Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: April 19, 2019
Animal Health Department Head in Janamora Wereda Livestock Development Office
Journal Full Text PDF: The Effect of Milking Practice and Milking Frequency of Cows (Study in Janamora Wereda).
The study was carried in Janamora Wereda farm from Augest 2018 to December 2018. The study of this paper was to assess the effect of milking practice and milking frequency on milk yield and also identify the milking practice problem of Janamora Wereda dairy farm. From total of 35 lactating cows 10 are high milk producer cow and 25 are low milk producer cows group. We were selected 9 cows randomly from each group and milked twice and three times a day. Interviewed with pre-tested structured questionnaire to obtain information on the milking condition, milking frequency, milking order, milk let down, milk let down stimulation, inhibition of milk let down , milking speed and milking interval of cows in the farm. A follow up study was also conducted to obtain milk production based on milking frequency and milking speed. The present study showed that the milk production of the farm was at certain level. Thus, there is a need to proper management of cows during milking and employee of good milkier in order to increase the milk yield. According to the response of the milkier they follow the correct milking order because they know the effect of milking order on milk yield .when the milking order were vary the milking cow irritated and reduced their milk yield because irritating was one of the factor that inhibited milk letdown and when the milking order were not correct the mastitis was transmit from the diseased cow to the healthy one then the cow milk production were reduced and the cow would be die so the cow number reduced.
Keywords: Milk yield, milking frequency & milking practice.
The world population obtain most of its milk and milk products from cows, water buffalo, goats, and sheep, horses, donkey, rein-deer, yaks, camel and sows contribute a small to the total milk supply. Milk with its well balanced assortment of nutrients, is sometimes called natures most nearly perfect food . While milk is an excellent food product in many ways, it is not perfect, nor is any other food. Milk and numerous milk products example, cheese, butter, ice cream and cottage cheese are major components of the human diet in many countries. Changes in dietary preferences and milk marking are some of the challenges facing the dairy industry . Compared to other countries in Africa, Ethiopia consumes less dairy products. Per capita consumption of milk in Ethiopia is as low as 17 Kg per head while the average figure for Africa is 26 Kg per head . Cows represent the largest cattle population in Ethiopia. According to the food and Agriculture organization  42% of the total cattle heads for the private holding are milking cows. Milk produced from about 10 million milking cows is estimated at about 3.2 billion litters, an average of 1.54 liters per cow per day over a lactation period of about 6 months . The average amount of milk produced per person per year in developing tropical countries is 37 litters compared with 300 liters in developed countries .
Milk is the basic product of dairy industry. The secretion of large amount of high quality milk is the basic purpose of modern dairy caw. Milk is secreted by, stored in gland removed from the udder, or mammary glands of dairy cows and other mammals. The removal of large amount of high quality milk from the udder of dairy cow with a minimum damage to the udder is the single most important job of dairy men. Improper or careless milking practice can result in decreased let dawn, increase incidence of under disease, decreased milk quality and ultimately decreased productivity and profitability . To achieve the goal of the milking program requires a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the bovine under, the process and control of milk synthesis and milk let down, and the function of milking machines. It also requires through knowledge of managed milking practices that result in maximum let down of a high quality product with minimum udder damage . The overall objective of the study is
a. To assess the effect of milking practice and milking frequency on milk yield in Janamora Wereda.
b. To assess if there is any room of increasing milk yield by improving milking time speed of milking condition.
c. To assess the problems of milking practice.
2. Material and Methods
2.1 Study area description
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2018 to January, 2019 in Janamora. Janamora Wereda is located in North Gondar Zone of Amhara region, at the latitude and longitude of 12o59’N 38o07’E at a distance of about 180km from Gondar town. Janamora Wereda is well-known with Semien mountain National Park, Ras Dashen i.e the highest point in Ethiopia and it is a home to a number of endangered species including the Ethiopian Wolf, waliya ibex, and a wild goat which no found in elsewhere in the world. The area has an altitude range of 2900 meters above sea level. The region is marked by numerous mountains, hilly, and sloppy areas, plateaus, rivers, and many streams. Livestock population of the area comprises 100,386 cattle, 32,975 sheep, 131,041 goats, 2,540 horses, 634 mules, 7758 donkeys, 119,347 poultry. The farming system of the study area is characterized by a mixed crop-livestock production system. Transhumance, from the highlands to western lowlands, is practiced as an important strategy to secure grazing resources for the highland livestock during the dry season of the year. In the case of the lowlands, crop farming is not as intensive as high and mid-highland areas and livestock has larger contributions to the farmer’s livelihoods .
2.2 Data collection and sampling technique
2.2.1. Type of data
Data was used both qualitative and quantitative type of data’s.
2.2.2. Sampling technique
In Janamora Wereda there are 35 lactating cows these lactating cows were groped in to two based on their milk production. Cows those which produce less than 8 litter/day were grouped under low milk producer category and those cows which produce greater than 8 litter /day were grouped under high milk producer. From each group 9 cows were selected randomly by lottery method and also their twice/ day and three times/ day milk product were recorded.
2.2.3. Data Collection and analytical technique
Data was collected from both primary and secondary source. Primary data was collected through observation, making questioner and interview. Secondary data was collected from library books, research report and from internet. Data on problems of milking practice would be collected to obtain information on the effect of milking speed, milking interval, milking condition and milking frequency on milk yield that was identified by the milkier. A follow up study also conducted to see practically the effect of milking frequency on milk yield, cows were milked twice and three times without changing feeding and other management practices. The mean yield between frequencies will be compared using appropriate statistical software.
To assess the effect of milking time, milking speed and milking condition the lactating cows were milked with usual practice and other day the same cows were milked with adjusted milking time, condition, and speed for adjusted milking time. The gaps between milking were equal approximately twelve hour’s interval. To see the milk speed effect each cow were milked by different milkers and recording the time taken to milk the cow, then the milk speed and amount of milk produced were compared among the milkier.
3. Result and Discussion
3.1.1. The effect of milking frequency on milk yield
Milking frequency significantly affected the milk yield in this study. The highest milk yield was recorded in three times milking per day as compared to two times milking per day. The mean milk yield of three times per day is significantly different from two times milking per day mean milk yield.
There was found significant (p<0.0001) difference between three times and two times milking per day in Janamora dairy farm. The milkier of the farm knows the effect of milking frequency on milk yield but they do not milk the cow three times per day because the milk which is milked in the night were clot and these is not required by the customer .before this time these practice was done. For these reason the farm milk the cow two times per day to satisfied the customer need, because the Janamora dairy farm should not lose their customer. In this study area milkier of the farm know the effect of milking frequency on milk yield but few milkier do not know the effect of milking frequency on milk yield. 3.1.2 The effect of milking speed on milk yield In Janamora Wereda Dairy farm the milkier were grouped in to two based on their milking speed. This is fast milkier and slow milkier. The same cows were milked by slow and fast milkier and the mean milk yield of the cow that were milked by fast milkier and the slow milkier were recorded and analyzed by using independent sample t-test. According to the response get from the milkier they know the effect of milking speed on milk yield. The milkier said when milk the cow slowly the adrenaline hormones were produced and inhibited the milk secretion of the cow the milk yield becomes reduced. So to prevent the adrenaline secretion they were milk the cow at rapid rate. There were significant variation on milk yield between slow milkier and fast milkier (p<0.0007). The result showed that the milk yield was increased by 14.3% which was milked by fast milkier as compared to slow milkier, Because the fast milkier takes 9 minutes to completed milking but the slow milkier takes 12 minutes to completed milking. The result showed when milked the cow slowly the milk yield becomes reduced because the adrenaline hormone is secreted and milk stimulation remained for short period of time that is 7 to 8 minutes, so rapid milking is an important in obtaining maximum milk yield. According to the response of the milkier when milking the cow slowly the milk let down would be inhibited because the oxytocin release were inhibited by the adrenaline secretion. According to the response of the milkier the milk yield of the farm were vary from day to day.