International Journal of Biology, Physics & Mathematics
Publication Date: February, 2021
Isewede C. O., Ugbomoiko V. O., Gimba I. N & Azama A. A
National Institute For Hospitality & Tourism Benin-City, Edo State
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Auchi Polytechnic Edo State
Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resource engineering, Auchi Polytechnic Edo State
Edo State, Nigeria
Journal Full Text PDF: Physiochemical Properties of Bottled Water.
Abstract: In the early 40s Auchi used to be a village, now it has grown to be a Local government headquarters of administrative, Educational, Religion and cultural significance with increasing population. Auchi town is lying on the sedimentary environment of mainly sand stone and sand. Physio-chemical analysis of Bottled water were carried out to ascertain the quality and suitability of the water, which is of great concern because of various water borne diseases and unhealthy impact on human health. As bottled water are marketed companies, it is essential to check if the water is safe for public consumption or not. Four different branded water samples were collected and analysed for their physio-chemical parameters. The PH results of the four samples are 6.2, 6.4, 6.7 and 6.2 respectively and they are all below W.H.O standard of 6.5. the total dissolved solid are below W.H.O standard in sample A, B, D and has a value of 3(mgl) in sample C which is also below W.H.O standard of 300(mgl). All other parameters analyzed are below W.H.O permissible limits.
Keywords: Bottled water, physiochemical properties and human health.
Water, being a universal solvent is the most useful naturally occurring solvent on planet earth. In line with its usefulness; it stands out as a basic necessity of life, especially for the continuous existence of mammal and aquatic organisms. This is in addition to its innumerable uses both industrially and domestically. Water(from the Agro-saxon and low German word water) is a colorless, tasteless and odorless substance that is essential to all forms of life that are known of it’s molecule contain one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected covalently. Its chemical formula is H2O.
Water dissolves most of the other substance of which living things are made. It also refers to the liquid state a substance exist at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but in it’s solid state it is referred to as ice and in gaseous state, it’s referred to as steam or water vapor. It also occurs naturally as snow, glaciers, ice packs, icebergs, cloud and aquifers. It is precipitated as water, fog, dew and hail. Water covers 71% of the earth surface, 96.5% of the planet crust, 1.7% of ground water, 1.7% of glaciers and ice caps. Only about 2.5% of this water is fresh water, less than 0.3% of all fresh water is in river, lakes, the atmosphere and an even smaller amount of the earth’s fresh water is found in earth’s interior.
The life support provided by water is connected to its composition, which is a factor of source. Hence water from different source has different organic and inorganic composition. The ratio of this composition can either promote animal health and environmental blossom or cause a deterioration or total damage of such. Water is required as a medium in which the biochemical reaction of living organisms can go on, for transporting substance into and out of cells, for maintaining temperature, for producing digestive fluids and secretions, and also as a solvent for excreted waste products. To promote animal health and environmental safety, different health and environmental security agencies such as World health organization(WHO), Standard organization of Nigeria(SON), etc, have set standards as to the expected composition of water in it’s various application or use, especially pure water and water in their natural sources such as lake, ponds, streams, seas, oceans, lagoons, etc.
A clean water supply is not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation. Since water is the most important determinant of public health, destruction of water supply or poor sanitation of infrastructure during or after a major catastrophes like earthquake, war, flood etc, poses the immediate threat of several epidemics of water borne diseases, several of which can be life threatening. Unsafe water along with low sanitation and hygiene represent the leading cause of death in developing countries (Goodman A.H.,1980). The United Nations Children’s Emergency Funds (UNICEF) ensures microbiological water supply. They integrate hygiene promotion, environmental sanitation and clean water supply as the best proven strategy for breaking fecal-oral transmission cycle. UNICEF aims to build local capacity to sustain the benefits of improved water supply and sanitation through improved community relation.
Ground water represents the world largest and most important source of fresh portable water due to the inability of government to meet the ever increasing water demand. Ground water is generally considered alternate “safe” source of drinking water because it is extracted with low microbial load with little need for treatment but in developing countries like Nigeria left untreated before drinking or ingestion. However, it is highly advisable to treat ground water before drinking because of the presence of pollutants, which may degrade its quality. Most people in rural and urban areas result to the use of ground water whether directly through such as bore-holes, or indirectly through source such as sachet water, bottled water, and water as alternative water source.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLY COLLECTION OF SAMPLE
Bottled water samples were collected from various areas in Auchi (Auchi poly, Eva, Hosanna, and G.N.L). Four different bottled water were obtained and taken to a laboratory for examination to determine their suitability for consumption.
Apparatus required: Thermometer
Procedure: Temperature measurement is made by taking a portion of the water sample (about 1 liter) and immersing the thermometer into it for a sufficient period of time (till the reading stabilizes) and the reading is taken, expressed as 0C.
Apparatus required: Nephelometer (It detect scattered light at 90o to the incident beam of light. It contains of a light source for illuminating the sample. One more photoelectric detectors with a display unit indicate the intensity of light scattered at 900 to the path of incident light), sample cell, lab-glass wares and monopan balance.
Principles: Nephelometric measurement is based on comparison of the intensity of scattered light of the sample with the intensity of light scattered by a standard refrence suspension (Formazin polymer) under similar conditions.
Reagents: Distilled water and stock primary Formazin suspension
• Solution 1 : 1.0g Hydrazine sulphate is dissolved in 100ml of disttled water.
• Solution2: 10.0g of Hexamethylenetetramin is dissolved in distilled water and made up to 100ml in a volumetric flask.
• Stock Turbidity suspension: 5ml of solutions 1 and 2 are mixed in a volumetric flask and allowed to stand for 24 hrs at about 25o C (±3oC) and diluted to 1000ml with distilled water to give a 400 NTU suspension
Standard Turbidity suspension: 10ml of the stock solution is diluted to 100ml with distilled water to give a standard solution of 40 NTU.
Procedure: The nephelometer is calibrated using distilled water *( zero NTU ) and a standard turbidity suspension of 40 NTU. The thoroughly shaken sample is taken in the nephelometic tube and the value is recorded.
Apparatus required: PH meters
Reagent: Distilled water and Buffer solution
Procedure: The PH of the water sample collected was determined in the laboratory using the Hanna PH meter instrument HI-1922 model the meter was first calibrated rinsed buffer 7.0, used severally with distilled water, 20ml of the sample from each station was measured into beakers that were first rinsed with diluted water and the small quality of the sample before measuring the sample through the same process.
Procedure: The electrode of the conductivity meter is dipped into the sample, and the readings are noted for stable value shown as mc/cm.
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS
Principle: A well mixed sample is filtered through a weighed standard glass fiber filter and the residue that is retained on the filter is dried to a constant weight at 103-105oc. The increase in the weight of the filter determines the total suspended solids.
Apparatus: porcelain dish (100ml capacity), glass fiber filter disk, suction pump and flask, measuring jar, membrane filter funnel, oven and filtration apparatus.
Procedure: The known volume of vigorously shaken sample (50ml) is the is filtered into a pre-weighed glass fiber filter disk fitted to suction pump, and washed successively with distilled water. The filter is carefully removed from the filtration apparatus and dried for an hour at 103-105oC in an oven, cooled in dessicator and weighed for constant weight.
Principles: In alkaline condition EDTA (Ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid) and its sodium salt react with cations forming a soluble chelated complex when added to a solution. If a small amount of dye such as Eriochrome black-T is added to aqueous solution containing calcium and magnesium ions at alkaline PH of 10.0 ± 0.1, it forms wine red colour. When EDTA is added as a titrant, all the calcium and magnesium ions in the solution get complex resulting in a sharp colour change from wine red to blue, marking the end point of the titration. Hardness of water prevents lather formation with soap rendering the water unsuitable for bathing and washing. It forms a scale in boilers, making it unsuitable for industrial usage. At higher PH>12.0,Mg++ion precipitates with only Ca++ gets complex resulting in a change from pink to purple indicating end point of the reaction.
Apparatus required: Lab glassware-burette, pipette, conical flask, beakers etc.
Buffer solution: 16.9g of ammonium chloride and 1.25g of magnesium salt of EDTA is dissolved in 143ml of concentrated ammonium hydroxide and diluted to 250ml with distilled water.
Eriochrome black-T indicator: 0.5g of Eriochrome black-T indicator is dissolved in 100g of triethanolamine.
Standard EDTA titrant: 0.01M or Ng AR grade EDTA is dissolved in distilled water and diluted 1000ml and is standardized against standard calcium solution, 1ml=1mg CaCO3.
Standard calcium solution: 1.0g of AR grade CaCO3 is weighed into a 250ml conical flask, to which 1+1 HCI s added till all CaCO3, is dissolved completely. 200ml of distilled water is added and boiled to expel carbon dioxide, and diluted to 1000ml. 1ml=1mg CaCO3.
Procedure: Exactly 50ml of the well mixed sample is pipette into a conical flask, to which 1ml of ammonium biuffer and 2-3 drops of Erionchrome black-T indicator is added. The mixture is titrated against standard 0.01M EDTA until the wine red colour of the solution turns plane blue at the end.
Principles: Nitrates react with phenoldisulphonic acid and produce a nitrate derivative, which in alkaline solution develops yellow colour due to rearrangement of its structure. The colour produced is directly proportional to the concentration of nitrate present in the sample.
Apparatus required: Nessler’s tube, pipettes, beakers, spectrophotometer, cuvettes, measuring jar and hot water bath.
Reagents: Phenol disulphonic acid: 25g of phenol is dissolved in 150ml of concentrated sulphic acid, to which 85ml of sulphric acid is further added and heated for about 90 min on a water bath and stored in dark bottles upon cooling.
Sodium hydroxide: About 50g of sodium hydroxide is dissolved in 150-200 ml of water and cooled.
Conc. Ammonium hydroxide
• Stock nitrate solution: 721.8 mg(0.722g) of AR potassium nitrate is dissolved in distilled water and made up to 100ml for stock solution.
• Standard nitrate solution: Standard nitrate solution is prepared by evaporating 50ml of the stock solution to dryness in the water bath. The obtained residue is dissolved in 2ml of phenol disulfonic acid and diluted to 500ml, to give 1ml = 10mg. The solution of various strengths ranging from 0.0(blank) to 1.0mg/L at the intervals of 0.2 mg/L is prepared by diluting stock solution with distilled water.
Procedure: A known volume (50ml) of the sample is pipette into a porcelain dish and evaporated to dryness on a hot bath. 2ml of phenol disulphonic acid is added to dissolve the residue by constant stirring with a glass rod. Concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide or conc. Ammonium hydroxide and distilled water is added with stirring to make it alkaline. This is filtered into a nessler’s tube and made up to 50ml with distilled water. The absorbance is read at 410nm using a spectrophotometer after the development of colour. The standard graph is plotted by taking concentration along X-axis and the spectrophotometric readings (absorbance) along Y-axis. The value of nitrate is found by comparing absorbance of sample with the standard curve and expressed in mg/L
Principles: In acidic conditions orthophosphate reacts with ammonium molybdate forming Molybdophosphoric acid, reduced further to molybdenum blue by stannous chloride. The intensity of the blue colour is directly propotional to the concentration of phosphate, the absorbance is noted at 690nm using spectrophotometer.
Apparatus required: Spectrophotometer, lab glassware, hot plate and Nessler’s tube.
Ammonium molybdate reagent: 25g ammonium molybdate is dissolved in 175ml distilled water. 280ml concentrated sulphuric acid is added to 400ml distilled water and cooled. Molybdate solution is added and the mixture diluted to 1000ml.
Stannous chloride reagents: 2.5g fresh stannous chloride is dissolved in 100ml glycerol, heated on water bath and stirred with the glass rod to hasten dissolution.
Standard phosphate solution: 219.5mg of dried AR potassium hydrogen phosphate is dissolved in distilled water and made up to 1000ml, where 1ml = 50.0mg. Standard of strength ranging from 0(blank) to 0.05mg/L at intervals of 0.01mg Is prepared by diluting the stock with distilled water.
Procedure: To 50ml of the filtered sample, 4ml of ammonium molybdate reagent and about 4-5 drops of stannous chloride reagents is added. After about 10min but before 12min, the colour developed is measured photometrically at 690nm and calibration curve is prepared. A reagent blank is always run with same treatment with distilled water as sample. The value of phosphate is obtained by comparing absorbance of sample with the standard curve and expressed as, mg/L.
Principles: Sulphate ions are precipitated in aceti acid medium with barium chloride to form barium sulphate crystals uniform size. The scattering of light by the precipitated suspension (barium sulphate) is measured by a Nephelometer and the concentration is recorded.
Apparatus required: Nephelometer, magnetic stirrer, Nessler’s tubes and lab gflassware.
Conditioning reagents: 50ml of glycerol was mixed in a solution containing 30ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid, 300ml distilled water (10% HCI), 100ml of 95% ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol and 75g NaCI.
• Barium chloride.
• Standard sulphate solution: 147.9mg of AR grade sodium sulphate was dissolved in distilled water and made up to 1000ml, to give 1ml = 100mg sulphate.
Procedure: 100ml of the sample is filtered into a Nessler’s tube containing 5ml of conditioning reagent. About 0.2g of barium chloride crystals is added with conditioning reagent and made up to 100ml, to give 100 NTU. The turbidity developed by the sample and the standards are measured using a Nephelometer and the results are tabulated.
Principle: In alkaline or neutral solution, potassium chromate indicates the end point of the silver nitrate titration of chlorides. Silver chloride is quantitatively precipitated before the red silver chromate is formed.
Apparatus required: Lab glassware.
• Potassium chromate indicator solution: 50g of potassium chromate is dissolved in minimum amount of distilled water and silver nitrate is added drop wise till a red precipitate is formed. The mixture is allowed to stand for about 12 hours and diluted to 1000ml with distilled water.
• Silver nitrate solution (0.014N): 2.395g of silver nitrate is dissolved in distilled water and made up to 1000ml.
Procedure: A well known volume of filtered sample (50ml) is taken in a conical flask, to which about 0.5ml of potassium chromate indicator is added and titrated against standard silver nitrate till silver dichromate (AgCrO4) starts precipitating.
CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM
Calcium and magnesium was determined by using the complex metric titration method as described by (M.A Ademorti 1996) 50ml 0f sample, 25ml concentrated ammonia solution, 10 water for reagents preparation 50ml water sample was to a blue end point the volume of standard EDIA used (A). place 50ml distilled water into 25ml Gtenmeyer flask, added 25ml% KOH, added 10 drops Ca and tag solution and a few grain of 1% calcium indicator and shake. Add 50ml water sample to the flask shake and titrate to a fellow end point volume of EDTA used is (B).
Alkalinity was determined by titrating 50ml of sample, two drops of, methyl orange indicator was added and was titrated against the 0.01m sulphuric acid until the appearance of a faint pink colour.
The total alkalinity CaCO3 = (A1×N×50×1000)
3. RESULT OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
PH measure hydrogen ion concentration solution from the results obtained, the PH of samples (6.2, 6.4, 6.7 and 6.2) were all below W.H.O standard of (6.5).
Also from the table, sample C has the highest value of dissolved solid with 3mg/l and sample A, B and D are negligible.
Chlorides are compounds to mineral content of the earth in any given area, when they are in small amount they pose title concern but when the concentration is high they pose health threats. Chloride tends to give water salty taste which is undesirable from the above result, sample C and D are both tied with a uniform value of 21.2mg/l, while sample B (has highest value of 56.5mg/l, but all sample fell below the W.H.O standard of 200ml for drinking water).
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
From the above analysis, four brands of bottled water in Auchi, were assessed and analyzed for their physical and chemical parameters. The results revealed that physical parameter namely; EC and PH values of the bottled water are within the permissible limits of W.H.O standard. However, the chemistry of bottled water may change during transportation or storage, particularly when containers are exposed to sunlight or kept for an extended period of time. Calcium and magnesium ions values are also within the permissible standard of W.H.O. The findings, indicates that all the water samples failed at least one of the analysis and so it is safe to say this pose a serious health risk on consumption. It can therefore be concluded that the entire water sample are to improve the quality of water.
From the analyses it shows that all the samples analyzed were found to have most parameter value within the range of the physiochemical present standard for drinking water presented by W.H.O. The findings suggest that the water samples measured should be taken by regulatory agents like W.H.O or NAFDAC to better the quality level of water before allowing it for public consumption. The management of water resources in Nigeria Urban and Semi-Urban Centers should be monitored, if health and well being of the residents is of outmost priority.
A number of short and long term measure need to be undertaken in order to bring down the pollution level to the acceptable limits.
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