Impact of Planting Dates and Mineral Treatments on Growth Processes, Yield and Fatty Acid Composition of Peanut Oil (Arachis hypogaea L.) New Variety Sohage 107

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: December, 2019

Ahmed Khalaf, Mohamed Sh. Hassan, Hamady A. Ismaeil & Ahmed Awny
Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agric. Res. Center (ARC)
Dept., Agric. Chemistry, Fac. Of Agric., Minia University
Egypt

Journal Full Text PDF: Impact of Planting Dates and Mineral Treatments on Growth Processes, Yield and Fatty Acid Composition of Peanut Oil (Arachis hypogaea L.) New Variety Sohage 107.

Abstract
The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of different planting dates (1 May, 16 May and 1Jule) and spraying Si (100 ppm) or Se (50 ppm) 4 times on the growth characters and yield as well as the physico-chemical characters and Fatty acids compositions of peanut oil. Two field experiments were conducted at Shandweel Form (Sohage governorate, Egypt) in 2016 and 2017, using the new local namely var. Sohage 107 (Arachis hypogaea L.). Results show that early sowing (1May) resulted in significant increases in plant height and no. of branches /plants. Si or Se applications produced significant increases of branches /plant of late sowing (1 June) compared to control one. Results show also that no. of Pods / plant, 100-seed weight (g), Pods / plant (g) and Pod yield (Kg fed) were the lowest values at late sowing date. However, Si or Se foliar applications improved the previous characters and increased dry matter production. Oil content ranged from 54.75% to59.15%, the lowest oil content was found in seeds of plants sown late. No significant differences in RI (1.465-1.469) were found among plant dates or mineral treatments. The highest acidity (2.46%) was found in plants sown late. Se application reduced the peroxide values in oils of plants sown late. The lowest IV was obtained in oils of plants sown early (87.70).Oil contained oleic acid as a major MUSFs (54.8-59.07%) and Palmitic acid as a major SFAs. The lowest value of oleic acid was obtained in plants sown late, while the highest value of linoleic acid was produced in plants sown late and sprayed with Si or Se. The highest O/L ratio which accompanied with lower IV were obtained in oils of plants sown early and sprayed with either Si or Se (2.27-2.33 O/L ratio and 88.30-91.71 IV) .The opposite was true with plants sown.

Keywords: Peanut, Silicon, Selenium, Growth, Fatty acids.

1. Introduction
Peanut is botanically known as Arachis hypopgaea and belongs to family Leguminosae. Peanuts often called as “The King of Oilseeds and They differ in the quantity as well the quality of oil. Peanut is an important oilseed crop for vegetable oil production. It contributes 8.7% of the total oil seeds production in the world (FAO, 2015). The world annual peanut production is around 37.196 million t and the top three producers were China, India and the USA (FAO, 2012). In Egypt, there is a great shortage in edible oils so that almost 90% of the consumption needs are currently imported (Zaher et al., 2017).
The interaction between cultivar and planting date was significant in terms of pod yield and cultivars (Sogut et al (2016). Pod and kernel yields of Peanut seed increased by treatments in the order months May and June (Gardner and Auma, 2003).
The lipid profile of crop determines its ability to be used in nutritional applications. The fatty acid composition of peanut oil varies depending on varieties, growing conditions and maturity. Roche et al., (2006) reported that sowing date might orientate the biosynthesis of seed components.
The beneficial elements as Silicon and Selenium promote growth of various plant species under certain environmental conditions, their function and concentration varies for plant species (Pilon-Smits et al. 2009).
The present study was an attempt to evaluate the effect of planting date and mineral treatments on the growth characters and yield as well as the physico-chemical properties and Fatty acids compositions of oil of the locally promising grown variety peanut Sohage 107

2. Materials and methods
This experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Agriculture Research Center in Shandaweel (Sohage governorate, Egypt), using peanut seeds (Arachis hypogaea L.) variety Sohage 107. A split plots design with three replications was used, three sowing dates (1May, 16 May and 1June) were assigned. Spraying of Silicon on leaves surface was as potassium silicate at rate 100 ppm while Selenium was sprayed as Sodium selenite at rage 50 ppm. Solution were sprayed 4times in the morning in the following growth periods: Control (top water),before flowering, 20 days, 40 days, 60 days after flowering. At harvesting stage, Plant height (cm), no. of branches /plant, no of Pods per plant, 100-seed weight (g), Pods per plant (g), Pod yield (Kg fed) and dry matter (Kg fed) were determined. The actual harvest time for each sowing date is after yellowing of leaves and some of them fall off.
Content and physicochemical properties of peanut oil:
Extraction of the oil was done by soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent. Refractive index (IR), Acidity and Peroxide value (PV) were determined according to the methods described in A.O.A.C. (2005).the Iodine value (IV) was calculated from fatty acids composition (Chaiyadee. et.al. (2013).using the following formula: IV= (% oleic acid × 0.8601) + (% linoleic acid × 1.7321) + (% eicosenoic acid × 0.7854).

Fatty acid composition:
Results were expressed as the percentage of each fatty acid with respect to the total fatty acids. Fatty acids composition, were determined by using Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared according to AOCS (1989).Fatty acids were converted into their methyl esters according to the method of British Pharmacopoeia (2000). The fatty acids methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography PRO-GC. Packed column was used SP-2310, 55% Cyanopropyl phenyl Silicon Dimentio: 1.5X4mm.detector and injector temperatures were 250°C and 300 °C respectively.

Statistical analysis:
Growth characters :- Growth characters, Physical Properties and Fatty acids composition were statistically analyzed according to technique of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the split plot design by means of “MSTAT-C” computer software package and least significant differences (L.S.D.) between treatment means at 5% level of probability by Gomez and Gomez (1984).

3. Results and Discussions
The average belonging to Plant height (cm), no. of branches /plant, no of Pods per plant, 100-seed weight (g), Pods per plant (g), Pod yield (Kg fed) and dry matter (Kg fed) have been presented in table (1).
Results show that there were significant differences in Plant height in two seasons, where early sowing resulted in higher Plant height, however, and such character was continuously decreased with delaying of planting date.it is worth to note that Si or Se foliar applications enhanced Plant height, Si application seemed to be more beneficial than Se application especially of late sowing (1June).Results also show that the highest no. of branches /plant(7.5-9.43)was produced in plants sown early(1May) while the least no. of branches /plant was related to late date 1June (5.80-7.40).However, Si or Se applications for both early or late planting dates resulted in significant and pronounced increases of no. of branches /plant.
Table: (1) Effect of planting date and mineral treatments on growth characters of peanut seeds (variety Sohage 107)
Within each column, Means of each variable having different liters are significant different at the level of probability, according to L.S.D test.
On the other hand, results show that no of Pods per plant, 100-seed weight (g), Pods per plant (g) as well as Pod yield (Kg) fed were the lowest values at later sowing date (1June) when compared with early or optimal planting dates (1May or 16May).lower pod production may be due to reduced growth and exposure of plants to warmer and longer photoperiod(long day)after the late planting date (Caliskan, et al., 2008). Si or Se foliar applications improved the previous parameters and increased significantly dry matter production (Djanaguiraman et al., 2011). The obtained results are in accordance with the findings of other researchers: yield of peanut (Hu et al., 2016) the number of seeds in the pods (Li., 2015) and 100-seed weight (Irmak. 2017). Results also show that early sowing produced 10.89% and 21.86% greater dry matter (Kg fedan) yield and 10.42% and 22.61% greater pod yields Pod yield (Kg fedan).than that of optimal or late sowing dates, respectively. The positive effects of Si or Se applications increased significantly dry matter (Kg fedan) in two seasons. In this concern Singh et al., (2006) reported that Silicon applications increases nitrogen and phosphorus in pods and Straw which results in increased in dry matter and yield.

Table: (1) Effect of planting date and mineral treatments on growth characters of peanut seeds (variety Sohage 107)

4. Oil content and physicochemical characters.
The oil content and its physicochemical characters are presented in Table (2) Results show that the oil contents values of peanut variety Sohage 107 ranged from 54.75% to59.15%. The highest content (59.15%) was produced in seeds of plants sown early (1May) and sprayed with Si, followed by plants sown early and sprayed with Se (58.54%).
The lowest oil content (54.75%) were found in seeds of plants sown late(1June).Such results are comparable to these reported by William,(1984) who reported that The maximum oil content (58%) was achieved in the early planting and oil content tended to decline (42%) in late planting.
Results presented in Table (2) show that no significant differences in refractive index IR (1.465-1.469) was found to be present among all planting dates or mineral treatment in two seasons. However, other parameters i.e., acidity value, peroxide value and Iodine value were found to be statistically different. The highest acidity (2.46) was found in oils of plants sown late (1June), while the lowest value (0.45) was found in plants sown early (1May) and sprayed with Silicon. Peroxide value (4.00 m Eq.O2/kg) was found in oils of plants sown late, and (0.44 m Eq.O2/kg) in oil of plants sown early and received Si application.

Table: (2) Effect of planting date and mineral treatments on Physical properties of peanut oils (variety Sohage 107).

Within each column, Means of each variable having different liters are significant different at the level of probability, according to L.S.D test.

However, Se applications seemed to reduce Peroxide value significantly in oils of plants sown late. Iodine value was found to be higher (102.77) in oils of plants sown late and sprayed with Se. IV were statistically different in other treatment where oils of plants sown early (1May) had the lowest values (87.70).our results are comparable to other investigations: acid values (Ethel et al., (2004), Shad et al., (2012), Farhan et al., (2015),refractive index of other varieties did not significantly varieties (Arya et al., 1969,Atasie et al., 2009,Brein et al., 2009 and Farhan et al., 2015).Peroxide value: (Ethel et al., (2004)ranged from 0.6 to 4.2 m Eq.O2/kg , Shad et al., (2012) reporting 3.58 and Farhan et al., (2015) reporting 2.5 and 3.5 m Eq.O2/kg. Chowdhury et al. (2015) reported that iodine value of peanut varieties varies 98.83 to 105.3. Bezard (1986) reported 87 to107 and Farhan et al., (2015) reported 91.96-93.45.It is worth to note that the variation of different iodine value in different seasons due to variation of oleic and linoleic acids in oils.
Data presented in tables(3) and(4) show the effect of planting dates and Si and Se on oil contents of peanut, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Results show that peanut oil of Sohage 107 variety contained oleic acid a major monounsaturated fatty acids (54.8-59.07%) and Palmitic acid as major saturated fatty acids(6.10-12.03%) peanut seed oil contains 52.74%,29.20% and 8.36%(as average) of oleic (C18:1), linoleic C18:2 and Palmitic C16:0 respectively, These fatty acids represented ca 90.3 of total fatty acids. The distribution of other fatty acids is as follows: Stearic (3.47%), Arachidic (1.24%), Behenic (2.12%) and Caproic acid (1.10) representing total saturated fatty acids. On the other hand, results show that planting date and mineral treatment (Si and Se) affected significantly the levels of all fatty acids. Moreover, oils of plants sown early and sprayed with Se produced the highest values of oleic acid (56.00%) while the lowest value was obtained in oils of plants sown date (50.15%).concerning linoleic acid, the highest value was found in plants sown late and sprayed with Si or Se (32.05% and 33.51%) respectively. Results also show that early planting date (1May) produced the highest percentages of Palmitic acid (9.10-12.03%) while the lowest was found in late sowing (6.10-7.19%).
.
Table: (3) Effect of planting date and mineral treatment on the saturated fatty acids composition of peanut oil (variety Sohage 107) average of two seasons.

Within each column, Means of each variable having different liters are significant different at the level of probability, according to L.S.D test

Within each column, Means of each variable having different liters are significant different at the level of probability, according to L.S.D test

Table: (5) Effect of planting date and mineral treatment on the fatty acid profile of peanut oil Sohage 107 (two years average).

Within each column, Means of each variable having different liters are significant different at the level of probability, according to L.S.D test
Data presented in table (5) show the effect of planting dates and mineral treatments of the fatty acid profile of peanut oil. The saturated fatty acids percent (15.48%) in peanut oil was strongly affected by planting dates and mineral treatments. Similar results were obtained for the percent of unsaturated fatty acids (84.68%). also results show that UFAs/ SFAs were affected significantly by these treatments (4.03-6.42).However, PUFAs to SFAs mean ratio recommended by the British Department of Health is more than 0.45 (Wood et al., 2008). It is worth to note that linoleic acid (L) having two double bonds is more susceptible to oxidative than oleic acid (O) having one double bond. Hence, the oil containing higher MUFAs/ PUFAs ratio may be recommended nutritional supplements for better health. Higher O/L ratio and lower IVs indicate the better oil stability and longer shelf life (Ahmed and Young, 1982).However, our results show that the highest O/L ratios and accompanied with lower IVs were obtained in oils of plants sown early and sprayed with either Si or Se(2.27-2.33 O/L and 88.30-91.71 IV) the opposite was true with oils of plants sown late (1.51-1.58 O/L and 98.96-102.2 IV),(Shad et al.,2012).

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