Change Management and Organizational Performance in Selected Manufacturing Companies

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Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: February 2019

Okeke M.N., Oboreh, J.C., Nebolisa O. & Esione, U.O.
Department of Business Administration
Chukwuemeka Odemegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus
Anambra State, Nigeria

Journal Full Text PDF: Change Management and Organizational Performance in Selected Manufacturing Companies (Case in Anambra State, Nigeria).

Abstract
This study examined change management and organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state, Nigeria. Relevant conceptual, theoretical and empirical literatures were reviewed. This study was anchored on organizational change and Lewin`s Three Step Model . Descriptive survey design was adopted, and primary data was employed. The population for the study was 286 employees working at the selected manufacturing companies in Anambra State. The entire population was used as the sample size for this study.The major instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. Content Validity was adopted, and the test-retest method was used to test reliability of the research instrument. The study found that technological changes have a positive significant effect on organizational performance in manufacturing companies. Change management strategies have a positive significant effect on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state. Leadership changes have a positive significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state. The study concluded that change management has a positive significant effect on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state. The study recommends that technology change had influenced employee performance since it simplifies the work to be done,thereby making work more efficient. Organizations which implement new technology should provide proper training to their employees to increase their performance. Every organization should build strong organizational management strategies that help to build good relationships based on their values, norms, behaviours, and perceptions.Leadership changes leaders’ mind-set, style, and behavior.The change process they design as a result of their orientation must encourage employees to want to participate, to choose to contribute, rather than force them to do so.

Keywords: Technology Change, Leadership Changes,Change Management Strategies and Organizational.

1. INTRODUCTION
In today’s business environment, nothing remains still. The rate of change which business organizations face continues to increase more and more in the last five decades (Huselid, 2005_. This is as a result of advances in information and communication technology increasing democratization of economies and liberalization of economies across the globe. “Change” thus now become inevitable and turns to be a regular feature of business life. It becomes pertinent therefore, that it receives the necessary attention (from management) in order to guarantee a continued increase in business performance.
Olajide (2014) asserts that the rate of competition in Nigeria is moving at a leap frog basis due to changes in technology, product and services, customer taste, among others. This has made change management experts to emphasize on the importance of establishing organizations’ readiness for change, and has crafted various strategies for creating it because successful management of change is crucial to every organization to survive in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business environment. Change management is a planned loom for the transition of individuals, groups and organizations from existing state to a required future state. Thus, managing a change process is as important as change itself.
Warrrilow, (2010) in his work stated that to effectively manage change in an environment experiencing change dynamics, there is a need to adopt strategies for managing such changes so that people can embrace change and direct it towards positive contribution of a given organization. He therefore suggested the strategies for managing change. He further stated that when opting for a strategy, we should take into account not only the circumstances we face, but also the preferred managerial style.Go and Pine (2005) state that rapid and unpredictable changes in customer attitudes and information technology makes the need to manage change inevitable and that the ability to manage is the key to the long- term survival of companies. Mullins (2009) also claims that factors such as uncertain economic and political conditions, changes in social attitudes, fierce competition, take overs, acquisitions, technological developments and governmental interventions create an increasingly volatile environment for business, and consequently they can only perform effectively through flexibility and responsiveness to change.
For a firm to survive, succeed and remain competitive in today’s highly volatile and continuously evolving business environment, it must be able to successfully manage the change which is as a matter of fact a necessity. Even though there has not been consensus as to the framework for organizational change management, there is a consensus that change, being triggered by internal or external factors, comes in all shapes, forms and sizes (Balogun and Hailey 2004).
Implementing the change process in any organization is a crucial foundation for enhancing employee confidence in the activities of an institution, and employees play a critical role in this process, McEvily and Zaher (2009) and Burnes (2004). Most organizations in Nigeria ignore their employees during the conception; implementation and review of the change process and this affects the implementation of the change agenda negatively. Burke (2002) asserts that organizations undergoing transformations must have teams that champion the change process. This demands that all employees within the institutions desiring change, especially the top management must been committed to the change process.
There has been a debate by numerous researchers on whether change should always be positively related to a firm’s performance (Appelbaum, 2000; Wright, 2005; Schuler and Jackson, 2001). Although most of the studies speak of Change practices leading to performance, such a one-way line of causation is not satisfactory (Edwards & Wright, 2001).This study therefore examines the effect of change management on organizational performance, using some selected companies in Anambra state.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Organizations change and adapt continuously to remain competitive (Balogun and Hailey, 2008), and yet effective organizational change seems to be rare (By, 2005; Meaney and Pung, 2008). Nyasha (2011) notes that identifying the need for organization-wide change and leading organizations through change is widely recognised as one of the most critical and challenging responsibilities of organizational leadership. Recent statistics reveal that only one-third of organisational change efforts were considered successful by their leaders (Meaney and Pung, 2008; Beer and Nohria, 2000). Apparently, implementing successful change programs in organisations is quite problematic.
The low success rates of change programs are often attributed to resistance to change on the part of employees (Ford, Ford and D’Amelio, 2008). Although planned change is intended to make the organisation more effective and efficient, resistance from members of the organisation is expected as they foresee potential threats that can affect their future (Susanto, 2008). However, scholars on resistance to change point out the need for research beyond top-down organisational change. Studies should pay attention to the dynamics of change processes (Jones, Watson, Gardner and Callois, 2004; Dibella, 2007) and thereby contribute to the understanding of resistance, which is paramount to the high failure rate of change programs (Quinn and Dutton, 2005; Di Virgilio and Ludema, 2009). Employees react to change based on its impact to them personally. Perceived favorable impacts generally lead to support for the change and perceived unfavorable impacts may lead to change resistance (Craddock, 2015).

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the study is to examine the effect of change management on organizational performance. The specific objectives include to:
a. Determine the effect of technological changes on organizational performance in Anambra State.
b. Examine the effect of change management strategies on organizational performancein Anambra State.
c. Investigatethe effect of leadership change on organizational performancein Anambra State.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions guided this study.
a. To what extent do technological changes affect organizational performance in Anambra State?
b. How do change management strategies affect organizational performancein Anambra State?
c. To what extent does leadership change affect organizational performancein Anambra State?

1.4 HYPOTHESES
The following postulations were formulated to guide this study.
Ho1: Technological changes have no significant effect on organizational performance.
Ho2: Change management strategies have no significant effect on organizational performance.
Ho3: Leadership change has no significant influence on organizational performance.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual framework
2.1.1 Change Management
Change has continued to take a front-of-stage role in both academic research and industrial practice. Whilst it is difficult to gain a universally accepted definition of change, we are reminded that change management is not a distinct discipline with rigorous and defined boundaries, but more that the theory and practice of change management draws upon a number of social science disciplines and traditions (Burnes 2004).Change basically means series of events which support the process of development in organizations (Kassim, Tahajuddin, Shahzad, Isa, & Mat, 2010). Organizational change generally means rightsizing, new development and change in technologies, rescheduling operations and major partnerships (McNamara, 2011). Organizational change includes Mission changes, Strategic changes, Operational changes (including structural change),technological changes, Changing the attitudes and behaviors of personnel, Countering resistance from different employees of companies and aligning them to strategic directions of the organization.
The Society for Human Resources Management (2015) defines change management as the systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment. Korir, Mukotive, Loice and Kimeli (2012) define change management as the effective management of a business change such that executive leaders, managers and frontline employers work in concert to successfully implement the needed process, technology or organizational changes. Moran and Brighton (2011) define change management as the process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure and capabilities to serve the ever changing needs of external and internal customers. Burnes (2004) like many other scholars assert that change is an ever present feature of organizational life, both at the operational and strategic levels. Due to its importance, change management is becoming imperative, and needs appropriate managerial skills and strategy.
Armstrong (2009) notes that Change Management (CM) emphasizes the need for the change management plans, and strategies to be formulated within the context of overall organizational strategies and objectives and to be responsive to the changing nature of the organization’s external environment. It is an approach which requires interpretation and adaptation by practitioners to ensure the most suitable fit between business strategies and plans. Thus, the overall themes of Change management are the integration of all institutional functions, adherence to broad organization goals and responsiveness to the external environment (Armstrong, 2009). It is agreed that the pace of change was greater then, than in the current business environment (Balogun and Hailey 2004; Burnes 2004; Carnall 2003; Luecke 2003. Senior 2002; Moran and Brighton 2001). Despite the complexity of change management as it does not have a simple solution, a number of key areas of focus were raised to properly manage change management.

2.1.2 Organizational Performance
Organizational performance as a concept suffers from problems of conceptual clarifications. The term performance is often used indiscriminately to describe everything from efficiency, effectiveness to improvement. Organizational performance is related to defining and achieving specific goals (Enos, 2007). Enos (2007) defines organization performance asan indicator and progressive achievement of tangible, specific, measurable, worthwhile and personally meaningful goals. According to McCloy, Campbell and Cudeck, (1994), the term performance has to do with those behaviours or actions which are regarded relevant to those goals of the said organisation in question. They further argue that performance itself cannot be said to be the outcome itself, consequences or the result of behaviors or action, rather can be said to be the action itself. Thus they argued that performance tends to be multidimensional, a situation whereby for any specific-type of job, there tends to be a number of substantive performance components that are distinguished in terms of their inter correlations and patterns on co-variation with other variables. However, there is no one definition of organisational performance. The primary reason for this is that researches from different fields of study such as psychology, human resource management, public administration and organizational behaviour have dealt with the concept based on their field of study. Hence, it is no surprise that the literature accommodates a variety of different definitions related to organizational performance.
Organizational performance is an important construct in leadership that determines how to manage organizations. Previous literature reviews reveal that organizational performance is a multidimensional concept that reflects the heterogeneous nature, circumstances and objectives of organizations at a given period. This compelled Kirby (2005) to maintain that the definition and meaning of organizational performance is an open subject for further inquiry. According to Lebans and Euske (2006), defining organizational performance requires sound judgment and interpretation of how current actions will affect future results. The writers also contend that depending on the background of the assessor, performance may be understood indifferent ways. Corvellec (1995) maintains that the concept of performance is relative to period, organizational goals and type of instruments used to measure performance. In spite of the difficulty in defining the concept of organizational performance and identifying the accompanying measurement parameters, Lebans and Euske (2006) posits that performance of establishments and businesses is made up of economic and non-economic factors. Similarly, Choi and Mueller (1992) considered financial and non-financial indices as the composite variables for evaluating organizational performance. In a landmark research, Venkatraman and Ramanujam (1986) concluded that business, financial and organizational effectiveness are important elements for assessing organizational performance. Researches and scholars have acknowledged the importance of fiscal and non-fiscal factors in assessing the operations of organizations.
Venkatraman and Ramanujam (1986) model is considered by scholars and practitioners as a standard representation that is used to measure organizational performance. Thus, the study employed economic, business and organizational efficiency as the key independent and exogenous variables to represent organizational performance.According to Daft (2000), organisational performance is defined as an organization’s ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner. Consequently, it is an evidence of the output of members of an organisation measured in terms of revenue, profit, growth, development and expansion of the organisation. In the same vein, organizational performance refers to the ability of an enterprise to achieve such objectives as high profit, quality product, large market share, good financial results, and survival at pre-determined time using relevant strategy for action (Koontz and Donnell, 1993). Organizational performance can also be used to view how an enterprise is doing in terms of level of profit, market share and product quality in relation to other enterprises in the same industry. Accordingly, it is a reflection of productivity of members of an enterprise measured in terms of revenue, profit, growth, development and expansion of the organization (Kehinde, Jegede, and Akinlabi, 2012).
Organizational performance is marked and classified by success indicators, performance indicators and key performance indicators as key success indicators. The fundamental success factors are the list of problems or aspects of organizational performance that indicate the vitality of the organization, its state and success (Parmenter, 2010). Measuring organizational performance reports on the long-term process of continuous monitoring and reporting on achievements, especially of the pre-defined aims. The measures of organizational performance can be related to the type or level of process and direct output results (Franceschini, Galetto and Maisano, 2007).Buble (2006) notes that taking into consideration the effects of performance represents the beginning of the business process transformation. One of the aims of improving business processes is to determine the economic sense which the changes will bring, which is not possible without measuring performance. If business performance is not measured, business cannot be managed. To measure performance means to know and to be able to make a decision in certain circumstances (Jeston and Nelis, 2008). When measuring organizational performance, indicators are chosen by the management for the purpose of reporting and performance improvements (Parmenter, 2010). Those performance measures, oriented to aspects of organizational performance that are most critical to current and future success of the organization, are classified as key performance indicators (KPIs).

2.1.3 Theoretical Framework
This work is anchored on the Theory Of Organizational Change and Lewin`s Three Step Model;
Theory of Organizational Change
The theory of organizational change often falls under the term “organization development” (Lanning, 2001). Organization development is a conceptual, organization-wide effort to increase an organization’s effectiveness and viability (Burnes, 2004). Bennis and Tichy (2009) refer to organization development as a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of an organization so that it can better adapt to new technologies, markets, challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. This approach is described by Cummings and Huse (1989) as the “application of behavioural science knowledge in a long range of effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with changes in its external environment and increase its internal problem solving capabilities”.
Organizational development is a unique organizational improvement strategy that emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Lewin, 1958). It evolved into an integrated framework of theories and practices capable of solving or helping to solve most of the important problems confronting the human side of organizations (Burnes, 2004). Organization development is about people and organisations and people in organisations and how they function (Lewin, 1958). Burnes (2004) adds that it is also about planned change; that is, getting individuals, teams and organisations to function better.Organization development has its origins in scientific management, and was made popular by Lewin (1946). Based on the human relations perspective, French and Bell (1983) state that the approach is a “long range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal process – with the assistance of change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioural science”.Bennis and Tichy (2009) corroborated French and Bell (1983) by stating that organization development is neither “anything done to better an organisation” nor “the training function of the organisation; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result”. Organization development can involve interventions in the organization’s “processes,” using behavioural science knowledge, organisational reflection, system improvement, planning and self-analysis (French & Bell, 1983).
As a systematic approach to managing change process successfully, the process involves: “identifying the need for change, selecting the intervention technique, gaining top management support, planning the change process, overcoming resistance to change and evaluating the change process” (Linstead, Fulop & Lilley, 2009).There have been many criticisms of organization development, and French and Bell (1983) identified and discussed some of them. A good summary appears in Palmer, Dunford and Akin (2009). The main problem with this approach is that as an explicitly normative approach, it assumes that there is one best way to manage change that increases organisational effectiveness and simultaneously achieves the wellbeing of employees (Palmer et al., 2009).

Lewin`s Three Step Model
Lewin (1951) developed a three phase model of change, based on the premise that an understanding of critical steps in the change process increases the likelihood of the successful management of change. These steps in the process are:
Unfreezing: This stage involves the recognition of the need to change. Action is taken to unfreeze the existing attitudes and behaviour, which is essential for supporting employees and minimizing change resistance (Linstead et al., 2009). Lewin believed that the stability of human behaviour was based on a quasi-stationary equilibrium supported by a complex field driving and restraining forces (Burnes, 2004).
Changing: As Schein (1992) notes, “unfreezing is not an end to itself, it creates a motivation to learn but does not necessarily control or predict the direction”. This echoes Lewin (1958), that any attempt to predict or identify a specific outcome from planned change is very difficult because of the complexity of the forces concerned (Burnes, 2004). Moving the organisation to the desired state involves actual implementation of new systems of operation. This may involve experimentation, modification of systems or patterns of behaviour, (Linstead, Fulop & Lilley, 2009). Once the change appears to have reached equilibrium once more, it is time for the next process.
Refreezing: This stage involves the positive reinforcement of desired outcomes to promote the internalisation of new attitudes and behaviours. An appraisal of the change programme becomes necessary at this stage to ensure that the new way of operating becomes a matter of habit, not a regulation. Burnes (2004) adds that “refreezing seeks to stabilise the group at a new quasi-stationary equilibrium in order to ensure that the new behaviour is relatively safe from regression”.

Empirical Review
Olajide (2014) carried out a research on change management and its effect on organizational performance of Nigerian telecoms industries using empirical insight from Airtel Nigeria. A total of 300 staff of Airtel were randomly selected from a staff population of 1000. Three hypotheses were advanced to guide the study and data collected for the study were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance. The result revealed that changes in technology had a significant effect on performance and that changes in customer taste has a significant effect on customers’ patronage. The result also shows that changes in management via leadership have significant effect on employee’s performance.
Ndahiro, Shukla and Oduor (2015) examined the effect of change management on the performance of government institutions in Rwanda. The study adopted survey research design, and the target population of employees of RRA. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Based on the data collected, the study concluded that all changes made in RRA in the past four years have been well planned and implemented. Most of the employees in the institution have generally embraced the changes made in the organization, and at resulting to overall organizational performance.
Nyasha (2011) examined the impact of organisational change in Gauteng Provincial Department of Infrastructure Development. The study focused on the strategies that should have been implemented in order to reduce the resistance to change and minimise the negative impact change brought to the employees. The study also focused on employee satisfaction and the impact of change on the psychological contracts from a broad perspective of employees within the organisation. In this study, descriptive survey design was adopted. The data collected was prepared and coded. The statistical analysis technique used falls within the ambit of descriptive statistics. These include pie charts, graphs and tables to show a pictorial representation of the distribution of responses within each category. Percentages and numbers were then used to compare these different categories. The outcome of the survey on change management and employee involvement indicated that the change vision was not communicated, while employee involvement was minimal in all stages of change processes.
Giauque (2015) examined the attitudes towards organizational change among public middle managers. This study aims to identify social and organizational antecedents of positive attitudes towards change. The investigated population is composed of middle managers working in Swiss public hospitals which are currently being confronted by major reforms. Partial mediation effects of organizational commitment in the relationships between independent variables and PATC were also controlled. The findings showed that perceived social support (work relationships with colleagues and supervisors) as well as perceived organizational support (employee voice and participation; information and communication; work-life balance) are positively and significantly related to PATC. Stress perception is shown to have a negative impact on PATC.
Ju-Chun (2015) investigated the impact of change management on employee satisfaction and engagement. The main purpose of this study was to figure out employees’ attitudes toward the new performance appraisal program and to examine whether three different types of appraisal processes differentially affected job satisfaction and employee engagement. The second purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between performance appraisal reform, job satisfaction, and employee engagement. A large polyester and textile corporation had 2046 non-operational employees in February 2014. The valid participants were 1474 in this study. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, one-way MANOVA, Pearson correlation, Content Validity Index, the exploratory factor analysis, and reliability analysis. The general results showed that employees who received the new performance appraisal program evaluated the program more positively and showed more job satisfaction than those who did not. In particular, the implementation effects of this new performance appraisal program were most highly rated by employees who used the KPI to rate their job performance. Moreover, employees’ attitudes toward the new performance appraisal program were positively related to their job satisfaction and employee engagement. Lastly, most employees regarded themselves as engaged workers.
Ahmed, Rehman, ZAsad, Hussain and Bilal (2013) examined the impact of organizational change on the employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan. In this study Primary and secondary data collection techniques were used for obtaining data. Copies of the questionnaire were used for primary data collection. leadership, communication, procedural justice, employee development, tolerance to change are the variables considered for the study. The sample size was 252, hence descriptive statistics and correlation analysis techniques were used for the analysis of data in SPSS software. The results showed that organizational change had a positive significant impact on employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan.
Selvadurai (2013) examined change management in the public sector. The study explored public sector employee perceptions regarding what strategies are required to create change that achieveed desired results in public sector organizations. A qualitative research design was employed, involving in-depth interviews with six employees of the Canadian public serviceto test the alignment of Kotter’s eight step model with the perceptions of public sector employees. The study revealed that three of Kotter’s eight steps were aligned with the perceptions of the public sector employees interviewed. These three steps were forming a powerful guiding coalition, creating a vision, and communicating the vision.

3. METHODOLOGY
Descriptive survey design was adopted.The study was carried out in Anambra State. Primary data were employed in the study. These were sourced through the use of questionnaire administered to the respondents selected for the study. The population was286 employees’ working at the selected manufacturing companies in Anambra State. The entire population wasused as the sample, therefore the sample size was 286. The major instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. Content Validity was adopted, andthe researchers used test-retest method in order to test reliability of the research instrument.T test statistical analysis was conducted to assess the relative predictive power of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21 was employed to test the hypotheses.

4. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Here, thedata generated from the questionnaire distributed to the employees of the selected manufacturing companies were presented and analyzed. A total of two hundred and eighty six (286) copies of questionnaire were distributed to the employees of the selected manufacturing companies. A total of two hundred and fifty (250) copies were retrieved from the respondents, and were properly filled and found usable for the study. Thirty-six copies were either not properly filled or misplaced by the respondents. The analyses presented below were based on the two hundred and fifty relevant copies. The data from the questionnaire were coded and fed into excel spread sheet.The formulated hypotheses were subjected to empirical test using t test statistical analysis.

4.1 Test of Hypotheses
Here, the hypotheses formulated in chapter one of this study were tested for acceptance or rejection. This was done using t test statistical tool. The coefficients of the t test statistical analysis are presented in the table below.

Table 1 Coefficients of the Multiple Regression
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 18.146 2.370 7.655 .000
TC .196 .056 .120 2.714 .008
CMS .205 .066 .217 3.120 .002
LC .248 .055 .252 2.152 .009
Source: SPSS Version 21.0

4.2 Hypothesis One
Ho: Technological changes have no significant effect on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state
Hi: Technological changes have a significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state
Based on the t-statistics of 2.714 and probability value of 0.008 in table 1, Technological changes were found to have a significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state,therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted. We then conclude Technological changes have a significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies.

4.3 Hypothesis Two
Ho: Change management strategies have no significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state
Hi: Change management strategies have significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state
Table 1 shows thatchange management strategies have a t-statistics of 3.120 and probability value of 0.002 which is statistically significant at 5% level.Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was accepted. We then conclude that change management strategies have significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state.

4.4 Hypothesis Three
Ho: Leadership changes have no significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state
Hi: Leadership changes havea significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state
From table 1 above, the probability value for leadership changes is 0.009, which is less than 0.05 (0.009 less than .05). We therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis and conclude that leadership changes have a significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state.

4.5 Discussions of Major Findings
This work examined the effect of organizational change on employee performance in some manufacturing companies in Anambra State. Primary data were sourced from the employees of the manufacturing companies. The result of the hypotheses tested revealed the following:Technological change had a positive significant effect on employee performance in thecompanies studied.This was supported by (Ndahiro,Shukla, and Oduor 2015,Anne 2015 and Olajide, (2014) which maintains that technological changes have a great effect on employee performance due to the rapid technological changes that the world is rapidly adjusting that eases employees’ work load and increase efficiency and effectiveness at work place
The study also revealed that Change management strategies have apositive significant effect organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state. This finding tallies withJu-Chun (2015) andSelvadurai (2013) shows that change management strategies have apositive significant effect on organizational performance.
Organizational leadership had significant effect on employees’ performance in the selected manufacturing companies in Anambra State. This hypothesis is supported with various studies and research findings which show that organizational leadership affects employee performance positively (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, Oon and Hartini 2014, Kamugisha 2013 and Lam, Lau, Shua, and The 2011).

5. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
This work examined the effect of change management on organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state.Data were sourced from 5 manufacturing companies in Anambra state, Nigeria. The data generated were analyzed using t test analysis and the following were discovered.
a. Technological changes have apositive significant effect on organizational performancein manufacturing companies.
b. Change management strategies have apositive significant effect organizational performancein manufacturing companies in Anambra state
c. Leadership changes have a positive significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state.

6. CONCLUSION
From the findings of this study, it was discovered that technological changes hada significant effect on organizational performance,change management strategies hada significant effect organizational performance,and leadership changes had a significant influence on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state. The study therefore concludes that management change has a positive significant effect on organizational performance in manufacturing companies in Anambra state.

7. RECOMMENDATIONS
Base on the findings and conclusion, the study therefore, recommends that:
a. Technology influenced employee performance since it simplifies the work to be done, making work more efficient. Organizations which implement new technology should provide proper training to their employees to increase their performance
b. Every organization should build strong organizational management strategies that help to build good relationships based on their values, norms, behaviours, and perceptions
c. Leadership changes leaders’ mind-set, style and behavior, therefore the change process they design as a result of their orientation must motivate employees to want to participate, to choose to contribute, rather than force them to do so.

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