Impact Internal Migration of Economic Development: The Journey So Far

Reader Impact Factor Score
[Total: 5 Average: 5]

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: April, 2019

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Journal Full Text PDF: Impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development: The Journey So Far.

Abstract
Individual or mass movement of from one place to another with the intention of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location due to one reason or another is referred to as Human migration. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is also called Human migration. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has increased significantly, in the past few years in Nigeria and this have mostly been due to fall in standard of living, inflation and people trying to look for a better living condition. Other reasons that influence Migration can also be because of ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies etc. In addition, the above causes can be summarized to social, political and economic aspects. Recently, migration in Nigeria has been in a rising trend most especially in the Northeast because of insurgency resulting to social, political and economic problems. It in this regard, the researcher intends to look into the trends of internal migration in Nigeria which is rising vis a vis the global migration trends as this may proffer solutions that may curtail the menace be negatively or positively.

Keywords: Conflict, Human Migration, Insurgency, Internal Migration, Migration, Rural Area, Urban Area.

1. INTRODUCTION
Migration is a way to move from one place to another in order to live and work. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration. Internal migration is the movement of people from one defined area to another within a country. People migrate from one place to another because of various reasons like search of greener pastures or because of ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies etc. In other words, internal migration tends to be travelling for economic improvement or because of a natural disaster or civil disturbance. A general trend of movement from rural to urban areas, in a process described as urbanization, has also produced a form of internal migration.
It is evident that even though there has been increased attention given to migration by the Nigerian Government since Nigeria returned to independence in 1999, the country have given minimal attention to internal migration. The results of this study suggest that in order to reduce the rise of internal migration, policymakers must implement a comprehensive program that will divert the flow of internal migration. This can be achieved by designing a comprehensive rural development program that will bring economic opportunity to rural residents, increase efficient utilization of human resources as well as other factors of production and provide significant policies that will stop ethnic or religious conflicts, terrorist attack or insurgencies etc.
It is good to note that large amounts of immigration will sometime tend to weaken the home country by decreasing the population, the level of production, and economic spending. If a country is losing citizens due to economic reasons, the situation will not improve until economic changes are made.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Historically, human societies have engaged in several major migrations since the Stone Age and each migration have been attributed to different reasons. Thus, human populations relocate for various reasons, and social scientists have explained these through a variety of theories.
So why do people migrate? People migrate because of so many reasons like drought, famine, war, religious conflicts, political conflicts, invasion, disease, lack of job opportunities, insurgencies, lack of religious or personal freedoms, or discrimination, job opportunities, education opportunities, freedom, safety, food, climate, or established networks of family and friends. Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration.
Migration can be defined as the movement of people, goods and services within or across national boundaries. UN defined migration as people moving for various reasons to countries other than their usual residence, for a period of at least twelve months so that the country of destination effectively becomes the new country of usual residence. According to the UN, migration is generally consensual, although it includes movement prompted by a force of socio-economic or political circumstance.
There are two basic types of migration:
a. Internal migration: This refers to a change of residence within national boundaries, such as between states, provinces, cities, or municipalities. An internal migrant is someone who moves to a different administrative territory.
b. International migration: This refers to change of residence over national boundaries. An international migrant is someone who moves to a different country. International migrants are further classified as legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, and refugees. Legal immigrants are those who moved with the legal permission of the receiver nation, illegal immigrants are those who moved without legal permission, and refugees are those crossed an international boundary to escape persecution.
However, in the course of this study the researcher is concerned with studying internal migration and Impact of Internal Migration in Nigeria.

2.2 Categories Of Migration
The international convention for the protection of the right of all migrant workers and members of the families, 1990 defined the term “migrant” as a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity of which he or she is not a national. However, below are categories and characteristics of migration:
a. Forced migration: According to Jay Weinstein and Vijayan Pillai (2001), Forced migration exists when a person is moved against their will (slaves), or when the move is initiated because of external factors (natural disaster or civil war). People are forced to migrate because of civil disorder and discrimination and their return is uncertain. In addition, people may also be forced to leave their homes site because of infrastructure Development.
b. Seasonal Migration: People typically migrate for physical labour during the dry season and return to farm during the wet season. Thus, International migration today is a global phenomenon of growing volume and complexity. Herders migrate to dry season pastures without their family so also fishermen move to fishing camps. The ILO global estimates on migrant workers show that in 2013, migrant workers accounted for 150 million of the world’s approximately 232 million international migrants. Migrant workers represent 4.4 per cent of the global labour force, higher than the proportion of international migrants in the global population (3.3 per cent).
c. Permanent migration: Permanent migration is when someone moves from one place to another and has no plans to return to their original home. Temporary migration is limited by time.
d. Temporary migration: Circular migration or repeat migration is the temporary and usually repetitive movement of a migrant worker between home and host areas, typically for the purpose of employment. It represents an established pattern of population mobility, whether cross-country or rural-urban.

2.3 Theories Of Migration
Migration is a very complex phenomenon. People move for different reasons and these differences affect the overall migration process. Most people migrate because they think that they can improve their own lives or those of their families by doing so. Apart from a set of social, economic, political and environmental factors, migration of population in any region is determined, to large extent, by the perception and behaviour of individuals concerned.
Some people decision to migrate involves them to think and weigh the potential costs and benefits of migrating by considering general factors such as the cost of travel and accommodation, the chances of finding work and the prevailing wage rates in the destination area they intend to migrate compared with those in the home area. Thus, there is no comprehensive theory of migration, although attempts have been made, from time to time, to integrate migration into economic and social theory, spatial analysis and behavioural theory (Johnston et al, 1981:218). However, we shall try to explain four theories of migration and below are the theories:
 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration: The first attempt to spell out the ‘laws of migration’ was made by E.G. Ravenstein as early as in 1885. Ravenstein (1881) was the first person to formally express the reasons for migration in what he called the “laws of migration” on the basis of his analysis of the 1881 census data of England and Wales.

Figure 1: Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

Source: Laws of Migration by Bailey Shea on Prezi prezi.com

The diagram indicates that whenever a person leaves a place another person will enter.
According to this theory, migration decrease with increase in distance and It occurs towards the great centres of commerce and industry. Using the birthplace data, Ravenstein identified a set of generalizations, which he called as ‘laws of migration’ concerning inter-county migration in Britain in the nineteenth century. Most of these generalizations hold good even today. These generalizations can be listed as follows (Grigg, 1977:42; Johnston et al, 1981:218):
(a) There is an inverse relation between distance and volume of migration. Majority of migrants moves to short distance only. Migrants going long distance generally go by preference to the large centres of commerce and industry.
(b) Migration proceeds step by step. The inhabitants of countryside flock into the nearby rapidly growing town. The gap created by this out-migration in the countryside is filled up by in-migration from still remoter countryside. The inhab­itants of the town then move to the nearby urban centre up in the hierarchy.
(c) Every migration current produces a counter-current.
(d) The native of the rural areas are more mobile than their counterpart in the urban areas, and the major direction of migration is from agricultural areas to the centres of industry and commerce.
(e) Females are more mobile than male in the country of birth, but male more frequently venture beyond.
(f) Migration is highly age selective where adults in the working age groups display a greater propensity to migrate.
(g) Volume of migration increases with the process of diversifi­cation of the economy, and improvement in transport facilities.
(h) Migration occurs mainly due to economic reasons.
The theory is criticized that migration occurs in different steps is rather difficult to be established and contrary to the theory the rural population is more mobile than the urban areas.
 Gravity Model by Zipf in 1946: Gravity model, based on Newton’s law of gravitation, goes one step further and states that the volume of migration between any two interacting centres is the function of not only distance between them but also their population size.

Figure 1: Gravity Model

Source: Slideshare.net
The gravity model of migration is a model in urban geography derived from Newton’s law of gravity, and used to predict the degree of migration interaction between two places. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less. This phenomenon is known as distance decay.
According to the Gravity model, migration is directly proportional to the product of their population size and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them. The model was initially proposed by the exponents of social physics in the nineteenth century, and was later revived in the middle of the twentieth century Johnston et al, 1981:141).
 Stouffer’s Theory of Mobility: S.A. Stouffer, an American sociologist, introduced one such modification in the gravity model. Stouffer formulated his inter­vening opportunity model in 1940, and claimed that there is no necessary relationship between mobility and distance (Stouffer, 1940:846). According to Stouffer’s theory of mobility, number of migrants from an origin to a destination is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that desti­nation, and inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunities between the origin and the destination.
 Pull-push theory of mobility: This theory states that some people move because they are pushed out of their former location while others while others move because they are pulled or attracted to a place. The Push-And-Pull theory has been adopted in studying the mobility of students for decades. It serves as the means through which favourable and unfavourable conditions are captured encouraging or discouraging the decisions of studying abroad. People migrate for a number of reasons. These reasons may fall under these four areas: Environmental, Economic, Cultural and Socio-political. Within that, the reasons may also be ‘push’ or ‘pull’ factors.
 Lee’s Theory of Migration by E. S. Lee in 1965: Everett Lee proposed another comprehensive theory of migration in 1966. According to Lee’s Theory of migration, migration can be affected by certain factors. He begins his formulations with factors, which lead to spatial mobility of population in any area. These factors are:
(a) Factors associated with the place of origin; e.g. income, job opportunities etc.
(b) Factors associated with the place of destination; e.g. risks, uncertainty, expectations etc.
(c) Intervening obstacles; e.g. distance, laws etc.
(d) Personal factors; e.g. age, sex, race, education, health etc.
According to Lee, each place possesses a set of positive and negative factors. While positive factors are the circumstances that act to hold people within it, or attract people from other areas, negative factors tend to repel them (Lee, 1975:191).
There are so many theories of migration like Volume of Migration, Stream & Counter-Stream, Lewis-Fie-Ranis Model, Todaro’s Model, Todaro’s 2nd Model (in 1976), Mobility Field Theory etc. However, it is good to note that of the different theories of migration they all tend to explain the reasons for people migrating according to their views and perspective. Similarly, the theories have generally been from two perspectives. In the first place, much of the early studies on migration, which include geographers, sociologists and anthropologists, emphasized social, cultural, spatial and psychological factors influencing migration, although they also noted the role of economic factors. Secondly, in recent years, economists have shown much interest in explaining migration especially in the context of rural-urban movement.

2.4 Why Do People Migrate
People migrate because of one reason or the other. Migration is a very complex phenomenon but it is agreed that people move for different reasons and these differences affect the overall migration process. Below are some reasons why people migrate;
 For Educational Purposes: People migrate in search of education. This days, quite a considerable number of people move to foreign countries in search of education. Some study abroad to seek out better educational opportunities than are available in their own countries, while others simply want the thrill of living in an exciting, new place.
 To Escape War, Insurgency Conflict Or Violence: Deadly conflict, above all, is driving the massive exodus of refugees. Wars in Afghanistan, Somalia, and Syria alone are responsible for more than half of the world’s refugee population. Forty million people, two-thirds of the world is forcibly displaced and are displaced within their own countries by conflict and violence, “Jean-Marie Guéhenno Former President & CEO jguehenno”. Conflict is the most common factor for forced migration around the world and throughout history. War, Conflict Or Violence have displaced so many people for example, the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar has displaced over half a million of the country’s. In many countries, but families and individuals who immigrate to escape conflicts like war and violence can be considered for refugee status or asylum. Syria’s deadly civil war has displaced nearly 6.3 million Syrians displaced and the Democratic Republic of Congo has the highest number of displaced people on the continent of Africa, with nearly 6 million.
 For Jobs And Business Opportunities: In some cases, people migrate with the knowledge or hope that more opportunities will be available to them in their particular field than at home. Others migrate after employment has already been offered to them.
 Family Reunification: Self-explanatory, I think. Mom and Dad, I miss you.
 To Seek Superior Healthcare: Imagine living in a country with limited access to healthcare when you are suffering from serious health problems. This is not fun at all because most people migrate in search of healthcare.
 To Find Refuge After Being Displaced Due To Natural Disasters:
(i) Drought: Drought can mean disaster for communities whose lives and livelihoods rely on regular, successful harvests and it can displace people. Somalia, Kenya, Malawi, and Ethiopia do face drought-causing displacement of people. Drought also leaves families without access to clean water, often leading to them turning to dirty water as their only alternative for bathing, drinking, and growing crops resulting to famine, diseases, affecting lactating mothers etc. causing migration or movement of people from one place to another.
(ii) Earthquakes: In 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Haiti’s capital city of Port-au-Prince as well as the surrounding area, leaving 1.5 million Haitians homeless. In 2005 2015 another devastating earthquakes in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (7.5-magnitude) and two separate earthquakes in Nepal (7.8-magnitude and 7.3-magnitude, respectively) displaced quite a very large number of people from their homes.
(iii) Disease: Contagious disease and outbreaks often follow in the wake of issues brought up by drought, flooding, and earthquakes. When crops are threatened and water supplies are either limited or contaminated, the risk for infection increases.
(iv) Hurricanes And Flooding: Hurricanes And Flooding can result to movement of people from one place to another. Example is Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti in 2016, the storm’s lethal winds and rain left 200,000 homes in its wake of destruction. An estimated 1.5 million citizens — or more than 10% of the country — were left in need of humanitarian aid and damages clocked in at $1.9 billion.
(v) To Escape Poverty: People move in search of food.
 To Escape Past Or Future Persecution Based On Race, Religion, Nationality, And/or Membership In A Particular Social Group Or Political Opinion: In most countries, and in the United States, families and individuals who meet this criteria may obtain refugee status or asylum. Now, here is the difference: refugees must secure their status prior to entering the country of choice, whereas asylum seekers seek status upon arrival. A complex differentiation that causes a lot of confusion in the process to get people to safety, “Christina Nuñez, Erica Sanchez and Jana Sepehr Dec. 4, 2014”.
 To Offer More Opportunities To Children: Parents sometimes make the difficult decision to migrate so their children can benefit from things like superior education, and plentiful job opportunities.
 Marriage: In today’s globalized world, long-distance dating is all the rage. However, for couples ready to take the next step down the aisle, migrating to be together is the obvious choice (and a lot easier on the wallet.)
 In Search Of Greener Pasture: This day’s people tend to migrate from one country to another in search of greener pasture. Nigerians have continued to leave the shores of the country in droves in search of greener pasture, Business Hallmark investigation has revealed. A reliable source at the Ikoyi office of the Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) informed our correspondent that over one million Nigerians have migrated to several countries in Europe, America, Asia, and even Africa, since the advent of the present administration in 2015. See Nigerians flee in search of greener pastures abroad by Ayoola Olaoluwa in Business Hallmark magazine Published On: Sun, Jan 27th, 2019.

2.5 Types Of Migrants
People migrate for many reasons, which could be because of economic, political, environmental factors, or to join a family member.
Economic migration: is the movement of people from one country to another to benefit from greater economic opportunities. Economic Migrants: An economic migrant is someone who emigrates from one region to another, seeking an improved standard of living, because the conditions or job opportunities in the migrant’s own region are insufficient. The United Nations uses the term migrant worker. It is often assumed that such migration is primarily from less economically developed countries to the more economically developed countries and from former colonies to the country that was the imperial power.
Political Migrants: A person who moves from their home because of natural disaster or civil disturbance may be described as a refugee or, especially within the same country, a displaced person. A person seeking refuge from political, religious, or other forms of persecution is usually described as an asylum seeker. Many people are forced to migrate because of a war, civil war or state policies, which discriminate against particular groups of citizens, or people who oppose those in power. These people are unable to return home because they have fears of being persecuted and are unlikely to receive any protection from their government.
Environmental Migrants: Environmental migrants are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment. These are changes, which compromise their well-being or secure livelihood.
Family Migrants: This form of migration refers to members of a family coming to join one of their relatives who is resident in another country. This commonly includes fiancé(e)s, (proposed) civil partners, spouses, or unmarried or same-sex partners, dependent children and elderly relatives.

2.6 Causes of Internal Migration In Nigeria
The study also intends to look into both external and internal migration and extensively examine their impacts on economic development in Nigeria. The study will critically assess the impact of Internal Migration in Nigeria economic development by finding out whether it has a negative or positive impact and proffer recommendations. With a population of more than 150million and being Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria still continues to experience high internal and external migration due to the size of her population, her harsh economic climate, porous borders, search for higher education, investment opportunities, austerity measures, population, political upheavals, marriage, ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies etc.
Firstly the study have discovered that Internal migration in Nigeria has increased over time essentially after independence to mid-1980s as a result for quest for higher education, investment opportunities, austerity measures, population, political upheavals, marriage etc. and presently 2013 to 2019 as a result of ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies etc. The study tends to proffer that Migration from after independence to mid-1980s has been mainly because of search for higher education, investment opportunities, austerity measures, population, political upheavals, and marriage and on the other hand from 2013 to date 2019 Migration have been mainly because of ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies.
Secondly, the research work also discovered that Nigerian females have migrated to various parts of the country over and above their male counterparts, a recent study carried out to, among other things, provide baseline data on internal migration has shown. The Internal Migration Survey, which was conducted by the National Population Commission (NPC) in conjunction with the International Organization for Migration, was carried out in three main stages. The first stage, which was the design stage, began in the first quarter of 2008 and was completed in the fourth quarter of 2009. Subsequent stages commenced in 2010 and extended into 2012. “International Organization for Migration | Nigeria”.
In addition according to the data exclusively obtained by The Guardian from the 67-page survey document, female migrants stood at 51.5 per cent while male migrants’ ratio was 48.5 per cent. 47.2 per cent female migrants admitted that their spouses essentially influenced their movements, while 32.5 per cent male migrants moved because relatives influenced them. Such movements, the survey showed, could be across local council boundaries of the same state or to another council in another state within the Nigerian border over the last 10 years. The study aimed to also identify causes and courses of internal migration, measure consequences of internal migration in the country and canvass best practices in the management of internal migration in the country on sustainable basis. However, the composition of migrants, the document revealed, differed from state to state. For instance, the percentage composition of female vis-à-vis male migrants is higher in states like Sokoto, which has 64.8 per cent as opposed to 35.2 per cent for men. In Plateau, the story is similar with 62.2 per cent for females and 37.8 per cent for their male counterparts. For example in Adamawa, it was 62 per cent for female migrants, while 38.1 per cent was males. Also in Jigawa State, females maintained lead over men with 59.7 to 40.3 per cent. “International Organization for Migration | Nigeria”.
Thirdly the thesis have noticed that up to as at the present date in Nigeria Migration takes place from poorer to richer regions and at the same time migration is of high rate and proportion by the rural dwellers from the rural regions than the urban. This can be seen In Stouffer theory of motivation. Stouffer (1960) developed a major theory, which he called the theory of “intervening opportunity” which looks not at the size of settlements or the distance between them but at the perceived opportunities between them. According to Stouffer (1940), the amount of migration over a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at the point of destination and inversely proportional between the point of departure and destination.
Fourthly, ethnic and religious conflicts, terrorist attack or insurgencies have aggravated Nigeria internal migration to a high rate. The high trend of internal migration in Nigeria has been attributed to insurgency, several conflicts based on overlapping ethnic, religious, political and regional divisions. For instance, starting in late January 2015, a coalition of military forces from Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger began a counter-insurgency campaign against Boko Haram. The insurgency as reported as of 25 May 2018 has displaced 4.4 million people. The protracted conflict has uprooted around 2.4 million people, stoked high levels of hunger and malnutrition, and subjected millions of civilians to extreme hardship. Insecurity is hampering the resumption of normal life, leaving conflict-affected families dependent on humanitarian assistance for survival. “Lac Chad Snapshot_25 May 2018”.
Fifthly the research work have noticed that other factors that influence internal migration in Nigeria includes marriage, employment opportunities, political oppression, political opportunities etc.
Finally, it will be good to note that many factors have influenced internal migration in Nigeria and can be summarised below as follows:
a. Search for employment opportunities
b. Marriage
c. Political oppression and upheavals.
d. Cost of living
e. Search for greener pasture or better standard of living
f. Availability of infrastructure and basic amenities
g. Desire for higher education
h. Favourable climatic conditions
i. Investment opportunities
j. Political opportunities
k. Presence and absence of relatives
l. Ethnic or racial tolerance
m. Religious considerations
n. War and violence
o. Peace and stability
p. Availability cheap goods and services.
q. Government policies
r. Search of better education
It is important to note that migration in Nigeria both external and internal has increased over time.

2.7 Impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development
Impact of Internal Migration in Nigeria Economic Development can be positive and negative. Migration can have positive impact because it can decreases pressure on jobs and resource, Migrants may return with new skills etc. and on the other hand it can have a negative impact by creating gender imbalances, women and children are left, brain drain’ if many skilled workers leave etc.
However, below are positive and negative impacts of migration in Nigeria:
a. Positive Impacts Of External and Internal Migration In Nigeria:
 Availability cheap goods and service
 Children get better opportunities for higher education.
 cultural integration
 Development and expansion of market
 Establishment of Joint projects
 Exchange of vital ideas
 Friendly relationship between regions and countries of the world.
 Healthy global competition
 Improvement in trade
 Increase in foreign remittances
 Increased in foreign investment
 It helps to improve social life of people as they learn about new culture, customs, and languages, which helps to improve brotherhood among people.
 Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people.
 Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.
 Regional integration and settlement of disputes among different parts of countries and the world at large.
 Religious and ethnic tolerance
 Technical, political and financial assistance and Aids
 The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases.
 Unemployment is reduced and people get better job opportunities.
b. Negative Impacts Of External and Internal Migration In Nigeria:
 Brain drain
 Children growing up in poverty have no access to proper nutrition, education or health.
 Congestion
 Deterioration of security situation
 Food shortage
 Foreign dominance of the domestic economy
 Foreign exchange depreciation
 Having large population puts too much pressure on natural resources, amenities and services.
 Influx of contraband goods
 It is difficult for a villager to survive in urban areas because in urban areas there is no natural environment and pure air. They have to pay for each and everything.
 Many migrants are completely illiterate and uneducated, therefore, they are not only unfit for most jobs, but also lack basic knowledge and life skills.
 Migration changes the population of a place, therefore, the distribution of the population is uneven in India.
 Migration increased the slum areas in cities which increase many problems such as unhygienic conditions, crime, pollution etc.
 Migration is one of the main causes of increasing nuclear family where children grow up without a wider family circle.
 Overdependence of foreign goods at expense of local ones
 Pollution and environmental degradation
 Poverty makes them unable to live a normal and healthy life.
 Racial abuse and discrimination
 Religious violence
 Repatriation of profits
 Shortage of basic amenities
 Sometimes migrants are exploited.
 The influx of workers in urban areas increases competition for the job, houses, school facilities etc.
 The loss of a person from rural areas, impact on the level of output and development of rural areas.
 Transfer of diseases and sicknesses
 Unemployment
 Violence and killings

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
This research work is specifically designed to study the Impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development. The research design is meant to guide the researcher in the use of the best method of collecting data in the course of the study. The research design used in this study is the simple survey approach. The researcher is interested in observing what is happening by using secondary data in order to ascertain the Impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development.

3.2 Population Of The Study
The population of the study defines the limit to which the research findings are acceptable. The population comprises of only the Impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development role. It will however be good to note that the secondary data collated was carefully analysed. This was all in view to ascertain a viable result and avoid fallacious conclusion.

3.0 CONCLUSION
Migration is a way to move from one place to another in order to live and work. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has increased in past few years. Nowadays, many people decide to migrate to have a better life. Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.
Nigeria Government have for a long time ignored migration by maintained a laissez faire attitude towards migration. In 2005, the Federal Government of Nigeria through the office of the special assistant to the president on migration and human affairs solicited IOM‟s support in developing a national migration policy. An inter-ministerial committee comprising of several Government ministries, agencies, House of Representatives and Senators in Nigeria amalgamated in 2006 in order to produce a home policy that would address the multi-faceted issue of migration and National Stake holder’s conference was formed in order to initiate its finalisation April 2007.
Nigeria has laws on immigration and emigration, most of which meet international standards. One of which is the immigration act of 1963 (Chapter 171) of the laws of the federation of Nigeria 1970 which provide the conditions of entry, stay and departure of foreign nationals to and from Nigeria. However, Migration policies and strategies are confronted with series of problems like inadequate funding, problems in terms of confidentiality when collecting and sharing migration data and challenge in developing a database on both internal and external migration. Others include lack of trained personnel to record and monitor migration trends, inadequate policing at exit and entry points leading to difficulties in collecting and utilizing some of the migration data. There also exist other problems as most of the available data are stock data of immigrants/emigrants and are out-dated etc.
Notwithstanding the researcher has concluded that the impact of Internal Migration In Nigeria Economic Development have been impacted negatively and positively but have been in higher negative trend in recent times due to fall in standard of living, inflation, ethnic and religious conflicts and because of terrorist attack or insurgencies etc.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Beyond Remittances: The Effects Of Migration On Mexican Households David J. Mckenzie
2. Migration And Nigeria Development (External And Internal) By O. Tosin Adedapo
3. Lac Chad Snapshot 25 May 2018 or site reference of the citation at https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/lac_chad_snapshot_25_may_2018.pdf
4. 4 General Theories Of Migration – Explained! By Mitali Verma
5. International Labour Organization (ILO) DW4SD Resource Platform Thematic areas 15. Labour Migration
6. Theories Of Migration Sreya Chatterjee Nand Lal Mishra
7. 5 Causes Of Forced Migration By Kieran Mcconville April 12, 2018
8. Why People Migrate: 11 Surprising Reasons Christina Nuñez, Erica Sanchez And Jana Sepehr Dec. 4, 2014
9. More Nigerian females involved in internal migration Available At International Organization for Migration Nigeria Or https://nigeria.iom.int/media/news/more-nigerian-females-involved-internal-migration
10. Seminar/Term Paper Presented By Group 11, Topic: Migration And Nigeria Development (External And Internal) Dept: Economics And statistics course Code: Ec323 Lecturer: Prof. C.E.E. Okojie July, 2013
11. Immigration Statistics (2017), Report Date: April 2018 Data Source: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
12. International Migration, Remittances & the Brain Drain By Editors Çaglar Özden & Maurice Schiff
13. Internal Migration in Nigeria: A positive contribution to human development Bukola Adeyemi Oyeniyi (Ph.D) University of the Free State, South Africa