Prevalence of Anaplasmosis in Buffaloes and Cows

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 2, Issue 2, page 93 – 103
Publication Date: March 13, 2019

Muhammad Ayaz
BS Zoology, Govt Post Graduate Collage Mardan
Mardan, Pakistan

Journal Full Text PDF: Prevalence of Anaplasmosis in Buffaloes and Cows (Case Study in District Mardan).

Abstract
The present research was conducted to study the incidence of anaplasma among buffaloes and cows in three Tehsil of distract Mardan, kpk, Pakistan. During the study period from November 2017-June 2018, from district Mardan a total of 320 samples were collected. In current study the microscopic analysis of thin blood smears shown that total incidence of anaplasma was 13/160 (8.1%) and (11/160) (6.8%) respectively in cows and buffaloes. Females’ cows were found to be more susceptible 10/110 (9%) than males 3/50 (6%). The prevalence was significantly higher 8/82 (9.7%) in adults cows than the younger ones 5/78 (6.4%). Total prevalence (%) of bovine Anaplasmosis in buffaloes by means of microscopy procedure was found 6.8 %( 11/160) in Mardan, Takht Bhai, and Katlang. Female buffaloes were found to be more vulnerable to Anaplasmosis 9/108 (8.3%) than male 2/52 (3.8%).The prevalence was significantly higher 7/84 (8.3%) in adults buffaloes than the younger ones 4/76 (5.2%). In tehsils wise prevalence in buffaloes the highest prevalence was observed in Takht Bhai 5/60 (8.3%), followed by katlang 3/40 (7.5%) and Mardan show low prevalence percentage 3/60 (5%). It is clinched that Anaplasmosis is commonly spread in district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The conclusions of the present study would help in scheduling stoppage and control policies for bovine Anaplasmosis in Pakistan.

Keywords: Blood Smears, Anaplasmosis, Tehsils, Prevalence and Mardan.

1. INTRODUCTION
Livestock plays a crucial role in the financial system of Pakistan because it is the chief basis of revenue and income for 73 million people in country side zones (Gop2004; Gop2009). Tick-borne diseases of livestock are spread and produce heavy economic victims in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. It is estimated that tick-borne diseases approximately in the world produce losses at US$ 13.9 to US$ 18.7 billion per year due to which worlds 80% cattle become at risk (Ghosh et al., 2007). Anaplasmosis, is a tick borne disease caused by anaplasma marginale and centrale in cattle which belong to family Anaplasmatacea (Rajput et al., 2005).
The anaplasma was first detected at the marginale point of infected cells. The first report was given by Theiler by observing colored bodies’ in erythrocytes of anemic cattles. Following Theiler’s work, anaplasmosis was soon largely well-known in tropical, subtropical and many mild zones all over the Old World (Katherine et al., 2010). Current classification of genus Anaplasma, ORDER: Rickettsiales, FAMILY: Anaplasmatacea, GENUS: Anaplasma, SPECIES: A.Marginale, A.Centrale, A.ovis, A.Bovis, A.platy and A.phagocytophilon (Katherine M.kocan et al., 2010). Different species of Genus anaplasma are A.Marginale, A.Centrale, A.Bovis, A.ovis, A.platy, and A.phagocytophilon (Rymaszewska & Grenda, 2008). Bovine anaplasmosis occur in humid, tropical and subtropical regions all over world. Anaplasmosis is the major limitation to dairy production in different countries of the world.in contrast to A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum is most specific to host and causing disease in cattles (McCallon, 1973). Anaplasmosis occur in every state of US. This large and increased distribution is due to ticks and different environmental factors. Anaplasmosis of cattles is also found in Mexico and Caribbean islands (Guglielmone, 1995). Prevalence of anaplasma marginale is found in every state of US and in Europe (Fuente et al., 2005). In Asia and Africa bovine anaplasmosis is prevalent. The increase in distribution of anaplasmosis in Asia and Africa is due to different tick host and global warming (Jonsson & Reid 2000). Anaplasmosis is prevalent in countries located on tropic regions and sub-tropic regions and mostly in mild regions (Kocan et al., 2003). In US anaplasmosis is found every state. The increase in distribution of anaplasmosis in us is due to environmental factors which is good for ticks. Anaplasmosis is found in Mexico, south and Central America, and Caribbean islands. (Guglielmone, 1995). In Asia and Africa bovine anaplasmosis is endemic. The increase in the distribution of anaplasmosis is due to global warming and the movements of tick hosts (Jonsson & Reid, 2000). Anaplasmosis is prevalent in states located on tropic and sub-tropic and frequently detected in the temperate region of world (Kocan et al., 2003). In Pakistan, the prevalence of A. marginale has been recorded as 7.36-75.71 percent using microscopic examination of blood smears (Khan et al., 2004, Afridi et al. 2005; Rajput et al., 2005).
Pathogenicity of anaplasmosis or gall-sickness are hemolytic anemia, fever, loss of weight , decrease milk production, jaundice, brown urine, pale mucous membrane and even it causes death of infected cattle (palmer GH, 1989).
A very little data is available on microscopic blood smear study of anaplasmosis in district Mardan, KPK, Pakistan. The incidence of anaplasmosis has not been studied in this district, regardless of this information that they are main source to limitation of livestock making. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale and A.Centrale in cows and buffaloes in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This data not only be cooperative for dairy farmer to control farming practices.
In continuance with the remaining knowledge, the current research was designed with the objective;
To find the prevalence of Anaplasmosis in buffaloes and cows of District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD
Collection of Sample
From different areas of district Mardan total 320 blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from mammillary & jugular vein of buffaloes and cows with the aid of sterilized syringe. For sample collection animals of different sex and age were chosen and randomly in different areas of 3 tehsils sampling was done. During sample collection age, sex and locality of every sample was noted and microscopic thin blood smears were prepared at the Spot. For more investigation the samples were took to the laboratory of Zoology Department GPGC Mardan. Blood samples were collected from November 2017-June 2018.

Staining Procedure:
Giemsa stain thin blood smears were prepared as described by Afridi et al. (2005). By using methanol the blood smears were fixed. For 25-30 minutes Giemsa stain at (1:10) ratio were diluted. The smears were rinsed using tape water to remove excess stain three to four times and then slides air-dried. Under oil immersion lens of microscope the slides were observed at 100X to detect species of Anaplasma. The parasites were identified as described by OIE (Terrestrial Manual, 2008a).

3. RESULTS
By using Microscopy technique Anaplasmosis in cows of District Mardan
The % of Overall prevalence
Overall incidence (%) in cows by using microscopic examination of blood smear was 8.1% 13/160 in district Mardan.

Prevalence (%) by Month wise
The maximum prevalence (%) was perceived in the month of April (10%) 2/20, May (15%)3/20 and June (25%).5/20,January (5%), February (5%) 1/20 and March (5%) 1/20 show low prevalence While November and December show lowest prevalence (0%) 0/20.

Area wise prevalence (%)
Katlang (10%) 4/40 and Takht Bhai (8.3%) 5/60 showed high prevalence while Mardan (6.6%) 4/60 show low prevalence.

Season-wise prevalence (%)
The highest prevalence in these three area was noted during summer (16.6%) 10/60 followed by spring (5%) 2/60 while the low prevalence was detected in months of winter (1.6%) 1/60.

Prevalence (%) by Age wise
The present data show that the % of prevalence was high in cows of over 2years old (9.7%) 8/82 than in newer ones (6.4%) 5/78.

Gender wise prevalence
Female (9%) 3/50 were more vulnerable to anaplasmosis than male (6%) 10/110.

Prevalence (%) month and area
The maximum prevalence (%) was noted during June in Takht Bhai and Katlang (40%) 2/5 ,low prevalence was reported in may in Katlang and T.Bhai (20%) 1/5 .the same prevalence was also recorded during month of January in Katlang (20%) 1/5, whereas the lowermost prevalence was noted in November and December i.e. (0%) 0/5 in all area.

Prevalence % by area and season
The uppermost prevalence was recorded during summer in Takht Bhai (20%) 4/20 and the lowermost prevalence was noted in winter in tehsil Mardan and tehsil Takht Bhai (0%) 0/20.In Katlang the bottommost prevalence was recorded during spring (0%) 0/10.

Prevalence% by area and age
It was record that the Prevalence (%) was higher in adults than in young.

The % of Prevalence by area and gender
Total sex wise prevalence in Mardan was upper in female7.5% 3/40 than male5% 1/20.In Takht Bhai prevalence of female is higher (10%) 4/40 than male (5%) 1/20.In katlang male and female has same prevalence. 1/10(10%),3/30 (10%).