Parenting Activities on Children’s Growth and Development

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Published on International Journal of Health, Nursing, & Medicine
Publication Date: July 13, 2019

Lisus Setyowati
Harapan Bangsa Health College Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Parenting Activities on Children’s Growth and Development.

Abstract
Family becomes the first stage of children’s journey of life. Parents determine their children’s growth and development. As a decision maker, parents should have parenting program as one of means which can be used to improve the child’s growth and development. This study used concept analysis method by qualitative approach. In this study, a literature study was conducted which-mentions a link between parenting activities to children’s growth and development from previous research journal, books and existing theory. Based on many research journals and books which discussed about parenting, it is explained parenting activities is so impactful to children as long as they are on process throughout, in educating and giving treatment, every parent has different habits. Certainly, those habits would influence children’s life. Therefore, parenting activities which is conducted should have positive values, educative, innovative and creating children’s independencies.

Keywords: Parenting, growth and development & children/ child.

1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the world of early childhood feels endless to talk about. The increase of digital technology used recently, make parents easier in sharing their children’s development either suggestion to other parents by using social media. Parenting activities become crucial part in early childhood. Childhood should be well educated to face good social life in the future. Parenting activities also become one of many factors which influence children’s growth and development.
Parent in parenting has many meanings – mother, father, someone who will guide in a new life caretaker, or protector. Parent, someone who is accompanying and guiding all of children’s development stages, taking care, protecting and directing children in every development stage (Brooks, 2001). Brooks (2001) also definites “parenting” as a process that refers to a series of actions and interactions that carried out by parents to support children’s development.
Baby grows so fast that shows a significant development since in the first month. A one month baby will go through a range of development.baby starts this stage with crying before he is finally able to speak and walk. It is very interesting to observe baby’s development (Elfian, and friends, 2009). While, Fauzia (2015) says, teaching children needs extra patience. On the other words, parent plays northworthy roles in children’s growth and development process. Further, parent is also responsible in children’s fail, if it happens (taken from Kalimantan.bisnis.com). Psichologist Elizabeth Sentosa accented, “children’s happiness affects to their success of growth and development”. Meanwhile, pediatrician, Dr.dr. Ariani Dewi Widodo, Sp.A added, “to support the happiness, children must consume complete and balance nutrients for having healthy digestive tract. So, the children should take good appetite and also good sleeping patterns which can strengthen their growth and development in order to be more happily and optimally.
From the explanations above, it infers that family takes a prominent role to the children’s life. They determine the best thing for their children’s growth and development. As determinant, parents should take a parenting program to increase their ability for better quality of children’s growth and development. Children, as the next generation take as important roles to the country . We hope that they will be able to take the responsibility and get the best chance to grow and develop optimally.
Based on these, I intend to conduct a descriptive study of titerature studies on “The Influence of Parenting Activities on Children’s Growth and Development”.

2. THEORITICAL CONCEPT
2.1 Parenting
a) Meaning
Parenting is parent’s way to teach interaction and relation to children properly or the best way which could be taken by parent on teaching children as responsibility of manifestation (Surbakti, 2012). Shohib also writes, parenting is parent’s efforts which is actualized in arrangement of society environment, culture, psychology scene and attitude that showed during a meeting with children. Whereas on research journal from Resiana Nooraini, “Parenting could be meant of parenthood or parent’s nurture, there is to say interaction between parent and child. Parenting activities involve feeding (nourishing), guiding and protecting children”. Parenting or parent’s nurture is an attitude basicly has keywords namely warming, sensitive, full of acceptance, reciprocale, understanding and response rightly on child’s needs (Garbarino and Benn, 1992).
Mustikaningrum in her research explained, nurture skill is very important which is had by parent to regulate children’s behaviors, when parent use strategic and skill consistently and effectively, they would create productive environment and give good impact for children’s development.
b) Forms of Parenting Activities
Gordon (1993) mentioned, parenting activities would be more meaningfull if play group could arrange parenting activity, so “parents gathering” have purpose. Forms of parenting activities which can be done, among others : 1.) Think-thank; 2.)speaking gathering; 3.)seminar; 4.) skill practicing; 5.) outbond

2.2 Children’s Growth and Development
a) Understanding
Growth and development of children are continuing process which start from fetus until mature. Within children’s development there is critical times and these need stimulations that works to increase children’s potency. Children’s development would be optimal if there is suitable social interaction to children’s needs in every development stage (Andriana, 2011). Then, Rohan and Siyoto (2013) mention, children’s growth and development is dynamic and continuing process. The meaning of growth is increasing cell size in every part of the body. While development is a process of various maturity fungtions of children’s body.
In line with Rohan and Siyoto (2013), Kozier, Erb, Berman and Snyder (2011) declair, a name of growth and development, both of them refer to dynamic process. Growth and development though its often be used alternately, it has different understanding. Growth and development are process which are continuing, orderly and sequential that are influenced by maturity factors, environment and genetic.

b) Factors Affecting Baby’s Growth and Development
Based on Nursalam (2008), these are two factors, namely : Internal factors; genetic and hormone effect. External factors (environment); Pre natal factors such as nutrient, sexual transmitted disease and mother’s psychologist and the last is birth history.
c) Basic needs of Children’s Growth and Development
Still from Nursalam (2008), Physic-biomedic needs: Nutrition; basic health care; clothes; housing; personal hygiene and environment; sports and picnic. Emotional and love needs: Parent’s affection; sense of security; pride; supports; independency; sense of belonging; getting opportunities and experience needs. Stimulation needs.

3. RESEARCH METHOD
This study uses concept analysis method by qualitative approach. Concept analysis method is a research that focuses on a pre-existing theory/concept, in order to be understood, drawn, explained and real implementation. Process and meaning (subject perspective) more highlighted in qualitative research. Theoretical basis utilized as a guide for research’s focuss correspond to the facts in the field. Furthermore, this theoretical basis also utilized for giving generally description about research background and to be material for discussion of research results (Wikipedia 19/3/2019:10.20).
In this research, a literature study will be conducted that states there is connection between parenting activities and children’s growth and development fom previous research journal, books and existing theories. This literature study expected to affirm pre-existing theories for more convincing on its implementation.

4. RESEARCH RESULT
Based on literature taken from many theories and research journal, it is proved that there is connection between parenting activities and children’s growth and development. The results are obtained:
Many researchers argued if early stimulation was very important because when someone was born, complete organization of brain loading 100-200 billion of cells which is ready to be developed and actualized to reach the highest stage of potency development (Clark inside Semiawan, 2002). Brooks (1991) on his book said if parent plays a big role to optimalize children’s in every aspect, such as physic, cognitive and psychosocial.
Al-Azhar Indonesia Humanities Series Journal (Vol.3, No.3, March 2016), entitled “Training of Optimization to Early Childhood’s Parent”. By intervention (training) research method to 40 members who have children who go to PAUD (Early Childhood School) Kemuning, Gaga hutment, Ciledug – Tangerang. Result research was “Early childhood was one form of education that focuses on laying the foundation for physical growth and development (fine and rough motor coordination) intelligence, creativity, emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. That is parents who are the first and foremost educators with PAUD institutions as an extension of their parents to achieve optimal child growth and development one form of organization”.
From scientific journals by Rohinah (2016) by title “Parenting Education as Model of Character Education For Early Childhood” based on family. This research took samples from many parents who joined KPO (Gathering Parents Club) actively that held by Play Group ceria at least for two years, since 2010-2012. From that data, it could be concluded that most of parents who have joined KPO realized about how important parent’s roles on giving attention to children’s growth and development at home. It proves that parents’ effort in improving their children attitude and behavior can be seen from children’s behavior at home. And the most important thing was the willingness and effort made by parents to minimize the behavior of bullying (violence) towards children, both verbal, physical amd psychological violence. Based on her book entitled “Ibu Hebat Anak Smart”, Fauzia (2015) in chapter “The way to solve children’s bad appetite” wrote, sometimes it is hard to understand a child especially if our got bad appetite, as parent, we should know how to overcome this problem, because every mother is always worry about her children’s nutrition adequacy, considering they are still in their infancy. It usually happens on the first age. In which eating problem, they frequently refuse to eat, especially vegetables, they prefer snacking for long time. Causative factor of eating problem on children causes of physic and psychologist factors. Physical factors include the presence of disturbances in digestives organ and infections. Whilst, psychological factors include psychological disorders on children, such as problematic household, unpleasant dining atmosphere, never eating together, or forcing the children to eat foods that they dislike.
Furthermore, on Non Formal Education Journal (Volume 13 No. 2, 2017) by Nooraini, entitled “The Implementation of Parenting Programs in Growing Positive Parenting Behavior in Parents in PAUD (Early Childhood School) Tulip”. This research used qualitative approach and descriptive method with the purpose to depict and try to learn the condition of process acticity, the implementation of positive parenting support and inhibiting factors and result of parenting program in growing parent’s positive parenting behavior. The result shows that, every parent has different parenting behavior but same purpose, there is forming children based on good character and good education. Like the first research object, she expected her child to be independent and responsible, but she adjusted less correct parenting system, it caused child’s development didn’t change significantly. By these parenting activity the first research object (began to get learning about how to apply right parenting) in order to make her child change better as she expected. While the second object was, taught her child authoritarianly and it made her child contraried. Authoritarian parenting, if it seen today, it is unright parenting system, because it can obstruct children’s infanity and talents. And the third object, who had background as carreer woman then she handed over parenting activity to grandma. It caused one of obstacles in children’s growth and development. As we known, parent’s role is very important for children, though grandma is still family member, but parent’s role can not be replaced with grandma’s.
Ganevi, in her journal, “The Implementation Of Parenting Programs For Parents In Fostering Child-Friendly Family Behavior”, which was based on violence done by parents and also unappropriate parenting process. It was caused by the parent’s lack of knowledge and understanding on teaching and parenting process in family. From these condition, parenting program was one means that could be utilized to increase parent’s qualities. One of them, by planting attitude or child-friendly behavior such as friendly education, friendly-nutritions, friendly-parenting and friendly-protection in order to influence growth phases structurally and regularly. Child-friendly family was a family which can give comfort to the children in teaching and taking care.
Many parents recognize that joining parenting program can improve their knowledge in taking care children. Improvisation provides better attitude and behavior in children. Being healthy in early stage of growing is the most important thing. More over, parents are intended to be more attentive, because children’s health will affect to their growth and development. It is good to teach children to live healthy with showing simple behaviors, the way of taking care in the family.

5. DISCUSSION
Based on literature study of many previous research journals and book which discussed about parenting, it infers that parenting activity was very impactful to children as long as they were on process, throughout their life. Every parent is definitely care to their children’s growth and development, though their ways are different, all of real parents in the world always have one purpose, that is having children who grow and develop normally and well. Growth and development process are very related to the health factors, in the other words, only healthy children that are expected to be occurred optimally growth process. Even though this process can be normally occur, the process are very depend on the parent and older people. Parent should not measure the growth just from children’s weight and height only, because brain development is also a part of toddler’s growth. It is because children don’t grow just physically but also mentally. Talk about physic and mental, children also need religion guidance. It means, growth and development process include much aspects and factors. In every religion, it is underlined to do the best for the next generation. Give what human need and teach what human supposed to do. Breastmilk, attitude, skills, knowledge, ability and many others will balance the process of children’s growth and development.
In achieving goals, children can grow and develop normally and well. Nowadays, these are many ways that can be taken by parent and also early childhood education provider. For support naturally process in growth and development, parents and supporter (older people, and etc) should be able to absorb parenting science which useful and suitable to every children’s character. Parenting science is not only habits that come from older people (grandpa, grandma, baby sitter and etc) but also can be learned and must be had as a basis in supporting growth and development, and build positive character.
Analysis result from existing research journals, parenting activity especially by parents like training of growth optimization, positive parenting behavior in parents, child-friendly family have been evident very reactfull on affecting parents to be better in parenting activity to support children’s growth and development.

6. CONCLUSIONS
Growth and development process begin from the first world namely family, parent as primary and first educator become the front guardian that influence children’s life journey. On teaching and giving treatment, every parent has different habits. Surely, these habits would be very reactfull on growth and development process. Therefore, parenting activity which given by parents should has positive value, educative, innovative, and create children’s indepency.