Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 10
Publication Date: 7 November 2018
Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty Of Management, Department Of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA
Journal Full Text PDF: Effect Of Political Violence In Nigeria.
Political violence is violence outside of state control that is politically motivated. Some political scientists see political violence as part of “contentious politics” or collective political struggle, which includes such things as revolutions, civil war, riots and strikes, but more peaceful protest movements. Crime and warfare share some attributes with political violence, but political scientists do not define them as political violence. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. It can describe violence used by a state against other states or against non-state actors. It can also describe politically motivated violence by non-state actors against a state or against other non-state actors. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals…. At other times, governments use force in order to defend their country from outside invasion or other threats of force and to coerce other governments or conquer territory. For democracy to be at equitable standard and delivery politicians that improve masses welfare and mensch must be informed to vote and hold politicians accountable in the event of any eventual pitfall because most politicians often manage to secure votes by stirring up greed, rivalry, or fear. Improving democracy therefore requires that we must find ways to reduce the role that greed, rivalry and fear play in the electoral process, especially in young democracies such as those in Africa. However, the study aimed at determining the causes and level of the effect of political violence in Nigeria.
Keywords: Crime, Democracy, Election, Offence, Political Violence, Politicians, Rivalry, Vote.
1.1 Background of the Study
Greed, rivalry, fear or egomania, few among others in politics have been among causes of political violence. Critical examination of the causes of the political violence in Nigeria revealed that the immediate causes of the phenomenon in the country include imposition of candidates on party members. Others are, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, the general socioeconomic downturn that has rather remained unaddressed over the years. The fundamental question is; what can be done to reduce the role of malfeasant electoral strategies like vote-buying, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, ethnic polarization, or violent intimidation? However, encouraging empowerment and creating awareness campaign encouraging Nigerian voters to oppose electoral violence may reduce it to a minimal level.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Nigeria is a country of overlapping regional, religious, and ethnic divisions. Rifts between the North and the South of the country, ethnic groups, and Islam and Christianity often coincide and have sometimes resulted in political or sectarian violence.
Since the end of military rule, Nigeria’s elites have largely cordoned off national presidential elections from sectarian divisions by predetermining presidential and vice presidential victors. Their People’s Democratic Party (PDP) nominates one southern Christian and one northern Muslim for the presidency and vice presidency. Every eight years the party rotates the office for which it nominates Christian and Muslim candidates. Excluded as it is from this process of political horse-trading, known as zoning, Nigeria’s ethnically and religiously fractured public has become increasingly indifferent to the country’s national electoral politics. The question is why it must always be Muslim/Christian candidates and why not Muslim/Muslim or Christian/ Christian? Evidence we find suggests political parties formed along ethnic divides are more prone to violence, which leads us to argue in favour of the reciprocal-vote approach …………
2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Different researchers have examined the link between election outcome, electoral participation and electoral violence but all have limited their theories and views to how they see it according to their perspective field of study. Hickman (2009) examines the impact of violence on voter turnout and election results in Sri Lanka. According to him, violence perpetrated by individuals associated with one political party, leads to a reduction in turnout for the opposition or another party. Another paper using the Afrobarometer data from Nigeria shows that vote buying is far more effective than violence (Bratton, 2008). Bratton also demonstrates that the most common response to any form of \illegitimate campaigning”, e.g. violence or vote buying, is abstention. We extend this literature by examining multiple countries and looking at heterogeneity in the impact of violence ……….