Published on International Journal of Health, Nursing, & Medicine
ISSN: 2193-3715, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 21 – 29
Publication Date: 11 February 2019
Amelework Fikre Negewo & Sisay Yami Gudeta
Hiwot Fana Specialized Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia
Hiwot Environment Consulting Firm, Babile, Ethiopia
Introduction: Nurses spend considerable time in the act of caring, so perspectives of nurses about nurse caring behaviors impact on provision of nurse caring, health services and patients. High work load of nurses affect quality of care, which leads to patient dissatisfaction. However, little is known about factors associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors in developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the factors associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors at hospitals of Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia.
Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study design was employed among 474 randomly selected nurses from January 1-30, 2018. A six point Likert scale nurse caring behaviors(CBI-24) questionnaire was self-administered to participants. Data entry and analysis was carried out using SPSS 22 version software. Binary logistic regression was used in bivariate and multivariable analysis. Associated factors was presented with crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05.
Results: This study revealed that 85.8% of nurses have positive perception towards nurse caring behaviors. Five factors were independently associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors. Nurses who did not have satisfaction with profession were 3.51 times more likely to had negative perception (AOR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.54-7.97). Nurses with bad relation with doctors were 4.56 more likely to had negative perception (AOR= 4.56, 95% CI: 2.15-9.67). Nurses who had conflict with supervisor were 2.44 times more likely to had negative perception (AOR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.13-5.25). Nurses with diploma and less education were 2.65 times more likely to had negative perception (AOR=2.65,95% CI: 1.06-6.62). The odds of having positive perception about nurse caring behaviors was 3.56 times higher in married nurses (AOR=3.56, 95% CI:1.28-9.88).
Conclusions: It was concluded that 399 (85.8%) respondents have positive perception towards nurse caring behaviors. Educational status, marital status, conflict with supervisor, relation with doctors and satisfaction with profession showed statistical significant association with nurses’ perception towards nurse caring behaviors
Keywords: Nursing Care, Nurses’ Perception, Behaviors, Factors, East Ethiopia.
Historically, the description nurse caring has been defined from different perspectives, from the very meaning and essence of nursing to everyday direct care of patients. The factual basis for the conceptualization of caring in the field of nursing was laid down by theorists such as Lininger, Watson, Ray, Gait and others in the 1970s and 1980s.Nurse caring behavior is nursing care behavior which includes building of trustable, close relationship and considered as key provision of health service to the patients. Nurse caring is the essence of nursing and considered as basic factor that distinguishes between nurses and other health professions .
The key roles of nurses in sub Saharan countries are providing physical and psycho-social care for patients in hospitals in an ethical and professional manner (taking care of patients), providing health education to communities, clients and patients; managing health care environment and optimize care delivery; advocating on behalf of patients to ensure that health needs are addressed properly; providing emergency care and collaborate with stakeholders to deliver quality of care.Other major role of nurse as making a diagnosis, prescribing treatment in an ethical and professional manner.
Evidence from different studies revealed that the nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors has been related with different factors like socio-demographic characteristics, educational background, workload, job satisfaction, positive relationship with doctors, satisfaction with profession, working place and work experience [5,6,7,8]. Moreover, job satisfaction was another factor which influence nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors [6,9,10] while low job satisfaction was associated with absence of education and upgrading in nursing career.
Many studies concerning factors associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors was undertaken in developed world while very few research was done in developing countries. No research was done so far on factors associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors using validated tools in Ethiopia. From empirical knowledge, one can note that there is no proper implementation of nurse caring behaviors during hospitalization. This in turn creates patient dissatisfaction and poor nurse caring delivery which result in poor prognosis. Thus; this study is aimed to assess factors associated with nurses’ perception about nurse caring behaviors at hospitals of Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia.
2. Materials and methods
Study area and period
The study area is Harar town, situated 525 km east of Addis Ababa. Its geographical coordinates are 9020 N and 42010 E. The town has six urban and three rural districts. According to Harari statistical abstract report, population of Harar town was 123294, (54.2%) of the regional population in 2016.
Harar town has two military, two public, two private and one non-governmental (Fistula) hospitals. There were 493 staff nurses in the Hospitals of Harar town in 2018.
Study design and population
Hospital based cross sectional study design was used. The source population was all nurse employed in hospitals at Harar town while the study population were all nurses who fulfill inclusion criteria and those nurses who were on work during data collection period.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Nurses who are permanent employee (who have > 6 month working experience) of hospitals in Harar town, active in duty during data collection period were included in the study. Nurses who are working in non-clinical areas, who were in contract job and who were on leave during data collection were excluded from this study………..