Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
Publication Date: May 3, 2019
Ifah Khadijah, Agi Gifari & Muhammad Fikri
Nusantara Islamic University
Journal Full Text PDF: Learning Curriculum for Converts (Indonesian Perspective).
Curriculum the defined as the courses offered by the school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in school, curriculum also include the learning standards, learning objective. Guidance curriculum for new converter into Islamic religion is important thing to produce. Place and time people who convert to Islam is unexpected, also not all the Islamic scholar unaware how to guide a new converter into deep Islam. Nowadays, Implemented learning have been processing but it seem Burdened to a new converter. Accelerating process by the Islamic scholar to converter nowadays is not fully following the prophet Muhammad PBUH Concept. Accelerating in term of learning processing to new converter not only burdened but also could make the new converter rejecting and back to the origin religion. Then in this paper a basic concept must be formulated that must be carry out by a scholar who guides a convert to the stage of learning namely simplification and attentiveness (at-taisir and at-tadaruj) which is step by step. Then based on the concept the researcher determines what stages must be done by a convert through the concept of at-taisir and at-tadarruj. The sequence from the easiest is to say two sentence creeds, learn the Koran, teaching the history of prophet Muhammad, teaching the foundation of faith and foundation of Islam, learn about permissible and forbid, also teaching and learn about good attitude, and learn about how to clean and purify heart, and on the last stage is teach and learn about comparison about religion.
Keywords: Prophet Guidance, curriculum of learning process on Islam & converter.
Indonesia is the Most Largest Muslim population in the world and also most variety religion living in Indonesia, such as Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Kong Hu Cu. as a majority, Muslims will become a concern and have a considerable influence on followers of religions other than Islam. That influence eventually made followers of other religions accustomed to seeing and paying attention to all Islamic worship activities. Beginning with observing the longer they are involved in the worship of Muslims. Adherents of other religions finally began memorizing readings that were directly related to the habits of Muslims such as greetings, praise – praise to God that was worshiped by Muslims such as takbir, tasbih, tahmid, tahlil and istirja. From this accustom with Islamic environment many people in Indonesia convert to Islamic religion.
Preach (Da’wah) for Muslims is an obligation so inviting followers of other religions to convert to Islam is a must. But the invitation of followers of other religions to enter religion is not balanced with the system that must be prepared by the preacher. The system and curriculum that must be provided by preachers is a system and curriculum that is easy to understand and makes it easy for adherents of other religions who want to change their religion to Islamic religion according to the advice of the prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.
People who convert to Islam are referred as converts in Arabic language is Muallaf. The number of converts from year to year is not less than 2,857 annually. Even every year converts increase and continue to increase into 3500. Relation between people and people in same environment is one reason but Most of the reason they change into Islamic religion is a marriage purpose, because Indonesia law allow people marriage if they have same religion, muslim with muslim, Christian with Christian, Buddhist and Buddhist, Etc. how they learning about islamic religion we have to arrange into a Module, from the module change into curriculum. the curriculum that is available now that has been carried out by the convert center as a forum for the followers of the new Islamic religion is as follows, After they say the sentence of creed, they are taught to pray. We teach from thaharah, prayer, and prayer movement so that we also teach reading the Koran. On this curriculum who has been doing by Mualaf Center long for three month, but after three month this curriculum will end.
If learning about religion at the beginning of Islam is too heavy, it is feared that a convert will not want to study Islam. The second is too large in Indonesia so if this curriculum is not taught to worry that many people who will convert to Islam will not be because it is too long to wait for Who will guide them into Islam and if haven’t studied Islam for too long it will return to the old original religion. Non-government organization who cares about converter is muallaf center building up because they feel abandoned after they convert to Islam, that why this curriculum is important to the new converter.
Every convert can get Islamic knowledge through internet connection, social media, watching some scholars in YouTube. The new converters they learnt at the same time without going through the correct stages. It if feared they will feel burdened and also if they get wrong scholar will lead them to wrong path Such as blind fanatic, terrorism. Islam is religion of compassion but if they wrong path to learn Islam what should be islam is a religion of compassion instead it become a religion of violence. Because of that to form stage for the converts it need learning guide namely a curriculum.
The question arises whether the curriculum that has now been practiced is in accordance with the teachings of the prophet; it is enough for the provision of a convert, or need additional so that the curriculum can make someone enter into Islam as a whole. Through that question, we can elaborate more about how to guide and to build a curriculum according to the Prophet Muhammad Peace Be upon him in the next explanation.
1.2 Formulating issue
The formulation of the issues to be discussed in this paper is, including: what step to do in the early beginning of people who was converting into Islamic religion, what curriculum on Islamic learning to process after they embrace of Islam and learning into deep Islam. Learn from history how the teaching of prophet ordered his companion to preach and what the prophet Muhammad ordered the follower of new Islam.
1.3 Research purposes
The purpose of this paper is: build of the curriculum as a learning basic and guideline to Islamic scholar and converter. What concept should be put forward in providing teaching to converts, what education should take precedence for new converter in the early beginning embrace into Islam? This paper also provides how Prophet Muhammad saw guide his follower in the early beginning of Islamic history so Islamic religion spread it into the world until now. This paper also provide education to people who first embraced Islam for how to behave towards thing done by converts.
1.4 Scope of research
In this paper discusses two aspects in Islamic principle to new converter. From this Islamic principle concept the researcher expanded into several aspects from the two main Islamic principles for converts. This Islamic Principle is also in accordance with what prophet (pbuh) taught and the opinion of contemporary scholars in providing education to converts.
1.5 Benefit of this research
The benefits of this research are, as follows: in order for the readers this research could be as a knowledge learning from history of prophet Muhammad saw to make people convert into islam and show thought of prophet Muhammad is easiest and clear way to religion perspective, guideline to Islamic scholar to guide people into deep Islam, learning guideline to a new converter after embrace Islamic religion so they can learn by themselves even though they have moved from one place into another place. For all society this paper can help them how to behave for converts in their environment and also in their social media life.
This research paper using method of qualitative method and qualitative type method is using qualitative descriptive method. Qualitative method is mean all the source of information doesn’t depend on number all collecting data is using descriptive, word and pictures. All the source information is using get of the field and information directly get from first hand, using observation, interview and collecting document. Emphasizing contextual detail so on this paper researcher using Qualitative method used through library research for example some of text book, journal, and also published article to compare and add so the knowledge is increasing.
3. Result and Discussion
Curriculum is drive from Greece language, from the word curir which means is runner and curre is place for running so mean of curriculum is the distance that must be taken. In Development the curriculum is used in the world of education.(basic of education, as a introduction of education knowledge, (ramayulis 2015).
Curriculum Known in the word of education a century ago. It appears in Webster 1856 and utilized just for sport only mean a tool to carrying people from start into finish. In 1955 word of curriculum utilize for few lessons only in university. (ahmad tafisr 2015).
Curriculum is a planning tool and managing about goal, content, and source of learning also is a road used for instruction to all learning activity to reach some of goal in education. (Indonesian laws and regulation. no 20 year 2003).
From the above understanding, so to form some of curriculum must be contain of planning, managing how to achieve a goal in this perspective is learning islam into deep islam, content that mean what the converts must be learn, and also what source to carrying convert know how to practice in religion.
The curriculum for Indonesian converts actually already exists, Namely SIMBI from the ministry of religion which was published earlier. In the curriculum explained how about technical guidance for someone entering Islamic religion and administrative technical guidance so that he can accept to Islam. The main guidance material in SIMBI is to focus on ritual worship. Namely to worship the prayer, but the focus on specific teaching on Islamic teaching is less touching deeply. Therefore through this paper the author writes in depth in addition to the existing curriculum.
So according to that kind of situation author think is not sufficient for convert learning. The basic concept of all approaches to converts through two approaches:
4.1 Make it easier (at-taisir)
Allah Said in His Revelation:
وَجَٰهِدُواْ فِي ٱللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِۦۚ هُوَ ٱجۡتَبَىٰكُمۡ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِي ٱلدِّينِ مِنۡ حَرَجٖۚ مِّلَّةَ أَبِيكُمۡ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَۚ هُوَ سَمَّىٰكُمُ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَفِي هَٰذَا لِيَكُونَ ٱلرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَتَكُونُواْ شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِۚ فَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱعۡتَصِمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ هُوَ مَوۡلَىٰكُمۡۖ فَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَوۡلَىٰ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ ٧٨
78. And strive hard in (the way of) Allah, (such) a striving a is due to Him; He has chosen you and has not laid upon you an hardship in religion; the faith of your father Ibrahim; He named you Muslims before and in this, that the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you, and you may be bearers of witness to the people; therefore keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and hold fast by Allah; He is your Guardian; how excellent the Guardian and how excellent the Helper!
Prophet Muhammad Saw said;
Make it easy don’t complicate, give good news, and don’t make people run away from Islam.
In Migrated (hijrah) story of Prophet Muhammad PBUH guide us through story of Abdullah bin Salam, shared Greeting Islamic Word (Afshus Salam, make a good relationship with other (silaturrahim), and pray little bit on the night).
What can be made easier when they embrace Islam, below are some example in making it easy for convert:
1. use the old name, as long their old name or original name there no element of shirk (associating partner with God) like the friend of the Previous prophet did not change their name. The name is according to a certain, region, country or tribe as long as the meaning does not associate with God.
2. Circumcision (Khitan) cut off part of his genital especially for a man is mandatory for a new converter of Islam, but if khitan can’t be done in the earlier process of converter because of syariah reason or the new converter don’t have strongly commitment or still in the stage of, so it can be delay the process. The reason why could be postponed is the sin for postponed is lighter than the back to the origin religion or Islamic concept call it murtad. Because islamic legitimation not depend on khitan processing. They are still remain in Islam even without khitan.
3. Marital status for a new converter who was doing before Islam is accepted without having to repat. Even though their marriage followed samawi religion (jews and Christian) or Non Samawi religion
4. If the convert is someone who need, so they are among those who receive zakkah or people who are entitled to receive help from other muslim. Like Allah Said in His verse:
لَا يَرۡقُبُونَ فِي مُؤۡمِنٍ إِلّٗا وَلَا ذِمَّةٗۚ وَأُوْلَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُعۡتَدُونَ ١٠
10. They do not pay regard to ties of relationship nor those of covenant in the case of a believer; and these are they who go beyond the limits.
4.2 At-Tadarruj (Step By Step)
a. Because step by step is the concept of the koran. For muallaf this concept must be adopted for example on time prayers, the prayer shouldn’t be done in the earlier time or should be doing in the mosque, because the new converter need to adapted with their family, environment and also adapted with their new religion. If he converted into Islam Secretly without his family his friend’s brother knew that it was permissible. If His islam is known to others, finally make him feel burdened and return to the original religion, then delaying or hiding prayer is permissible.
b. This Islamic approaching concept has virtue and there is priority scale that is prioritizing the obligatory compared to sunnah. Prioritize obligatory worship compare to sunnah worship. Example of prioritize obligatory compare to sunnah in the early beginning of Islam like prophet Muhammad saw said:
“There is no worship that I love rather than worship that I oblige you.adn also who do sunnah worship also I love it”