Mange Mite Infestation of Small Ruminants

Reader Impact Factor Score
[Total: 3 Average: 4]

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 2, Issue 2, page 84 – 92
Publication Date: March 11, 2019

Kindalem Bayew
Animal Health Department Head in Janamora Wereda Livestock Development Office
Janamora Wereda, Ethiopia

Journal Full Text PDF: Mange Mite Infestation of Small Ruminants (Study in Janamora Wereda).

Abstract
A cross sectional study with Simple random samping technique was conducted from December 2018 to February 2019 to determine the prevalence of mange mites infestation in small ruminants (sheep and goats) and identify the potential risk factors and major species of mites in selected five kebeles of Janamora Wereda. Out of the total 384 study shoats’ majority of animals the study animals were from different agro-ecology zone including highland, midland and lowland. Accordingly, animals from midland, highland and lowland at a rate of 44.8%, 21.4% and 33.9% respectively were included proportionate to the livestock population in the selected agro-ecology zone. In this study both sex sheep and goats were infested with Sarcoptes mites with an overall prevalence of female sheep 32.55%, male 35.29 %, female goat 22.39% and male goat 30.55% mange mites were recorded. The overall prevalence of mange mites in young and adult sheep was 34.28 % and 32.94 %, respectively (Table 4). The overall prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in young and adult goats was 30.43 % and 22.5 %, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant deference (p>0.05) between the prevalence age groups in both host species.In conclusion, this study demonstrated high prevalence of S. scabiei in sheep and goats of the study area, and revealed that Sarcoptes to be the only mite in both sheep and goats, hence requires immediate attention and control interventions.

Keywords: Sheep, Goats, Sarcoptes Scabiei, Awuchara & Janamora.

1. INTRODUCTION
Mange is an important skin disease which can affect a variety of animals including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits, and dogs. In Ethiopia, various types of mites have been recorded in small ruminant population with variable rate [1]. Ectoparasites cause a wide range of health problems including mechanical tissue damage, irritation, inflammation, hypersensitivity, abscesses and predispose to myiasis and dermatophilosis. Infestations increase susceptibility to other diseases and create sites for secondary invasion by pathogenic organisms and reduced productivity [1].
The small ruminant’s population in Ethiopia is estimated to be 25.5 million sheep and 24.06 million goats [2]. It is estimated that the country could collect 3.7 million cattle hides, 8.4 million sheep skin and 7.7 million goat skin. The sheep and goat skins are well known for their quality. The goat skins in particular have got international acceptance. Both goat and sheep skins are preferred for leather garments and gloves manufacturing in addition to being used for shoe upper. Currently, there are about 26 fully functional tannery industries in Ethiopia. The tanneries have capability of soaking about 153,650 sheep and goat skin and 9,725 per day but most tanneries working below their capacity [3].
Reports have indicated that skin utilization is estimated to be 75% for goat and 97% sheep skin, with expected off-take rate of 33% and 35% for sheep and goat, respectively [4]. Ethiopia is more popular in raw hides and skins exporter than leather and Product [5]. Mange mites have been reported as one of the most prevalent and widely distributed skin disease in Ethiopia by degrading skin quality [6]. Mange mites result in economic loss to the tanning industry and the country [7].
In small ruminants, five species of parasitic mites have been recorded to cause mange: Sarcoptes, Psoroptes, Demodex, Chorioptes and Psorergates species. However, the former four types of mites predominate in the world and each has morphologically distinct features one from the other [8]. All have high degree of host specificity [4]. Mites can be divided as burrowing mites (Sarcoptes and Demodex species) and the nonburrowing mites (Psoroptes and Chorioptes species) [9]. Farmers have been complaint on the effectiveness of acaricidal chemicals used in the control program. Therefore, the objectives of this study were:
 To determine the prevalence of mange mite infestation and assess their control practices on small ruminants in Janamora Wereda.
 To estimate the prevalence of mange mites infestation in small ruminants.
 To assess the risk factors associated with the occurrence of mange in the study area.
 To know the level of awareness of sheep and goat owners about the disease and its control practices.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Study area
Janamora Wereda is located in North Gondar Zone of Amhara region, at the latitude and longitude of 12o59’N 38o07’E at a distance of about 180km from Gondar town. Janamora Wereda is well-known with Semien mountain National Park, Ras Dashen i.e the highest point in Ethiopia and it is a home to a number of endangered species including the Ethiopian Wolf, waliya ibex, and a wild goat which no found in elsewhere in the world. The area has an altitude range of 2900 meters above sea level. The region is marked by numerous mountains, hilly, and sloppy areas, plateaus, rivers, and many streams. Livestock population of the area comprises 100,386 cattle, 32,975 sheep, 131,041 goats, 2,540 horses, 634 mules, 7758 donkeys, 119,347 poultry. The farming system of the study area is characterized by a mixed crop-livestock production system. Transhumance, from the highlands to western lowlands, is practiced as an important strategy to secure grazing resources for the highland livestock during the dry season of the year. In the case of the lowlands, crop farming is not as intensive as high and mid-highland areas and livestock has larger contributions to the farmer’s livelihoods [2]. The study animals are small ruminant which is found in Janamora Wereda kebeles such as Awuchara, Betzaz, Chocha, Gurgur and Elwa Kebeles.

2.2. Study animals
The study population was indigenous sheep and goats kept in small flocks and managed under traditional extensive farming system in different farmer houses by traveling from door to door and kebele to kebele. The study animals were classified into sex, age, body condition and origin of animals. The age of study animals was grouped as young (up to 2 years) and adult (above 2 years) by considering the rate of eruption of teeth [10].
Body condition score were categorized in to good, medium and poor. Poor body condition score were assigned to sheep and goats that are extremely thin and with smooth and prominent spinous process. Good body condition score were given to those sheep and goats when there is only smooth, rounded spinous process and well covered transverse process [11].

2.3. Sample size determination
Since there was no similar work done in the area previously, expected prevalence taken as 50% and the confidence interval taken chosen as 95% and precision 50%. By substituting these values in the formula, the sample size becomes 384. Thus, the sample size is calculated according to Thrusfield [12].

2.4. Study Design
Examination of skin scrapings is essential in the diagnosis of mange. In longstanding cases mites are often very few in number and extremely difficult to find and their absence from the skin scraping doesn’t negate a diagnosis [13]. Multiple sites have been scrapped to increase the likelihood of mite detection. Superficial skin scraping (epidermal surface examination) after removing coat hair by gentle clipping were happened used to identify surface mites while deep skin scraping (deep epidermal examination) until capillary ooze occurs is useful in the diagnosis of burrowing and follicular mites such as Sarcoptes scabiei and Demodex spp [14].

2.5. Data collection
A total of 384 fecal samples were collected during the dry period of the study, directly from the skin by skraping with scalp blade until blood ouzing. During sampling, data with regard to age, sex, origin, body condition, hygienic status was recorded for each sampled animal. Samples were soon taken to the Janamora Wereda veterinary clinic using formalin.

2.6. Data management and analysis
The data should be checked, coded and entered in to Microsoft excel work sheet and will be analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Descriptive statistics like percentage will be used to express prevalence while chi-square (χ2) test will be used to compare the association of coccidiosis with different risk factors. In all the cases, 95% confidence level and 0.05 absolute precision errors will be considered. A p-value≤ 0.05 will be considered statistically significant.