Published on International Journal of Art, Language & Linguistics
Publication Date: July 17, 2019
Zulfa Mazida Amalia, Akhmad Sofyan & Akhmad Haryono
Department of Linguistic Studies, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia
Purpose of this study was to find out the communication strategies in the buying and selling of interactions in the Ambulu market roomates are categorized into different number of interactions items, namely (a) crowded shops, (b) medium shops, (c) and quiet shops. The buying and selling of interaction in this study is divided into three stages items, namely the calling communication strategy, bargaining, and convincing the buyer. This study uses a qualitative descriptive approach with pragmatic studies. The results, showed that there were differences in communication strategies in each category of stores, both crowded, medium and quiet. Crowd shops use more communication strategies by giving a good welcome to buyers, while stores are using communication strategies at a convincing stage, and quiet shops prefer to be silent in serving buyers.
Keyword: Communication strategies, pragmatics, buying, pragmatic studies & selling strategies.
Language is a communication tool used by humans in everyday life. Without language, human difficulties to interact and communicate with people around him. Communication means an information process between speaker and hearer. Communication can be conveyed by means of verbal or nonverbal communication with important points of interest reached. The purpose of communication can be said to be achieved if the speaker and hearer can find a point of understanding that message or information submitted can be received well. To achieve the purpose of communication strategy is needed. Rogers in Cangara (2013:61) gives definitions as a draft communication strategy created to change human behavior on a larger scale through the transfer of new ideas.
The market is a meeting place for buyers and sellers to make buying and selling by using communication. In the market there are stores or land owned by the seller or a particular group for interaction selling. Each store has a selling rate of the different interactions, some have a high level of interaction because of the intensity of many buyers, there also have buyers moderate intensity, and there are also stores that sell the interaction of low purchasing for buyers visited deserted. In this study, the difference in buying and selling of interaction called a crowded store, the store was, and shops deserted. Differences in the number of these interactions bring magical assumptions that arise in the community. One of them about mystical ideas like looking for money (pesugihan pelaris on Javanese Language used), maintain spirits, put the implant in the body of the seller, and others.
Assumptions are more common in the markets in different regions. Rivalries irrational is often used as the reason of the intensity of the interaction of buying and selling that occurred in stores. Basically sellers in the market certainly do not want to lose customers, both existing customers and new customers. They use their own strategies in order to store still sold by the buyer. One was the use of a communication strategy. Communication is one of the strategies that are considered appropriate to attract buyers. When shoppers come the sellers already implementing communications strategies ranging from call buyers, offering goods, serving buyers, the bargaining process, to determine the final price.
The subject of the materials in this study are (1) how the communication strategy that used the shop bustling Market Ambulu (2) how the communication strategy that used the store was on the Ambulu market, and (3) how the communication strategy used store deserted in the market Ambulu , This study will show the assessment in the form of a communication strategy that is taken from the three stages of the interaction of buying and selling, that is calling the communication strategy, bargaining strategy and communications strategy to convince buyers. This needs to be done to show that communication plays an important role in buying and selling, so that buyers are interested in and enjoy shopping in the store.
The object of this research study are the sellers and buyers interact Ambulu market and selling in Jember. In buying and selling existing interaction strategies seller communication used with the aim to attract buyers to the store liked and visited by buyers.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This study uses a pragmatic approach that focuses pad politeness principle and the principle of cooperation. Wijana (1996:1) argues pragmatics is the branch of science that studies the language of the external structure of the language, namely how the linguistic unit used in the communication. Meanwhile, Brown and Levinson (1987) revealed communication strategy linked to politeness strategies that focus on the concept of face. Politeness strategies are developed in order to save “face” speakers. Brown and Levinson (1987:60) identifies four strategies of politeness or general behavior patterns that can be applied speakers namely (1) Bald-on Record Strategy (Without strategy), (2) Positive politeness strategy (positive politeness strategy/ familiarity), (3) Negative politeness strategy (negative politeness strategies/ formal), (4) Off-record politeness strategy (strategy indirect or disguised). Fraser (1978) and Gunarwan (1994) discusses the politeness not on the basis of the rules, but on the strategy. Fraser stated that politeness is a property associated with speech and in this case the opinion of the opponents said, that the speaker does not exceed their rights or do not deny to meet its obligations (Gunarwan, 1994). Grice (1975) formulated the principles of cooperation, which reads, “Give your contribution to the conversation as needed, at a level where the conversation took place, in accordance with the intent and purpose in which you are involved”.
This study uses a qualitative method to create a description or a description of the systematic trading strategies. Qualitative research methods emphasize on showing results a description, descriptions, opinions, facts about an object (Budiharso, 2009:161). In collecting the data, refer to the technique used, able to get the data as much as possible. Meanwhile, analysis of data using a unified method with pragmatic sorting techniques.
4.1 Communication Strategy at Store Crowded
Crowded store in question in this research is the store with the number of buyers or visitors 75-100 people each day. As for knowing which communication strategies used in the selling, researchers used 3 stages of sale and purchase of whom to call, bargaining, and reassure buyers. The following stages of the conversation in crowded stores.
Context: Buying and selling occurs in crowded stores when shoppers go to the store seller and express purpose
Buyer: “Golek sop-sopan, Mbak” (*Javanese language)
Buyer: Get soup vegetables, ma’am
(Find soup vegetable material, Ma’am)
In the conversation, the seller does not perform activities call to the buyer. Speech above shows that the buyer went directly to the seller and buyer’s express intent and purpose. This strategy is used by the store crowded because there are some buyers who do not like being called-called. There are some buyers also prefer to go to the store were crowded not being called-was called by the seller, but look at the state of a crowded store. These circumstances pose a crowded store shoppers like assuming that crowded store is a store that has a stock of new stuff because it has a high behavior. Based on these assumptions, the buyer will choose to come in crowded stores.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 2 at the time the buyer seller offered goods demanded by buyers.
Context: Activities take place in a crowded store when the seller welcoming one of buyers coming and waiting in line behind other buyers.
(Sellers smiled at Buyers come)
Seller: Antri, Mbak. (*Javanese language)
Seller: Queued, Ma’am.
The communication strategies used in conversation 2 is influenced by Javanese culture, played by the seller in the form of greeting conveyed through a smile seller. The seller does not have a conversation to call the buyer, but he used a smile to greet shoppers. A smile is considered as an act of positive, both from the sellers and buyers. The positive thing obtained by the seller is able to take the attention, sympathy, and fabric of brotherhood between them, while for the buyer, the buyer obtaining a good reception from the seller. After feeling get a good reception, the buyer did not hesitate to express his goal giving rise to the expression “Queued, Ma’am. “This expression is a response from the buyer smile once the buyer wants to show that he was waiting in line at the store and willing sellers. This is a proof that the seller has a good impression to the buyers so that buyers prefer to wait in line rather than move to another store. Meanwhile, in the process of smile which then responded with the phrase “Queued, Ma’am.” Demonstrates the process of cooperation between sellers and buyers who say that buyers are waiting in line at the store seller.
Buyer Golek sop-sopan, Mbak (*Javanese language)
Buyer: Search for soup, Ma’am (buy soup, Ma’am)
Seller: Niku lho buk, tigo. Tigangewu. Njenengan pundut pun (*Javanese language)
Seller: That’s vegetable 3, Mom. Three thousand. You take it.
(You know mom, three. Three thousand. You just take it)
(Toss in a plastic bag)
Bargain communication strategy used in the conversation based on the culture embraced by the seller and the buyer. In the conversation, the seller has a goal to get customers and also gain an advantage over the goods it sells. The buyer intends to buy a soup-polite sold by the seller. Sellers also offered at a cheaper price than usual with the intention that the goods were sold immediately discharged. The speech indicated the data “Niku lho buk, tigo. Tigangewu” (That’s vegetable 3, Mom. Three thousand). The narrative states that the seller has three packs of soup-polite and offered to buyers to purchase all. How sellers offering a seller strategy so that buyers are satisfied with the services provided by the seller.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 1 when shoppers come to the store and then ask the seller and offer a selling price of goods
Buyer: Piro brambang mbak? (*Javanese language)
Buyer: How much its onion, Ma’am?
Seller: Brambang 15 (*Javanese language)
Seller: Onion is fifteen.
Buyer: Ga oleh kurang ta? (*Javanese language)
Buyer: Shouldn’t be less than that?
Seller: Mboten buke. Niki sing ning kresek, enggal (*Javanese language)
Seller: No, ma’am. This is in plastic, new (bring new red onions)
In the second conversation, the activity of bargaining can be seen in the speech “Ga oleh kurang ta?” (Shouldn’t be less than that?). In the second conversation was described that buyers try to bargain the price of onion but the seller does not give the option price. Seller just assure the buyer that the Onion sells is new stock. In the politeness principle, the conversation is deemed to have met the principles of politeness. It is seen by the speech-speech on the conversation both in terms of sellers and buyers. Sellers tend to provide a smooth speech either at the time inform the price and when deciding on an agreed price so that buyers feel what the seller appropriate and need not be negotiable. Even when the buyer stated that he only bought a little, “Brambang 15. Mboten buke. Niki sing ning kresek, enggal (bring a new red onion). Then the buyer replied “saitik mek ya” (very less) Actions at the time when inserting new goods and utterances buyers said that he just needs a little carried out simultaneously. This means that although shoppers buy in small quantities, the seller provides services to the maximum.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 2 at the time to convince the seller sells soup less than usual
Seller: Niku lho buk, tigo. Tigangewu. Mundut tigo. Njenengan pundut pun (*Javanese language)
(You know mom, three. Three thousand. You just take it)
(Throw the plastic bag)
Communications strategy to convince buyers that occurred in the crowded store 2 with a conversation using the cultural context as a form so that buyers are confident and trust the seller. This is shown in the phrase ” Njenengan pundut pun” (You know mom, three. Three thousand. You just take it) (Throw the plastic bag). The sentence shows that the seller assured the buyer that “soup ‘should be taken with a much cheaper price. In the Java language “pundhut” meaningful purchase, whereas in Ambulu known “pundhut” word meaning “take”. Without thinking buyer has approved sellers offer because buyers feel reassured by sellers that they will also benefit the buyer. Buyers can take home vegetable soup more at lower prices cheaper. Conversation can be concluded that the seller assured the buyer at the price of three thousand rupiah.
Context: Activities buying and selling going on in the store 1 at the time when the stock out of the convince buyers with new Shallots
Seller: Mboten Buke. Niki sing ning kresek, enggal (*Javanese language)
Seller: No, ma’am This is plastic is new.
In the second conversation, the seller uses a communications strategy to convince the buyer to express and show the stock of new stuff he has. This is indicated in the speech “Niki sing ning kresek, enggal” (No, ma’am This is plastic is new). One reason shoppers come into a store to shop is the existence of new inventory. The existence of the stocks will be known to the buyer if the buyer saw the shop was crowded buyer.
4.2 Communication Strategy at Store Medium
Similarly, the store was, to find out the communication strategies used in the selling, researchers used three stages of buying and selling, including calling, bargaining, and reassure buyers. The store was in question in this research is the store with the number of buyers or visitors 40-75 people every day.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 4 that when the seller calls out a buyer who was passing in front of the store 4
Seller: Monggo, pados nopo (*Javanese language)
Seller: please, what are you looking for?
Buyer: Golek jeruk pecel, Mbak. Piro setengah? (*Javanese language)
Buyer: Look for Lime, Ma’am. How many pounds?
In this conversation the seller using the communication strategy call with chromo Java language using the phrase “Monggo, pados nopo” (What do you want to buy?). This is done see the cultural context that is used in the area Ambulu is Javanese culture, so people generally use the Java language to communicate. Therefore, sellers choose to use the Java language as a form of strategy to summon the buyer with the intention of adjusting the culture around Ambulu Jember.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 5 when sellers see buyer standing right in front of the store 5
Seller: Buke nopo, Bu? (*Javanese language)
Seller: What is this, Ma’am?
Seller: Aku tuku Bawang setengah kuintal (*Javanese language)
Seller: I bought onions half a quintal
In the conversation, the seller in the store 5 does not use a communication strategy in calling a buyer but the seller welcome buyers who came to the shop. The welcome speech was shown on “buke nopo bu?” (What is this, Ma’am?). The speech is the seller’s communication strategy by applying the principles of cooperation. The purpose of the speech was delivered so that buyers do not immediately go away, feel welcomed and cared for by the seller, and are willing to wait in line to be served. Buyers also responded seller speech by stating the purpose of his arrival on to the seller. This is indicated in the speech buyer “Aku Bawang setengah” (I Onions half) of the speech revealed that sellers know and inform the state of the goods sought a buyer.
Context: Buying and selling going on in the store 2 that when the seller offers a number of more goods to be purchased by the buyer
Seller: Ga sekilo pisan ta, Mbak? (*Javanese language)
(Do not add one all, Ma’am)
Buyer: Setengah ae (*Javanese language)
Seller: Petangewu yo mbak (*Javanese language)
(Four thousand, Ma’am)
Buyer: Lho jare mau setengah rongewu setengah? (*Javanese language)
(Did he say half a thousand and five hundred?)
Seller: Tigo setengah (*Javanese language)
(three thousand and five hundred)
Buyer: Oh, yawis (*Javanese language)
(Oh, yes, good)
The communication strategies used in the activity of bargaining sellers are shown in the phrase “Ga sekilo pisan ta, Mbak?” (Do not add one all, Ma’am) This sentence shows that the seller offered to buyers to increase the number of heavy goods purchased. Meanwhile, during the process of agreement the goods purchased, the seller is violating an agreement for the seller to the buyer’s weighing the goods exceeded. Meanwhile, at the time of misunderstandings price agreement between sellers and buyers are influenced by the attitude of sellers who violate the agreement and auditory buyer in the seller accepts the statement, so there are differences in the agreed price. Sellers as mentioned may affect the buyer to come and shop again at the store 4.
4.3 Communication Strategy at Store Quiet
Similarly, the store was, to find out the communication strategies used in the selling, researchers used three stages of buying and selling, including calling, bargaining, and reassure buyers. The store was in question in this research is the store with the number of buyers or visitors 10-40 people every day.
The seller’s communication strategy on the conversation in the conversation above by calling the buyers who were passing in front of his shop. This is indicated in the speech “opo mari kene” (maybe soon). The speech pronounced buyers aloud and using dialect of Madura. Generally, people in the market area Ambulu is the Java community cultural differences including language dialect into effect in the use communication strategy, one use of intonation. Madurese are known to have high pitch intonation in speech so that buyers feel less comfortable to interact in the store.
Greeting word “dear” is pronounced by the seller on the above conversation is a communication strategy used to call the seller. Greetings “Honey” is an affectionate greeting with the intention to call the buyer with affection so that buyers deigned to stop by and purchase items in the store. The use of the word “dear” in the address above, addressed to buyers who generally is the Java community. For buyers, the greeting “darling” has the meaning of love that is used to attract buyers to make buyers interested and have the desire to stop and pick merchandise seller. Meanwhile, in the conversation, played by the seller and the buyer containing politeness principle. Choice of words “dear” is pronounced the seller is the main attraction for the buyer because the phrase was sounded polite and affectionate, as if the seller to spread compassion to prospective buyers. Polite greeting has a special attraction for buyers to just drop by, see, even buy merchandise seller.
Conversation going on in the store are showing their bargaining strategies used by sellers and buyers. Sellers using strategies by deliberately separated to distinguish different types of onion and explain in detail the difference in the selling price of each type. However, buyers are also using the communication strategy so that he could obtain the price Onions good quality at a low price. The communication strategies used buyers are in violation of the principles of cooperation shown in the speech “Iki loro limo?” (Its two five). The speech came after the seller to explain in detail the price of goods according to their quality, buyers were bidding to hold Onion good quality and low price said.
In the first conversation that occurred at 7 sellers try to convince the buyer with a communications strategy using the Java language is referred to as “dolor-dolor Lambe” (the word joke) shown in the phrase “Lha kene golek gobes” (the word joke). The sentence shows that sellers are also selling cabbage, perhaps the buyer requires. However, buyers are reluctant to stop or even shopping at the store on the grounds have shopped yesterday.
In the second conversation that occurred in a deserted shop, the seller uses a communications strategy to convince the buyer if the goods were bought enough? The strategy is shown in the speech sellers “opo maneh, Buk?” (is there more, ma’am?). The communication strategy used to convince the seller that the buyer used sympathetic to the seller because the seller is also concerned with the needs of the buyer, other than that for goods it sells more salable.
Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that the communication strategy on the interaction of buying and selling in the market Ambulu Jember district average using a different communication strategy to attract buyers. Stores crowded at this stage of the communication strategy call buyers, including into the store who did not use these strategies. Generally, buyers come right out and express their needs to the seller. This is where the seller’s emerging strategy in welcoming buyers. Seller provides a warm welcome and full of intimacy that are tailored to the local culture. At the stage of bargaining, there is no complex pricing deals because most buyers in a crowded store has a high level of confidence to the seller. Being on stage to convince the buyer.
At the store was, calling the strategy is not generally used. The strategy used for the buyer to the seller have a positive first impression of the store is to provide a quick response in the form of services, such as the number of items required to ask the buyer, and let the buyer. At this stage of the bargain, the seller uses a communication strategy by offering to the buyer to demonstrate the quality of goods, increase the number of heavy goods, or add any other items that may be required by the buyer. Meanwhile, on stage to convince the buyer, the seller uses a strategy to convince the buyer through the quality of goods and other necessities needed to convince buyers.
On the deserted store, the seller uses a strategy call with the greeting familiarity only differences between deserted store to store previous two categories, in the deserted shop seller failed to give a good reception when shoppers come. In fact there is one store that impressed force shoppers to shop at his store. In addition, the seller in a deserted shop more silent so that buyers are less interested in shopping at the venue. While at this stage of the bargain, the seller in the store deserted seem less courteous in communicating bargaining. They also did not offer any other goods that can open up the opportunity to get his attention of buyers. At the stage of convincing buyers, sellers in a deserted shop using communication strategies to convince the buyer that the buyer is willing to buy stuff.
Results of this study was applied in the world of buying and selling. Sellers can use communications strategies as a means to attract buyers by applying the principles of politeness, both in terms of narrative and services in all stages of the sale and purchase tailored to the local culture so that the buyer will give a positive impression, happy, and comfortable shopping in the store.