Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 112 – 119
Publication Date: 26 September 2018
Riffat Zaiba & Almas Ikram Kayani
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Almas Ikram Kayani
Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences,
PMAS, University of Arid Agriculture University
Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Motivational Techniques of Heads on the Performance of Teachers in Islamabad.
The study was designed to find out the motivational techniques of heads and their effect on the performance of teachers. The research was descriptive in nature. The population of the study was heads and teachers of Islamabad model schools under Federal Directorate of Education in Islamabad city. The sample of the study was selected through simple random sampling technique, these were 39 heads and 234 teachers. Two self-developed structured questionnaire were used to collect data by heads and teachers. Data was analyzed through descriptive statistics i.e. percentage, Mean score and Pearson Chi-square were employed for statistical analysis of data through SPSS. The results of the study showed heads use different techniques such as constructive, optimistic behavior, appreciation, acknowledgement, facilitate teachers, reward them, give incentives, give recommendation for promotion, sympathetic behavior but they do not provide instructional technology, do not like their involvement in decision making related to institution sometimes heads show favoritism. The result of the study showed that teachers’ performance is under the effect of heads motivational techniques. Results suggested that heads should use different motivational techniques to motivate teachers to perform better. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that heads should use different motivational techniques to increase the performance of teachers, and they should give chances to teachers to take part in institutional decision making and for their better performance they should be provided with instructional technology.
Keywords: Motivation, Motivational Techniques, Teachers’ Performance, Heads’ Role, Primary Level.
Motivation is internal desire or push in a person to do his work well, or to put all his efforts in his/her work. It can be defined as motivation is derived from the word “motivate” which means push, or drive to accomplish a task or to fulfill a desire for something Bulkus and Green (2009). An employee can give his excellent performance if motivated, he/she works hard to complete his task stated by (Ngirwa, 2006). According to Harry Potter (2005), motivation is an individual’s achievement of already decided objective, this is done through his efforts, commitment to task and involvement. Lahey (1995), described that inner desire or push, that lead people to act or not to perform certain duties, it is inner feeling that gives directions to our actions.
Perception of Motivation
Psychology gives the detailed explanation of motivation. Individual’s performance is greatly affected by a force called motivation, its role is vital in the behavior development of an individuals. People are energized by a power called desire, goal, motive, need and drive, which motivate them to do something. Jones (1996), stated that need directs a person, when it is fulfilled behavior of a person changes. To initiate this behavior the desire, need, direction or energy is stopped when fulfilled.
Significance of Motivation
The purpose of educational process is not only to transfer knowledge. The role or duty of teacher is not only transfer of knowledge to learner. Heads of the educational institutions like schools are performing their duty of instructing, giving orders, supervising the teaching and non-teaching staff. They neglect one most important duty which they have to perform is to keep the staff motivated (Barron, 1986). Heads if motivated then they can in turn motivate their teachers to achieve the targets or objectives of the school. Motivated teachers are the assets of a school. Because they will perform their duties in an excellent way, motivate their students for learning, and try their best to achieve objectives and goals of the school in their classrooms. So importance of motivation in this all process cannot be denied.
Categories of Motivation
A way to complete a task or to fulfill a need is called motivation (John Stone, 1999). There are two sources of motivation in individuals. Those are extrinsic and intrinsic (Reeve, 2001). When people are performing different activities for their inner satisfaction then this type of satisfaction is called as intrinsic ……
2. Materials and Methods
The main purpose of the present research was to find out the effect of motivational techniques of heads on the performance of teachers in Islamabad. The target population of the study was all heads and teachers of Islamabad Model Schools.
2.2 Research Design and Instrument
The study was qualitative that was design to examine the effect of motivational techniques of heads on the performance of teachers in Islamabad. After going to the relevant literature, two structured questionnaire were developed for students for heads and teachers. The instrument was divided into different questions covering different motivational techniques. The instrument was developed on five point Likert scale i.e., Strongl Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly Disagree and were scored as 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1respectively. The questionnaires were contained in 27 items each.
2.3 Pilot Testing, Validity and Reliability
In order to get authentic and precise outcomes, it was properly review by the panel of experts of the relevant field having extra ordinary experience. The instrument was validate with respect to face validity, content validity and criterion validity. Some items were found weak and were deleted. Some were rephrased for the sake of better understanding of the respondents. Then its final version was prepared in the light of the suggestions of the experts. Cronbach’s Alpha ……..