An Analysis of Effectiveness of Marketing Mix As A Satisfaction Tool in Contemporary Multi-Party Politics

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Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: March, 2019

Isaac Theophilus Ampah
Takoradi Technical University, Faculty of Business Studies
Department of Marketing And Strategy
Takoradi, Ghana, West Africa

Journal Full Text PDF: An Analysis of Effectiveness of Marketing Mix As A Satisfaction Tool in Contemporary Ghanaian Multi-Party Politics.

Abstract
Objectives
-To find the extent of marketing mix adoption among political parties
-To investigate the factors which prevent successful implementation of marketing mix by political parties.
-To identify whether marketing mix adoption really leads to voters’ satisfaction
-To highlight any other findings which are relevant and can contribute towards effective marketing mix adoption by political parties in Ghana.
Methodology
265 respondents from four main political parties, civil society groups and eligible Ghanaian voters were purposively selected. Structured self-completed questionnaires, journal, internet, books and Electoral Commission Ghana manuals were used to collect data. Data was analysed using frequencies, mean, standard deviation and stack box.
Result
35 New Patriotic Party (NPP), 46 National Democratic Party (NDC), 32 Convention Peoples Party (CPP), 17 Peoples National Congress (PNC) and 5 Other parties officials (Political Actors) and members as well as 11 election officials, 10 election monitoring officials, 21 political analysts experts and 77 eligible Ghanaian voters (Non-Political Actors) were sampled from 15 million eligible Ghanaian voters (18 years and above and of sound mind). Source-Electoral Commission of Ghana. Summary of views of respondents (Political Actors) about marketing mix as a satisfaction tool on Likert scales ( 1=strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3= neutral, 4= agree and 5 strongly agree) with mean score ranging from 3.63 to 4.27 out of a total of 5. From Non-Political Actors perspective effectiveness of marketing mix adoption among political parties is low with mean scores ranging from 2.15-2.68 of a total of 5.
Conclusion
The study concluded that marketing mix adoption among political parties in Ghana is medium and also its usage as a satisfaction tool is effective for Political Actors and ineffective for Non-Political Actors. Furthermore, it was discovered that the 7ps (product, price, promotion, place, people, process and physical evidence.) on their own are not enough to satisfy voters’ needs/wants.

Keywords: Marketing mix, Voter satisfaction and Political parties.

1. INTRODUCTION
For voters’ satisfaction to be realised marketing mix application is paramount in modern political dispensation. Once voters’ needs/wants keep changing so must politicians all over the world embrace marketing mix application seriously than ever before. According Gbadeyan (2011) political parties seek voters’ support in exchange for good governance. Marketing mix is a combination of four factors which managers may leverage to satisfy customers’ needs/wants (McCarthy,1964). The marketing mix is also known as 4ps summarily ie product, price, promotion and place. Boom and Bitner (1981) extended the 4ps to 7ps to include people, process and physical evidence to cover services provision.
Despite marketing mix global recognition and acceptance as a satisfaction tool, its effectiveness in political setting is under research. This demands that political parties should do their possible best to satisfy different stakeholders particularly voters’ needs/wants. Lee-Marshment (2008) added if a political party implements the marketing philosophy, it would seek to meets voters’ needs/wants, thus producing voter satisfaction and in doing so gain electoral support to meet its own goals. To realize this objective, marketing mix application within political administration should be given the needed attention it deserves so as to satisfy various varying needs/wants of stakeholders.
Full implementation of the 7ps including customer orientation and employment of qualified marketing personnel would go a long way to enhance the effectiveness of marketing practice at political parties’ setting. Research has revealed that even though marketing mix application in politics is at its infant stage yet it has the ability to investigate and explain the behaviour of leading political actors and parties to comprehend the underpinning means needed to establish explanatory models of political parties as well as voters’ behaviour (Scammell, 1999). Nevertheless, this feat can be realised if political parties undertake a reasonable time frame of effective marketing. On many instances application of marketing mix to political issues is seen as over simplification and unnecessary (Butler and Collins, 1994).
This common feature of marketing practice of political parties can hardly assist voters’ needs/wants satisfaction. Thus to prepare political parties to fully maximise voters’ needs/wants is essential to fill the vacuum created by doubt about marketing mix applicability in political setting to have the same effect like the one practiced in commercial marketing. As political parties enhance marketing practice they should also appreciate not only how to give excellent political product offering to voters but also they should also establish lasting win-win relationship with all political stakeholders. Application of political marketing mix should involve all 7ps but not communication (Wring, 2002b) and celebrity endorsement strategies (Henneberg,2004) as is being done by some political parties. If political parties take marketing mix application seriously and systematically enrol marketing infrastructure and engage the services of qualified marketing personnel then voters’ satisfaction which is medium among them can be improved to deepened voters’ participation in democratic process in most developing countries for better governance.
Considerable attention has been paid to political parties and voters’ satisfaction in relation to democratic governance systems. However, despite the essential role voters’ satisfaction plays in good governance very little attention has been given to this subject matter within the published research literature especially in developing democracies. The lack of adequate attention to effective marketing mix application in terms of effective voter satisfaction at political setting level creates a gap in academic literature. Thus, study aimed at capturing the essential knowledge and experiences of both political and non-political actors to make an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of marketing mix application at political parties setting.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Marketing in General
According to Scammell ( 1999) among the various definitions of marketing, the marketing mix concept (customer-oriented approach) and the notion of exchange is the centre of them. Marketing is about finding and meeting social needs while being profitable at the same time (Kotler and Keller, 2014). Also, American Marketing Association (2014) defined marketing as the activity, set of institutions and processes for establishing, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers and larger societal needs in both short and long terms. Kotler and Keller (2014) said marketing is an art and science of selecting segment, getting, keeping and growing customers through creation, delivery and communication of superior customers’ value.

2.2 Marketing Practices in politics
Philip Kotler and Sidney Levy challenged marketing’s obsession with commercial activity (Newman, 1999a). Kotler and Zaltman (1971) argued marketing practice benefit non-profitable organization. This started the need to study and develop understandable meaning of marketing in non-commercial sectors ( Newman, 1999a; Wring 2002b) . With increasing desire in new academic literature also commenced the area of politics in marketing (Savigny, 2003). Even though marketing practices in politics is at an early phase there is a debate going on regarding the specific role marketing can play in political activities (Bains and Egan, 2001). Developing literature on marketing practices in politics tends to be specific to particular countries (Butler and Collins, 1996). Marketing practices in politics is not accepted universally by all practitioners and academics alike. There a section of political scientists who agree that marketing in political science landscape gives it some level of uniqueness. In another breadth there other political scientists who argued that marketing in political activities is mere nice presentation and over-indulging exercise ( O’Shaughnessy, 2001).

2.3 Marketing mix Variables of Marketing Practices in Politics
According to Niffenegger (1989) politicians should integrate the 7ps to achieve the desired impact on their activities for better customer satisfaction. Scammell (1999) even advocate the stretching of the 7ps to make much sense in marketing practice in politics. The following are the mix variables in political context;
a) Product-This refers to anything whether tangible or intangible which is of value to voters and other political stakeholders. This includes candidate image, past achievement, competence, backup resources, promises, personal features of a candidate, political ideology and governance ( Niffenegger, 1989).
b) Price-This deals with management of attitudinal and behavioural impediments to voters. This includes economic cost, psychological cost, opportunity cost and voting influence cost (Niffenegger, 1989).
c) Promotion-Here dissemination of information to both internal and external stakeholders of political party. Promotional mix variables include advertising, publicity, leaflet distribution, internet ads, social media, posters and so on (Niffenegger, 1989).
d) Place-This refers to the manner in which political products are made available to voters and other stakeholders. This includes campaign delivery and political product delivery ( Niffenegger, 1989.
e) People- Under this variable, party membership, party leadership style, communicators, strategist and party financiers involvement are dealt with (Ormond, 2005).
f) Process-This deals with a political party’s efforts in focussing on building mutually satisfying long-term relationship with key stakeholders in the political sphere (Ormond, 2005).
g) Physical evidence-This refers to the attractiveness and welcoming nature of political party’s structures to voters and other stakeholders (Ormond, 2005).

2.4 Voters’ Satisfaction
Kotler (2014) said satisfaction is the feeling of happiness because one has something or has achieved something of value. Kolter and Armstrong (2014) also added that satisfaction is state of happiness or disappointment that comes from the comparison of a perceived performance of a product relative to its expectations. They continue by saying that satisfaction is action which is meeting a genuine, desire, demand and expectation. It is undeniable fact that voters compare their expectations concerning specific political promise with actual achievement of sitting government to decide whether to renew their mandate at the next polls. Shama (1976) also argued that marketing in politics is about is a situation whereby politicians present their ideas to voters to order to meet their both actual and potential needs so that they can garner support for the policies, programs and achievements. Henneberg (2002) also suggested that marketing in politics should approach from long-term relational perspective individual voters’ needs are met by political actors at a profitable. According to Marshment (2006) if a political institution embrace marketing mix, it will strive to satisfy voters’ needs/wants thus offering voter satisfaction and in by so doing win electoral support for its manifesto. Newman (1999a) further stressed that there should be the need for marketers to first identify voters needs before they go around electoral areas to make political promises.

3. MARKETING IN POLITICS CONCEPTUALIZATION
The concept underpinning the research is based on Lees-Marshment (2001b) political studies on the marriage of politics and marketing. Lees-Marshment (2001b) looked at marketing practice in political science and concluded that a combination of the two offers a more complete scenario of the behaviour of political parties. O’ Cass (1996) also added that the usage of marketing practices by political parties is to aid them sort out the needs/wants of different stakeholders through marketing analysis, planning, implementation and control of political product offering. O’ Cass (1996) further argued that the key reason for marketing practices in political sphere is to assist political parties and voters to make the most essential and satisfactory decisions.
Most of the time, it has been argued that marketing practice adoption in political arena is nothing new. Over the last two decades marketing practices in politics have not been taken seriously by only political parties but also community development and civil society groups which are demanding better voters’ needs satisfaction (Henneberg, 2004).Marketing practices in political sphere have changed from communication techniques to more coordinated usage of the 7ps. However, most political parties are far away from understanding and embracing marketing mix. It is undeniable fact those political parties that do adopt marketing practices only engage in short term marketing techniques which has resulted in voter apathy and less participation in democratic governance systems. Since voters’ do not only vote once in their lifetime political parties have to focus not on satisfying their short-term needs but long term needs as well to further deepened democratic governance systems.

3. METHODOLOGY
Data was collected from two groups of respondents’ namely political actors and non-political actors within the political administration in Ghana. In total 265 respondents were selected from both political and non-political actors. 35 party officials of New Patriotic Party (NPP), 46 party officials of National Democratic Congress (NDC), 32 party officials of Convention Peoples Party (CPP), 17 party officials of Peoples National Convention (PNC) and 5 party official from other political parties were selected from political actors side. On the other hand, 10 election organising officials, 21 election monitoring officials, 22 political commentary officials and 77 Ghanaian eligible voters’ from non-political actors side. Data was collected through two sets of self-completed questionnaires to both political and non-political actors that permitted respondents to complete them at their own free time in order to lessen interruptions to those participating political parties’ activities. Both set of questionnaires dealt with effectiveness of marketing mix application and voters’ satisfaction within political setting. The questionnaire was developed in such a way that the structure, focus and phrasing of questions was intelligible with respondents, reduced bias and provided data that could be statistically analysed (Gill and Johnson,2006). A five point Likert scale was utilised with responses ranging from ‘strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree’. Closed ended questions were also used to permit for collection of more depth data. Total of 280 questionnaires were sent out, out of which 265 questionnaires were returned representing 95% . Non probability purposive sampling method which consists of selection of respondents with knowledge and experience with political marketing was utilised. Lastly, quantitative data was used to analyse using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 21, Microsoft Excel 2013 and Minitab Version 16.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0 DATA AND INFORMATION DESCRIPTION
Basically, two data and information sources were used to describe the study. These included a survey method that issued self-completion structured questionnaire to gather data from respondents. The researcher also used various political marketing publications such as journals, books, reports, and manual and internet sources to gather more information to help answer the various objectives. The descriptive approach used by the researcher implied that data and information were described with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21, Minitab version 16, and Microsoft Excel. Descriptive tools such as frequency table, mean, standard deviation and stack box were also used.

4.1 Analysis of the Questionnaire
Demography of Respondents (Political Actors)
This section presents the analysis and discussion of the results based on designated objectives of the study for Political Actors. The section is presented under the following headings
1. Reliability statistics
2. Respondents profile
3. The extent of marketing mix variable adoption in Ghanaian political party setting
4. Factors that hinder smooth adoption of marketing mix by political parties
5. Whether effective adoption of marketing mix variable really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction
6. Things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties

4.2 Reliability Statistics
A reliability test using Cronbach Alpha; resulting in a reliability coefficient of 0.907 which was above the recommended minimum of 0.7 (Santos & Reynolds, 1999) was conducted on all 42 items (variables) used in the study (see Table 4.1).

Table.1: Reliability Statistics
N % Cronbach’s Alpha No. of variables
135 100 0.907 42
Source: output from SPSS
It can be inferred from Table 4.1 that variables assigned for the study were about 91% reliable to be used for the study. The study however achieved a response rate of 0.900 (approximately 90%).

4.3 Respondents Profile
This section shows the demographic characteristics according gender, type of political party, age, educational level, current position and number of years worked for current political party. The sample was skewed toward the male population (see Table 4.2) with 58% of the respondents being male, and 42% were female. With respect to the political affiliation of the respondents, 35% out of the total respondents indicated they are affiliated to the NDC, followed by NPP (26%), CPP (24) and the least (3%) were others. The Respondents varied in age, ranging from 18 to over 50. The highest proportion of the respondents fell into the 36-45 age group. They accounted for 34% of the total respondents. This was followed by the 46–55 age group (26%). The educational level of the respondents was generally high. Only 4% of the sample had received primary education, while 43% received tertiary education, and 29% reported having obtained postgraduate education.
In terms of current position, majority (49%) of the respondents indicated party members followed by the national party executive (15%), constituency party executive (12%), regional party executive (10%) whiles 14% of the respondents asserted others to indicate other positions in the parties. Evidence from Table 4.2 below further indicates that 74% of the respondents have been working in the various parties for more than 6 years and above followed by 4-6 years (13%).

Table 2: Summary of Response on Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Attributes Frequency Percentage (%)
Type of political party

4.4 Marketing Mix Adoption in Ghanaian Political Party Setting
This section of the study examines the extent of marketing mix adoption in the Ghanaian political party setting.

Table 3. Marketing Mix Adoption in Ghanaian Political Party Settinga
Statement Frequency Percentage
How long has marketing practices been adopted?
6 months-1 year
2 -3 years
4-5 years
5 years and above
More than 5 years

Table .3 presents the extent of political mix variable adoption in Ghanaian political party setting, it can be seen that more than 71% of the respondents indicated 5 years and above followed by 4-6 years (15.6%) and the least was 6 months to 1 year (0.7%) were the responses to the statement: ‘how long has marketing practices been adopted?’ However, to what extent was the marketing practiced used presented none (3.7%), low (28.9%), medium (43%) and high (24.4%) this indicates that the extent of which marketing mix variable was used by Ghanaian political party was medium as indicated by the respondents.

Figure 1: The Extent of Marketing Mix Adoption in Ghanaian Political Party Setting

Figure 1 depicts the box plot of the extent of marketing mix variables adoption in Ghanaian political party setting. 11 variables (Q9 (political parties have used marketing practices for several years); Q10 (the marketing practices are for all ranges of political decisions and programs); Q11 (the marketing practice was for all political decisions and programs that were not accepted by voters); Q12 (the marketing practice was done for new political decisions and programs); Q13 (donations and membership dues paid by party members are value for money); Q14 (Political decisions and programs implementation are fast, reliable and convenient); Q15 (political decision makers consider voters needs in making decisions); Q16 (voters are made aware and informed about all political decisions and programs); Q17 (political parties’ staff are helpful, friendly and respectful); Q18 (political parties’ offices at all levels are attractive and voters’ friendly) and Q19 (marketing practices forms part of long term thinking of political parties)) were examined.
Figure 1 suggests that the variables Q9, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q17, Q18 and Q19 have almost the same median mark and the spread in these groups are smaller compared to Q10, Q11,Q14 and Q16 indicating a better or a positive variable mix adoption in/among the former than the latter. In other words the 2 groups do not perform at the same level. The former is distinct from the latter because the boxplot of the former group does not overlap with that of the latter. It can also be observed from the figure (see Figure .1) that apart from the median mark, the former has their mean value above 3.0 and the spread in these two groups also indicates that the former shows a strong marketing mix compared to the latter with some few patches of outliers in both the former and the latter grouping.

4.5 Factors that Hinder Smooth Adoption of Marketing Mix by Political Parties
This segment of the study looks at the various factors that hinder smooth adoption of marketing mix by political parties. Seven variables were used in this study to ascertain which of them are perceive to be most influential factors.
Table 4.4 below presents the various factors that hinder smooth adoption of marketing mix by political parties. In all, 7 variables were examined (see Table 4.4). A positive relationship exist between the mean and the degree of influence of the variable whilst an inverse relationship exists between the standard deviation and the degree of influence of the variable. This implies that a variable with a high mean and a small standard deviation will be more influential than a variable with a high mean and standard deviation respectively. The variables were measured on a 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly disagree).

Table 4: Factors that Hinder Smooth Adoption of Marketing Mix by Political Parties
Factors N
Mean Std. Deviation
Statistic Statistic
Lack of qualified marketing personnel and delays in decision making by political parties affect marketing 135 3.92 0.744
Complex nature of political decisions affect marketing 135 3.36 1.267
The nature of political parties’ candidates’ personality interfere with marketing practice 135 3.50 1.257
Ethnic background of voters make marketing practice not important 135 3.89 1.023
Level of literacy and lack of trust among voters affect marketing practice 135 4.10 0.804
Influencing of voters with gifts, money and communal project affect marketing practice 135 4.24 0.759
Political ideology and political appointees competency affect marketing practice 135 4.13 0.762

Source: Field data, 2019.

The statistic (see Table 4) suggests that respondents perceived these 3 variables (influencing of voters with gifts, money and communal project affect marketing practice; political ideology and political appointees competency affect marketing practice; and level of literacy and lack of trust among voters affect marketing practice;) in descending order based on their mean and associated standard deviations the most impeding smooth adoption of marketing mix by political parties. They produced mean values of 4.24; 4.13 and 4.10 with standard deviations of 0.759; 0.762 and 0.804 in that order whilst the least perceived factor was the variable: complex nature of political decision affect marketing. This accounted for a mean response value of 3.36 and a standard deviation value of 1.267 (see Table 4.4).

4.6 Whether Effective Adoption of Marketing Mix Really Lead to Customer (Voters) Satisfaction
This section of the study assess whether effective adoption of marketing mix variable really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction. The study required respondents to rate on a scale of 1-5 their level of agreement to the contention that effective adoption marketing mix variable really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction (see Table 4.5).

Table 5: Effective adoption of marketing mix variable really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction
Statement/item Rating
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Mean
Fq % Fq % Fq % Fq % Fq %
Voters are happy with political decisions and programs 35 26.0 10 7.4 25 18.5 58 43.0 7 5.1 3.67
Politicians fulfill their manifesto promises to make voters happy 39 28.9 12 8.9 15 11.1 61 45.2 8 5.9 3.63
Voters and civil society trust in politicians are high 25 18.5 15 11.1 20 14.8 70 51.8 5 3.7 3.74
Voters complaints and concerns are dealt with quickly 38 28.2 25 18.5 5 3.7 67 49.6 0 0.0 3.66
Voters are happy to encourage first time and undecided voters to cast their votes 15 11.1 20 14.8 10 7.4 55 40.7 35 26.0 3.71
Voters have good image about politicians 15 11.1 25 18.5 0 0.0 60 44.4 35 26 3.85
Party members and officials are happy to explain political decisions, programs and achievement 5 3.7 15 11.1 5 3.7 30 22.2 80 59.2 4.27
Political decisions, programs and achievements are consistent with voters needs and wants 10 7.0 15 11.0 20 15.0 55 41.0 35 26.0 3.87
Voters are happy with political leadership performance 0 0.0 15 11.1 10 7.4 45 33.3 65 48.2 4.01
Voters are happy to contribute to political debates and decisions 3 2.2 7 5.2 10 7.4 42 31.1 73 54.1 4.21
Source: Field data, 2019.

A look at Table 5 above indicates that there was a general satisfaction with respect to most of the variables (statements) in view of whether effective adoption of marketing mix variable really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction as demonstrated by a high mean scores ranging from 3.63 to 4.27 out of a total of 5. The statement: voters are happy with political decisions and programs saw about 65% of the political actors validating the statement. Similarly, about 81% of the respondents indicated strongly agree/agree when asked if party members and officials are happy to explain political decisions, programs and achievements chalked by their respective party affiliation. Table 5 above presents the count (frequency and associated percentage) and their related mean value to each statement.

4.7 Things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties
This segment of the study examines the various things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties. In all 7 variables were examined (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Things That Can Contribute to Effective Marketing Practices by Political Parties

A look at figure 4.2 shows that majority (44.4%-71.1%) political actors avowed to agree and quite an appreciable number (17%-39.3%) also affirmed to strongly agree to the statements: creation of marketing section or department (V1); some political appointees should have marketing background (V2); setting aside a percentage of political parties’ budget for marketing (V3); regular marketing training for senior political officials and members (V4); employment of qualified marketing personnel for political parties (V5) and political officials whose performance and achievements are not satisfactorily should be changed (V6). For instance 44% out of the total respondents asserted agree, followed by neutral (32.6%) and strongly agree (17%). For V5: 71.1% constituting the majority stated agree, followed by strongly agree (22.2%). Based on the assigned percentages to the various statements (variables), it can however be inferred that respondents (political actors) generally agree there are things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties.

4.8 ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE (NON-POLITICAL ACTORS)
Demography of Respondents ( Non-Political Actors )
This section presents the analysis and discussion of the results based on designated objectives for Non-Political Actors. The chapter is presented under the following headings
1.Reliability statistics
2.Respondents profile
3.The extent of marketing practice adoption by political parties
4.Factors that effective marketing practices by political parties
5. Whether effective marketing practices will result in voter satisfaction
6.Things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties

4.9 Reliability Statistics
A reliability test using Cronbach Alpha; resulting in a reliability coefficient of 0.824 which was above the recommended minimum of 0.7 (Santos & Reynolds, 1999) was conducted on all 43 items (variables) used in the study (see Table 4.6).

Table 6: Reliability Statistics
N % Cronbach’s Alpha No. of variables
130 100 0.824 43
Source: output from SPSS

It can be inferred from Table 4.1 that variables assigned for the study were about 82% reliable to be used for the study and achieved a response rate of 86.67 (approximately 87%).

4.10 Respondents Profile
This section shows the demographic characteristics according type of civil society group/person, gender, age, educational level, current position, number of years involved in political election activities, the number of years that marketing practice has been part of political parties’ decision and programs and the extent of which marketing practice was used (see Table 7).

Table 7: Summary of Response on Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Attributes Frequency Percentage (%)
Type of civil society group/person
Election organizing institution
Election monitoring
Political commentary and analysis institution
Ghanaian citizen

Table 7 presents the demographic characteristics of respondents (non-political actors). It can be seen that majority of the respondents Ghanaian citizen to the variable type of civil society group/person. This accounted for 59.2% of the total respondents followed by political commentary and analysis institution (16.9%) and the least was election organizing institution (7.7%). Respondents were also skewed towards the male population with 61% of the respondents being male, and 39% were female. The Respondents varied in age, ranging from 18 to over 46 years. The highest proportion of the respondents fell into the 36-45 age group. They accounted for 30.8% of the total respondents. This was followed by the 26-35 age group (30.0%) and the least was the 18-25 age group (16.2%). It was also observed that 44.6% constituting the majority had attained tertiary level education followed by SHS (30%). However, 17.7% of the respondents indicated postgraduate and the remaining 7.7% were JHS graduates.
In relation to current position (see Table 4.6) it was observed that 74.5% of the respondents avowed to eligible voter whilst 8.5% indicated election official, election monitoring official and political commentary expert respectively. Respondents were also lopsided to 6 years and above when asked how long have you been involved in political elections and activities. This accounted for over 70% of the total respondents, next to it was 4-6 years (16.2%) and the least was less than 6 months (3.1%). In view of the variable: how long has marketing practice been part of political parties’ decision saw majority (78.5%) of the respondents affirming above 5 years, followed by 2-3 years (10.8%). Also the statement to what extent was the marketing practice used also offered none (3.8%), low (27.7%), medium (41.6%) and high (26.9%).

4.11 Marketing Practice Adoption by Political Parties
This section of the study examines the extent of marketing practice adoption by political parties in Ghana by Non-political Actors.
Figure 3 depicts the box plot of the extent of marketing practice adoption by political parties.. 11 variables (Q9 (political parties have used marketing programmes for many years); Q10 (marketing programmes are used for all political decisions and activities); Q11 (marketing programmes are for only services which voters do not like); Q12 (marketing programmes is for only new political decisions voters do not understand); Q13 (donations by party members and financiers are used to develop political programs to make voters happy); Q14 (services provided by the assembly are fast, reliable and convenient); Q15 (voters are made part of political decision making process); Q16 (voters are made aware of all political decision and programmes); Q17 (party members and officials are helpful, friendly and respectful); Q18 (party offices are nice and voters’ friendly) and Q19 (Marketing practices forms part of long term thinking of political parties)) were examined.

Figure 3: The Extent of Marketing Practice Adoption by Political Parties

Figure 3 suggests that the variables Q9, Q10, Q15, Q17, Q18 and Q19 have almost the same median mark and the spread in these groups are smaller compared to Q13, Q14 and to some extent Q11, Q12 and Q16 indicating a better or a positive marketing practice adoption by political parties among the former than the latter. In other words the 2 groups do not have the same performance or their marketing practice adoption are not at the same level. The former is distinct from the latter because the boxplot of the former group does not overlap with that of the latter. It can also be observed from the figure (see Figure 4.3) that apart from the median mark, the former has their mean value above 3.0 and the spread in these two groups also indicates that the former shows a strong marketing adoption by political parties compared to the latter with some few patches of outliers in both the former and the latter grouping.

4.12 Factors That Prevent Effective Marketing Practices By Political Parties
This segment of the study looks at the various factors that prevent effective Marketing Practice by political parties. Seven variables were used in this study to ascertain which of them are perceive to be most influential factors.

Table 8: Factors that Prevent Effective Marketing Practices by Political Parties
Statement/ item N Mean Std. Deviation
Statistic Statistic Statistic
Political parties do not have qualified marketing people to explain their programmes and decisions 130 3.65 0.872
Lack of money for marketing programme 130 3.61 0.857
The nature of political candidate’s personality interfere with marketing practice 130 3.57 1.897
Ethnic background of voters make marketing practice not important 130 4.03 0.719
Level of literacy and lack of trust of voters
in politicians affect marketing practices 130 4.05 0.653
Influencing of voters with gifts, money and communal projects affect marketing practice 130 4.31 0.603
The nature of political ideology and achievement make marketing not important 130 3.59 0.956
Complex nature of political decisions affect marketing 130 3.75 0.976
Competency level of most political appointees
is poor 130 4.10 0.625
Delays in political decision making affect marketing practice 130 4.06 0.648

Source: Field data, 2019.

Table 8 below presents the various factors that hinder smooth adoption of marketing mix by political parties. In all, 10 variables were examined (see Table 8). A positive relationship exists between the mean and the degree of influence of the variable whilst an inverse relationship exists between the standard deviation and the degree of influence of the variable. This implies that a variable with a high mean and a small standard deviation will be more influential than a variable with a high mean and standard deviation respectively. The variables were measured on a 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly disagree). For instance, the statements: political parties do not have qualified marketing people to explain their programmes and decisions; influencing of voters with gifts, money and communal projects affect marketing practice; and delays in political decision making affect marketing practice produced a mean scores of 3.65; 4.31; and 4.06 with respective standard deviations of 0.872; 0.603; and 0.648.
Looking at the results in Table 8, it can be said that respondents endorsed all the items/statements as the factors that hinder or prevent effective marketing practices by political parties as demonstrated by a high mean scores; all above 3.57-4.31 out of a total score of 5 and a small standard deviation scores indicating that the respondents perceives all the statement/items as the factors that prevent or hinder effective marketing practices by political parties.

4.13 Whether Effective Marketing Practices will Result in Voters Satisfaction
This section of the study assess whether effective marketing practices will yield result in voter satisfaction. The study required respondents to rate on a scale of 1-5 their level of agreement to the contention that effective marketing practices will result in voter satisfaction (see Table 9).
Table 9: Effective adoption of marketing mix variables really lead to customer (voters) satisfaction
Statement/item Rating
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Mean
Voters are happy with the quality of political achievements, decisions and programmes 35 27.0 70 53.8 10 7.7 15 11.5 0 0.0 2.38
Voters and civil society trust in political decision and program is high 45 34.7 65 50.0 15 11.5 5 3.8 0 0.0 2.15
Voters complaints and concerns are dealt with swiftly 50 38.5 55 42.3 10 7.7 15 11.5 0 0.0 2.27
Voters are happy to encourage first time and undecided voters to cast
their votes 25 19.2 55 42.4 20 15.4 25 19.2 5 3.8 2.48
Voters have good image about politicians 40 30.9 65 50.0 5 3.8 15 11.5 5 3.8 2.53
Party members and officials are happy to explain political decisions, programs and achievements
15 11.5 45 34.6 20 15.4 50 38.5 0 0.0 2.68
Political decisions, achievements and programmes are consistent with voters’ needs
and wants 35 27.0 60 46.1 15 11.5 20 15.4 0 0.0 2.34
Voters’ are happy with political leadership performance and achievement 35 26.9 65 50.0 0 0.0 30 23.1 0 0.0 2.37
Source: Field data, 2019.

A look at Table 9 above indicates that there was a general dissatisfaction with respect to all the variables (statements) in view of whether effective marketing practice will result in voter satisfaction as demonstrated by a low mean scores ranging from 2.15-2.68 out of a total of 5. For instance the statements: ‘voters and civil society trust in political decision and program is high’ and ‘party members and officials are happy to explain political decisions, programs and achievements’ produced a mean value of 2.15 and 2.68 respectively. It can be inferred from the results (see Table 9) that respondents disagrees with all the statements (variables) with respect of whether effective marketing practices will result in voter satisfaction. Table 4.5 above presents the count (frequency and associated percentage) and their related mean value to each statement.

4.14 Things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties
This segment of the study examines the various things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties. In all 7 variables were examined (see Figure 4) to determine their extent of contribution.

Figure 4: Things That Can Contribute to Effective Marketing Practices by Political Parties

A look at figure 4 shows that for all the variables majority (50%-71%) of non-political actors avowed to ‘agree’ and quite an appreciable number (15%-26.3%) also asserted to ‘strongly agree’ to the statements: creation of marketing section or department (V1); some political party appointees should have marketing background (V2); regular marketing training programs for political party official (V3); employment of qualified marketing personnel for political parties (V4); political appointees whose performance and achievement are not satisfactorily should be changed (V5); setting aside a percentage political parties’ budget for marketing (V6). For instance 60% out of the total respondents asserted agree, followed by strongly agree (20.8%) for V1. Also V6 presented agree (50%), strongly agree (15%) and the least neutral (5%). Based on the assigned percentages to the various statements (variables), it can however be inferred that respondents (non-political actors) generally agree there are things that can contribute to effective marketing practices by political parties.

5. CONCLUSION
The following conclusions were drawn from the analysis of the questionnaire:
a) Political-Actors
• Political marketing practice among Ghanaian political parties setting was generally medium.
• Political gifts/communal projects, political ideology/political appointees’ competency and political issues literacy are obstacles to successful adoption of political marketing practices among political parties.
• Political parties were generally happy with voter satisfaction.
Creation of marketing desk, appointment of people with marketing background, setting aside of some money for political marketing activities, regular marketing for political executives, employment of qualified marketing personnel as well as removal of underperforming political appointees could all contribute greatly to effective political marketing practices.
b) Non-Political Actors
• Like their political party counterpart Non-Political Actors also indicated that political marketing practice in Ghana is medium.
• Furthermore, impediments preventing successful adoption of political marketing among political parties included political gifts/communal projects, political ideology/political appointees competency and political issues literacy.
• Unlike Political Actors majority of Non-Political respondents were generally unhappy with voter satisfaction.
• Also, contribution of marketing desk, appointment of people with marketing background, setting political marketing budget, regular marketing training, political official, employment of qualified marketing personnel as well as removal of underperforming political appointees would all enhance political marketing in Ghana.
The aforementioned result analysis revealed that both internal and external factors influence the effectiveness of marketing mix adoption in terms of voters’ satisfaction in political administration. The implication of such revelation is that political parties and political stakeholders have to work together to arrest the increasing voter apathy which if left unchecked can negatively affect good democratic governance. This study also adds to existing literature on political marketing mix by revealing that political gifts/communal projects, political appointees’ competency and political issues literacy can all contribute to voters’ satisfaction in developing countries. The major drawback of the study is that only 4 out of 17 registered political parties in Ghana were considered for the study. This means that knowledge and experiences of the entire political machinery might not be captured.

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