of study, learning design experts and linguists. The stage of presentation and analysis of students’ historical awareness data is the analysis of the data obtained when conducting product trials through Individual Tests, Small Group Trials and Large Group Trials.
Booklet Product Study To Increase Historical Awareness. The product study in raising historical awareness is the presentation of a study of the product being developed, booklet. Booklets are declared worthy and successful in raising the historical awareness of learners because they have gone through the product trial phase. At the product trial stage there are individual tests, small group tests, and large group tests. Individual tests conducted on educators aim to determine the quality of the booklet based on product eligibility criteria and the results of individual trials get a percentage value of 95.55%, meaning that the product is in “very good” qualifications. Whereas small and large group trials are used to find out the success of the booklet in increasing students’ historical awareness.
Presentation of test data on the level of historical awareness of small groups. Presentation of data contains pre-test and post-test exposure obtained by students after using the local history booklet. Students selected as respondents numbered 9 students in class X high school. The students’ pre-test and post-test score data become the historical awareness level test material in the booklet that was developed. Next is the data analysis of the pre test and post test values. To determine the level of historical awareness possessed by students in small group trials through the results of pre-test and post-test, the following measurements were taken.
Table 1 Increased Historical Awareness of Small Group Students
Before and After Using the Local History Booklet
Through the above data, it can be explained that it can be seen from the 4 indicators observed in indicator 1 of 76% regarding historical awareness categorized as high, namely Students Knowing the history of the linkages of national and local history, students can make history as a tool for fostering the nation and preserving heritage historical item. The results of increasing the percentage of indicator 2 by 70% of this indicator are expected students to know the historical problems in Indonesia, historical awareness which has a high category further to indicator 3 of 77% high category expected students have an interest in learning history. Students are able to discuss historical events with friends and the last indicator 4 of 75% high category is expected Learners Know the historical relics in the environment around their homes and maintain the rich history of cultural history by preserving to the next generation. So, it can be concluded that the local history learning booklet can increase students’ historical awareness in learning history.
Presentation of test data on the level of historical awareness of large groups. Presentation of data contains the presentation of the results of the assessment of selected students as respondents totaling 31 students of class X high school. Presentation of data in the form of pre-test and post-test scores of students. The students ‘pre-test and post-test score data become test material for the students’ historical awareness level. Following is the analysis of the pre-test and post-test scores of large groups. To find out the level of ability possessed by students in large group trials through the results of pre-test and post-test, the following measurements were taken.
Table 2 Increased Historical Awareness of Large Group Students
Before and After Using the Local History booklet
Through the data above, it can be explained that it can be seen from the 4 indicators observed in indicator 1 of 75% regarding historical awareness categorized as high namely Students Knowing the history of the linkages of national and local history, students can make history as a tool for fostering the nation and preserving heritage historical item. The results of increasing the percentage of indicator 2 by 66% are expected to learn students about historical problems in Indonesia, awareness of history which has a high enough category, then for indicator 3 of 94% the very high category is expected Students have an interest in learning history. Students are expected to be able to discuss historical events with friends and the last indicator 4 by 74% in the high category is expected that students will learn about historical relics in their neighborhoods and preserve the rich history of cultural history by preserving it to the next generation. So, it can be concluded that the local history learning booklet can increase students’ historical awareness in learning history.
Through the results of the data obtained from the previous research, it shows that students’ historical awareness can be increased through the development of the historical booklet of the Batu Kenong site. Local history booklets which were tested through small group tests and large group tests have been proven to increase students’ historical awareness.
The advantage in teaching materials taken by researchers is to facilitate students to understand the local history in Jember supported by pictures that are quite clear and also material that is easily understood. The weaknesses that exist, especially in teaching materials are less material and only take the core of the history of the Batu Kenong site. Teaching material developed is teaching material in the form of a historical booklet on the Batu Kenong site. The development of this teaching material has been through the stages of making teaching materials in research and development (Research and Development), from the stage of exploring potentials and problems, data collection, product design, product validation, product improvement, product validation and assessment of practitioners’ responses to the resulting booklet . This booklet is equipped with pictures and explanations about the history of the Batu Kenong site.
Teaching booklet “Batu Kenong historical site” developed by researchers is approved and effective for use in local history learning in Jember. It is discussed with the results of tests conducted is the average learning outcomes of students in the experimental class more than the average learning outcomes of students in the control class. Things that are contrary to the simple opinion according to Duron (2006) learning outcomes are thoughts that represent the results of analysis and information related to thoughts to produce an effective result.
Based on the research, it can be concluded that so far in the study of local history there have not been found teaching materials that are in accordance with the material resistance against Colonialism in Indonesia which is regional in nature. The development of a booklet on Indonesian high school class X history subjects using the Dick and Carey model, it can be concluded that the product developed is an effective teaching material to increase students’ historical awareness in learning local history.
Individual tests conducted on educators aim to determine the quality of the booklet based on product eligibility criteria and the results of individual trials get a percentage value of 95.55%, meaning that the product is in “very good” qualifications.
Test the level of awareness of small groups, it is known from the 4 indicators observed in indicator 1 of 76% to live up to the meaning and nature of history for the present and the future, indicator 2 of 70% Knowing identity both for oneself and the nation is quite high, furthermore for indicator 3 at 77% high category Making history as a tool for nation building and the last indicator 4 at 75% high category preserving historical relics. Then, it can be concluded that the local history learning booklet can increase the historical awareness of small group students in learning history.
Test the level of awareness of large groups, it can be explained that it can be seen from the 4 indicators observed in indicator 1 by 75% high category Living the meaning and essence of history for the present and the future. The results of the percentage increase in indicator 2 by 66% Knowing identity both for oneself and the nation is quite high then for indicator 3 by 94% very high category Making history as a tool for nation development. And the last indicator 4 by 74% high category Preserving relics- historical item. So, it can be concluded that the local history learning booklet can increase the historical awareness of large group students in learning history.
Alfian, 2007, “Understanding the History and Morals of the Indonesian Nation”, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta.
Anggara, Boyi. (2007). “History-Oriented Learning in Contemporary Social Problems”. Paper. Presented in the National Seminar of the Association of Indonesian History Students Association (IKAHIMSI). Semarang State University, Semarang, April 16, 2007.
Beer, A. L. 2003. School History, National History and The Issue of National Identity. International Journal of Historical Learning, Teaching and Research. 3 (1):1-7.
Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J.O. 2001. The systematic design of instruction (5th). New York:Longman.
Duron, R. (2006). Critical Thinking Framework For Any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. 17 (2):160-166.
Johnson, L., Becker, S. A., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Hall, C. (2016). NMC horizon report:2016 higher education edition (pp. 1-50). The New Media Consortium.
Kartodirdjo, S. 1992. The Social Sciences Approach in Historical Methodology. Jakarta:PT. Gramedia Main Library.
Ministry of Education and Culture. (2015). Kemendikbud’s Strategic Plan. Jakarta:Ministry of Education and Culture
Mulyatiningsih, E. 2011. Applied Research Methods in Education. Yogyakarta:Alfabeta.
Permendikbud. 2014. Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 79 of 2014 concerning Local Content of the 2013 Curriculum. Jakarta:Minister of Education and Culture.
Permendikbud. 2016. Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 22 of 2016 concerning Standard and Secondary Education Process Standards. Jakarta:Minister of Education and Culture.
Sardiman, A.M. 2015. Measuring Indonesian History in the 2013 Curriculum. Journal. Vol XI (1), p. 10
Sayono, J. 2013. Learning History in Schools from Pragmatic to Idealist. Journal of History and Culture. Vol 7 (1).
Sugiyono 2012. Qualitative Quantitative Research Methods and R&D. Bandung:Alfabeta.
Widja, I Gde. 1989. Basics of Developing Strategies and Historical Teaching Methods. Jakarta:P2LPTK.