Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
Publication Date: June 5, 2019
Mahmud Suradi, Ana Sukmaningsih, Retno Wulandari & Titik Mulyani
Borobudur University, East Jakarta
Bunda Mulia University, North Jakarta
Bung Karno University, Central Jakarta
Jayabaya University, East Jakarta
Journal Full Text PDF: Organizational Issues Transnational Criminal (Mexico’s Drug War Analysis for Merida Initiative).
This journal discussed the condition of the Mexican government who have difficulties in handling the drug cartels have imposed a war strategy despite drug Merida Initiative and get support from the US government. To explain these problems are formulated comprehensive, first, the author will explain about the fact the development of the situation in Mexico’s drug war and the emergence of the Merida Initiative as a form of bilateral cooperation between the governments of Mexico – United States. Then will diperjelaskan continuation condition is reached when the drug war strategy collaboration with the Merida Initiative. Furthermore Through in-depth analysis of the implementation of the drug war in the scope of the agreement Merida Initiative. Inferred for this journal, if the difficulties experienced by the Mexican government in addressing the problems caused by the drug cartels strategic error of the drug war in Mexico. The first strategy of the Mexican government’s drug war has no target opposition due to the complexity of the structure of the drug cartels. Second, the implementation of the strategy’s drug war, the Mexican government has ignored the democratic consolidation process that is taking shape in the country, and finally a lack of clarity in the implementation stage of the Merida Initiative.
Keywords: Drug war, the Merida Initiative, Transnational criminal organizations, drug cartel.
Transnational organized criminal activities is not a new thing in the global sphere. Its presence goes hand in hand with the direction of development of a country and their government international trade (Woodiwiss in Adam & Gill 2003.13). The transformation of the global economy and the existence of political alliances between countries has been influential in the development of transnational criminal world. Through the increased flow of goods, money, and human cross-border, transnational criminal organizations extend the reach and increase the wealth of the region and itspower which is almost equivalent to the government of a country.
Real representation of transnational criminal organizations represented by several organizations that are drug cartels in Mexico. The emergence of several drug cartels in Mexico has been there since before the time of the Mexican Revolution, despite only limited in a small scope in Mexico. Gradually, the illegal business of drug cartels continues to grow, so that the carrying of illegal drug trafficking large scale has been started by the Mexican drug cartel in the 1950s (Astorga 2005 in Schaefer et al. 2009.34).
Increased sales ability of the cartels also have an impact on their commodities market expanding coverage to reach the illegal drug market in the United States (US) .Up to 2008, the Mexican drug cartel has been growing very rapidly. This is reinforced by the exposure ofDepartment of Justice US indicate if the presence of Mexican drug cartels has been transformed into an organization that can threaten the security of the United States (US Department of Justice 2007, 35).
The Mexican drug cartels now have turnover of income could reach $ 13- $ 38 billion annually (Steve tt). The value of turnover of income earned by the drug cartels, eventually also affect the level of their welfare. So the impact on the increase of self-defense capability of the cartels (Violence Policy Center 2009, 2). The consequences of an increase in self-defense of the drug cartels also have an impact on increasing competition among them. The condition also affects the increase of violence in the Mexican series.
To overcome the problem of violence caused by the drug cartels. December 1, 2006, President Felipe Calderon decided to fight the drug cartels and anticipatory interpretation aggressive measures against the threat of further damage caused by the drug cartels (Colleen 2008). Drug war initiatives promoted by president Calderon immediately met with resistance from the drug cartels. Efforts to fight the drug cartels are often realized by the practice of threats and a series of assassination attempts against Mexican government officials, such as politicians, police, judicial members, to the public at large in Mexico (Wayne and Shirk 2007).
Declaration of war against drugs in Mexico at the end also attracted the attention of President George W. Bush and several members of the US Congress. The threat of the spread of violence from Mexico to near the border with the US is a problem that was first recognized by the US government. Not only the threat of violence, some of the relevant considerations due to the complexity of the problems posed by the drug cartels can also make the reason why it appearsinterest from the US side against the Mexican internal problems.
The complexity of the problems faced by the Mexican government, in the end push US government to immediately coordinate with the Calderon administration is done through both sides meeting in March 2007 in Merida, state of Yucatan, Mexico (US State Department Office of the Spokesman 2007). The meeting talking about the discourse of the US government’s cooperation with the Mexican government, which in turn is known as the Merida Initiative. Projected further cooperation Merida Initiative will be held within 3 years, which began in 2008 and ended in 2010 (Mark P. Sullivan et al. 2008).
American Legislative Body formally approved HR 6028, The Merida Initiative to Combat Illicit Narcotics and Reduce Organized Crime Authorization Act On June 11, 2008, as a form of legalization of the Merida Initiative. Mentioned also if tObjective of the implementation of the Merida Initiative is to maximize the effectiveness of efforts in facing the problem of illegal drugs together – equally by both parties (Seelke et al. 2010, 15).
For the process of implementation in the field, according to a statement Department of StateThe US, the first stage of the Merida Initiative will include some form of assistance, including; (1)Helicopters (up to five Bell 412 helicopters) and aircraft reconnaissance (in the form of two surveillance aircraft beach CASA), (2) Equipment inspection non intrusive, ion scanners, unit bloodhound for federal police or military presence in Mexico, (3) Hardware technology and communication safe to use in developing the data collection and storage, (4) Some expert staff along with training to strengthen law enforcement institutions, providing training for police dogs Mexican police, providing software case management that can be used as a search investigation in a way that is legal, providing support to efforts to receipt of the complaint public and professional response efforts, and to promote ways to build eye witness protection program (US Department of State 2008, 5-6).
On December 3, 2008, US and Mexican governments signed Letter Of Agreement, Which allow the expenditure of funds totaling $ 197 million for the first phase of the Merida Initiative (Garza 2008). The meeting between the two sides also occurred on February 3, 2009 in Mexico City that resulted in the decision together to accelerate the implementation of 48 projects, and the whole is still within the scope of the Merida Initiative. As a next step, the two sides also held a meeting to discuss the same thing on March 2, 2009 (Johnson 2009).
During the distribution process of the Merida Initiative from the US government to the government of Mexico, the implementation of the drug war continues to increase both in terms of quantity and quality. One can prove it is through the phenomenon of catching some leaders of several drug cartels by the Mexican Government. For example, some leaders of the Beltran Leyva cartel as Ramon Eduardo Arellano-Felix and Francisco Rafael Arellano-Felix was captured by the Mexican government in 2008 (Fox News 2019). In January 2010, the Mexican government also managed to catch Carlos Beltran Leyva is the younger brother of Arturo, who was replaced in the Arturo Beltran Leyva Organization (The Guardian 2010). Finally, on August 30, 2010, the leader of the Beltran Leyva Organization other,
The success of the drug war in Mexico can also be seen through the level of intensity of high-level criminals extradition from Mexico to the US. Extradition attempt is one of the main elements of a step in Mexico’s drug war. Recorded in 2010, the extradition of the leaders of the drug cartels of Mexico increased dramatically in the range of numbers 94 people, up to 31 people when compared to 2006 which only succeeded in extraditing 63 people (Department of Justice 2009, 5).
A series of arrests and seizures result some stuff along with an increase in the extradition process of the leaders of the drug cartels, may be one indicator if the drug war has been running properly. However, on the other hand appeared two major problems of implementation of the Mexican government’s drug war. Both of these problems are,
First, Improved escalation of violence in Mexico. Violence has increased dramatically in Mexico. Data from the Mexican government has taken into account if the presence of total mortality events that occurred throughout 2007 to 2010 reached the figure of 34 550 fatalities. While the newspaper Reforma reported if there are numbers of deaths reached 37 531 with a range of roughly the same time (Shirk et al. 2019, 6-10). There is also substantial variation in terms of geography with different levels of violence in Mexico. Starting from the year 2007, ten states in Mexico have experienced the death of a result of the existence of illegal activity by the drug cartels average – average incidence of between 250 to 2600 in each year.
Second, the availability of drugs in the US black market, Not only the level of violence that can represent the process of implementation of the strategy in Mexico’s drug war. The problems regarding the availability of the drug in the US black market can also be taken into consideration. Facts on the ground continues to show if the availability of drugs in the US continues to increase. The existence of drugs such as heroin, marijuana, MDMA, and methamphetamine can still be found in some markets or the streets in the US.
As an example, the presence of heroin in the US black market have continued to rise in line with increasing production in Mexico. There are two factors that affect this phenomenon, namely the reduced supply of heroin from Colombia and the increasing ability of the Mexican drug cartel producing heroin. Evidenced by the statements of the US government, which are summarized byDepartment of Justice, which any amount of increase in the production of heroin the drug cartels of Mexico reached 50 metric tons of heroin in 2009 (US Department of Justice, 2017, 26).
The amount of marijuana found in the US also continued to increase in each year. The fact of the increase in production is evidenced by an increase in the amount of marijuana seized by law enforcement in the US during 2009 to 2010. The amount of marijuana seized by the US government in 2008 only amounted to 1,473,075 kg. But in the year 2009, or, the amount of marijuana seized by the US government reached 1,975,128 kg and decreased in 2010 only 1,809,496 kg cannabis seized (US Department of Justice 2017, 28).
Despite the decline in the amount of marijuana seized by the US government in 2010, but the number in 2010 was still higher when compared to 2008. The increase in the amount of marijuana seized by the US government indirectly indicates an increase in cannabis production capacity in Meksiko.Peningkatan this production number can not be separated from the drug war in Mexico. Redirect the focus of the Government of Mexico is ultimately impact on reducing the number of seized marijuana that led to the increase in cannabis production in Mexico.
Overall the presence of drugs in the US market continues to increase. It is not necessarily incompatible with the expectations of the US and Mexican governments. For the Mexican government itself, the availability of illicit drugs in the US market continued to show if the presence of drug war strategy being promoted have not been able to walk properly. On the contrary, some of the drugs in the US is increasing and continues to provide advanced effects by increasing drug users in the US society. Plus the existence of an increase in violence in Mexico are also increasingly making complex situation in Mexico when compared to the period prior to the enactment of the drug war strategy and the Merida Initiative.
The existence of the phenomena associated with the increasing number of civilian deaths, to the mortality data cartel members who continued to increase from 2008 to today and some evidence that the availability of drugs in the US black market. Indicating the presence of drug cartels continue to show resistance to the Mexican government’s efforts although there has been a presenceMerida Initiativefrom the US government. In other words, the application besertsa drug war policies of the US government support that has been running from 2008 to 2010 are still not getting the expected progress. On the contrary, policy actions the Mexican government’s drug war is now beginning to decline, because of the fragmentation process the drug cartels still not be effective because there are many drug cartels operating in Mexico and the US.
The author observes the position is not inability of the government in handling the drug cartels caused by three fundamental problems.First, is the complexity of the target resistance in the drug war strategy. Second, is the neglect business aspects of the process of democratic consolidation in Mexico. The latter is a lack of clarity in the Merida Initiative. The third problem becomes fundamental issues that create difficulties for the Mexican government to tackle the drug cartels.
2. Complexity Target Drug Resistance War
Identification of the problems associated with the complexity of the target drug war resistance automatically lead to the Mexican government regarding the difficult conditions to determine their resistance targets. This certainly does not correspond with the idea of Sun Tzu and Clausewitz that places great emphasis on the proper identification on who the target of a battle.
Subject drug war strategy planned by the Mexican government uses the military, has actually been in accordance with the statement of Clausewitz, who said that if the existence of the military use should be addressed as efforts to achieve a political goal (Clausewitz in Howard and Paret 1976.229). In other words, Clausewitz tried to clarify if the military campaign was not intended as the end of the implementation is. Because literally, a political object remains the ultimate goal, and war is used as an instrument to achieve it. Both of these were unable to be separated from each other. This was reiterated by Clausewitz in a statement, “War, Should never be thought of as something autonomous but always as an instrument of policy” (Clausewitz in Howard and Paret 1976.20).
Political object, as described by Clausewitz, has been represented by the Mexican government’s strategy to reduce the number distribution and use of drugs as well as efforts to reduce the crime rate in Mexico. In general, drug war efforts of the Mexican government attempted to describe if these problems can be overcome drug well and will decrease dramatically when doing business in the aspect of production along with the prohibition of the distribution that is automatically dragged the name of some drug cartels. In other words, the Mexican government hopes the drug war, the future will suppress the supply aspect of the illegal drug trade in the region of North America.