Current Applications, Future Development and Challenges of Molecular Technologies in Livestock

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 6
Date: 21 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Birhan Kassa

Birhan Kassa
Haramaya University
Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Andassa Livestock Research Center
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Abstract
Biotechnologies in farm animals provides a major opportunity to overcome challenges in livestock production. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is recently applicable molecular genetics technologies in livestock which is valuable and efficient molecular marker. In SNP, there have been numerous progresses in whole genome sequencing, in the development of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput genotyping platform. Polymorphic loci of known chromosomal location are identified, and methods to type these polymorphisms are developed and tested on individuals with relevant phenotypes, and statistical relationships are calculated. Improvement of economically important agronomic traits like yield and quality that are complicatedly inherited is still a great challenge for molecular animal breeding.

Keyword: Deoxyribonucleic acid, Genomics, Molecular Animal Breeding, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.

1. Introduction
Animal genomics is of interest because of its importance to produce high quality food products economically and efficiently to furnish for the increasing supply demand gap all over the world. There is evidence for a rapidly increasing demand for livestock products in developing countries as a result of high population and income growth and life style changes.Genomic biotechnologies in farm animals offer a major opportunity to address shortages in agriculture production to feed the global society at large. Benefiting from the PCR techniques, the molecular markers have now become a fashionable way for the identification and characterization of animal species. In the last decades a number of marker techniques were consequently developed, in particular RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA), microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism). The presence or absence of markers allows the genotyping of individuals and populations. A very exhilarating and fast developing application of genetic markers is in the mapping of the various animal genomes.
The theoretical studies of linkage mapping, finding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the marker assisted selection or genotype selection have been developed in the previous decade. DNA markers can be employed to make out the specific region of chromosome where genes affecting quantitative traits are located. One approach is known as Marker assisted selection (MAS) uses information about these sections of chromosomes in livestock selection programs …………

2. Literature Review
2.1. Current Applications of Molecular Genetics Technologies in Livestock
The genomics technologies in livestock present a major and foremost opportunity to address the responsibilities of agricultural production to humanity at large. Animal form a distinctive genomics resource as a result of their significant phenotypic diversity and of their population structure which make them particularly furnish for positional cloning. These are the assembly of techniques used in genetic screening to identify the precise area of interest in genome. The purpose of genomic technologies is the characterization and mapping of the locus that affected these traits of interest (Koopaei and Koshkoiyeh, 2011).
The current advancement in characterizing the genomes of animals, including the identification of large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) make a major impact on the identification of genes and mutation underlying this phenotypic diversity including diseases susceptibility, morphology and behavior (Archibald et al., 2010). Millions of genomic DNA variation included point mutations, deletions, insertion and segmental duplications discovered through whole genome sequencing (consortium et al., 2009). Recently genomic and bioinformatics advances have also created reasonable opportunities to researchers to characterize livestock species in term of function of their genes (McCarthy et al., 2009). Genome sequencing, expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps with automated genotyping and database management are speedily becoming valuable constituents of our genomic toolbox. These technologies are used in providing assure for genome mining and gene discovery ……….

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