An Investigation into Problem Facing the Teaching and Learning of Educational Administration and Planning

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Published on International Journal of Teaching & Education
Publication Date: January, 2020

Ogunode Niyi. J., Jegede Deboral & Olumide Ogunode
Academic Planning Unit, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria
Master Student University of Abuja, FCT, Nigeria

Journal Full Text PDF: An Investigation into Problem Facing the Teaching and Learning of Educational Administration and Planning (Studied in Federal Universities, North-Central Nigeria).

Abstract
The research work investigated problem facing the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Federal Universities in North-Central Nigeria. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for collection of data while simple percentage was used to answer the research questions. The following findings were made: that majorities of the respondents agreed that lecturers at the department of educational administration and planning are not adequate, that their various educational administration and planning department do not have relevant instruction materials such as journals, and the charts and that most libraries in the universities do not have current textbooks and Journals on educational administration and planning. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that the universities management should employ more lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning and the universities management should provide needed instructional materials for lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning.

Keywords: Academic Planning Officers, Development and Universities.

1. Background to the Study
Nigeria has a federal system of government with 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Within the states, there are 744 local governments in total. Education is administered by the federal, state and local governments. The Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for overall policy formation and ensuring quality control, but is primarily involved with tertiary education. School education is largely the responsibility of state (secondary) and local (elementary) governments. The country is multilingual, and home to more than 250 different ethnic groups. The languages of the three largest groups, the Yoruba, the Ibo, and the Hausa, are the language of instruction in the earliest years of basic instruction; they are replaced by English in Grade 4. Nigeria’s education system encompasses three different sectors: basic education (nine years), post-basic/senior secondary education (three years), and tertiary education (four to six years, depending on the program of study). According to Nigeria’s latest National Policy on Education (2004), basic education covers nine years of formal (compulsory) schooling consisting of six years of elementary and three years of junior secondary education. Post-basic education includes three years of senior secondary education. At the tertiary level, the system consists of a university sector and a non-university sector. The latter is composed of polytechnics, monotechnics, and colleges of education. The tertiary sector as a whole offers opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and vocational and technical education. The academic year typically runs from September to July. Most universities use a semester system of 18 – 20 weeks. Others run from January to December, divided into 3 terms of 10 -12 weeks(Jennifer, Nick , and Caroline,.(2017).
The National University Commission (NUC), the government umbrella organization that oversees the administration of higher education in Nigeria, according to the Commission, Nigeria currently has 79 private universities, 48 state universities and 43 federal universities, bringing the total number of universities in the country to 170. Many of these institutions are relatively new. In response to demographic pressures Nigeria’s higher education sector expanded over a relatively short period. In 1948, there was only one university-level institution in the country, the University College of Ibadan, which was originally an affiliate of the University of London. By 1962, the number of federal universities had increased to five: the University of Ibadan, the University of Ife, the University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, and the University of Lagos (Jennifer, Nick , and Caroline,.(2017).
Between 1980 and 2017, the number of recognized universities has grown tenfold from 16 to 152, as reported by Nigeria’s National Universities Commission. For the first few decades of growth, higher education capacity building was primarily in the public sector, driven by Federal and State governments. More dramatic growth occurred beginning in the late 1990s, when the Nigerian government began to encourage the establishment of private universities. The 170 Nigerian universities are offering thirteen disciplines. Among one of the programme is the educational administration and planning. This program is offered under the faculty of education. In most universities is a department on its own while in some universities is under the department of art education. Just like other programe in the Nigerian universities, Educational administration and planning education since it introduction into the Nigerian universities it has been facing many challenges. This paper seek to investigate the problems facing the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning education in Nigerian universities using University of Abuja as a case study.

2. Statement of the Problem
According to Ogunode (2019), in the recent time, there has been constant out cry on the increasing problems confronting the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Nigeria universities. This paper seeks to investigate the challenges confronting the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Nigeria universities using North–Central federal universities as a case study.

2.1 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate problems facing the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Federal Universities in North-Central Nigeria. Specifically, the study will: investigate the factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Federal Universities in Nigeria

2.2 Research questions
The following research questions shall guide the study: What are the factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in Federal Universities in Nigeria?

2.3 Significance of the Study
This study will be of tremendous benefit to the lecturers, the students, the university administrators and educational policy makers. The study will expose school administrators and policy makers to lapses in the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning in the Nigerian universities and possible ways of amending those lapses.

3. Review of Related Literature
3.1 Concept of Educational administration and planning in Nigerian Higher institutions
Educational administration and planning was introduced into the Nigerian Higher institutions with the aims of producing educational administrators and planners for all phases of the educational sector in Nigeria. Educational administration and planning is offer in most Nigerian universities as a programme or department. Educational administration and planning is also offer as an elective course in 400 levels. The nomenclature of the programme is Bachelor of Arts education i.e B.A [Ed] Educational administration and planning. The duration of the programme is four [4] academic section. The minimum credit unit required for graduation is 148. The admission requirements entry into the programme in universities is five Credits at SSCE, GCE ‘O’ Level, NECO and NABTEB Including English Language, Mathematics and other relevant three credit passes and Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination [UTME], the candidate shall be required to pass the University post UTME Screening test before being admitted for hundred level [100L].

3.2 Objectives of educational administration and planning in Nigerian Higher institutions
a. To raise an educational administrators and planners who are confidence, independence, efficient, visionary and innovative and problem solving in the educational sectors;
b. To create in students the awareness and enthusiasm for educational administration and planning;
c. To generate in students an appreciation of the importance administration and planning in education, economic, technological and social context;
d. To provide students with the knowledge and skill-base for further studies in projection, forecasting, statistics, micro-planning, data management and demography;
e. To provide a broad and balance foundation, knowledge and practical skills in educational administration and planning.

4. Materials and Methods
This study adopted the descriptive research design of the survey type. The study population comprised all the four federal universities in the North central Nigeria . Out of this population, a sample of four federal universities was taken and selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Out of the 10 lecturers each and 90 students of educational administration and planning students 30 from 100level, 30 from 200 level and 30 from 300 level making 90 from each of the universities were selected for the study. The method of selection was also through the stratified random sampling technique. These students and lecturers were the respondents in the study. The instrument used to collect data for the study was a questionnaire titled “ Problems confronting the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning questionnaire. The questionnaire was in two parts A and B. Part A was demographic. It elicited information on the personal data relating to the schools such as the name of the school, its location, the number of teachers by sex. Part B consisted of 9 items. Section A elicited information on the level of provision of ICT facilities to secondary schools in the State. Section B requested information on Problems confronting the teaching and learning of educational administration and planning. Educational Management and Test and Measurement who examine the instrument to determine whether or not they measured what they were supposed to measure.
Their comments were used to correct items in the instrument before they were administered to the respondent. The reliability of instrument was determined using the test-retest reliability techniques. In doing this, the questionnaire was administered to fifty respondents outside the study area. After period of two weeks, the instruments were re-administered to the same respondents. The data collected on the two tests were collated and analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. A reliability coefficient of 0.76 was obtained indicating that, the instrument was reliable for the study.
The instruments were administered through the use of research assistants. Returns were received from 800 respondents. The data collected from the respondents were collated and analyzed using percentages.

5. Result and Analysis
Table 1: Response on Adequacy of educational administrators and planning lecturers in the universities
Responses Frequency %
Yes 228 28.5
No 572 71.5
Total 800 100
From table one, 28.5% (228) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of educational administrators and planning lecturers while 71.5% (572) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of educational administrators and planning lecturers.

Table 2: Response on Adequacy of instructional materials in the universities
Responses Frequency %
Yes 277 33.54
No 533 66.46
Total 800 100
From table two, 33.54% (277) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of instructional materials while 66.46% (533) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of instructional materials.

Table 3: Response on Adequacy of modern textbooks in the universities
Responses Frequency %
Yes 199 24.88
No 601 75.12
Total 800 100
From table three, 24.88% (199) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of modern textbooks while 75.12% (601) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of modern textbooks.

Table 4: Response on Adequacy of funding in the department
Responses Frequency %
Yes 83 10.38
No 717 89.62
Total 800 100
From table four, 10.38% (83) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of funding while 89.62% (717) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of funding

Table 5: Response on Adequacy of infrastructural materials in the universities
Responses Frequency %
Yes 41 5.23
No 759 94.77
Total 800 100
From table five, 5.23% (41) of the respondents agreed that they adequate of infrastructural materials while 94.77% (759) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of infrastructural materials

Table 6: Response on lecturers-students ratio
Responses Frequency %
1-20 – –
1-50 218 27.25
1-100 432 54
1-200 150 18.75
Total 800 100
From table six, 27.25% (218) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-50, 54% (432) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-100 while 18.75% (218) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-200.

Table 7: Response on adequacy of lecturer motivation by lecturers
Responses Frequency %
Yes 87 10.87
No 713 89.13
Total
Table seven revealed that
From table seven, 10.87% (87) of the respondents agreed that lecturers are well motivated while 89.13% (713) of the respondents disagreed that lecturers are well motivated

Table 8: Response on attendance of conferences/ workshops/ seminal sponsored by TETFUND by lecturers
Responses Frequency %
Yes 213 26.62
No 587 73.38
Total 800 100

Table eight, showed that 26.62 (213) agreed that they have attended conferences /workshops/seminal sponsored by TETFUND while 73.38(587) disagreed that they have not attended conferences/ workshops/ seminal sponsored by TETFUND.

6. Discussion of Findings
From table revealed that 28.5% (228) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of educational administrators and planning lecturers while 71.5% (572) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of educational administrators and planning lecturers. The result shows that majorities of the respondents agreed that lecturers at the department of educational administration and planning are not adequate.
Result from table two shows that 33.54% (277) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of instructional materials while 66.46% (533) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of instructional materials. This result means that the larger percentage of the respondents agreed that their various educational administration and planning department do not have relevant instruction materials such as map, and the rest.
From table three result shows that 24.88% (199) of the respondents agreed that they have adequate of modern textbooks while 75.12% (601) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of modern textbooks. This implies that most libraries in the universities do not have current textbooks and Journals on educational administration and planning.
Result from table four revealed that 10.38% (83) of the respondents agreed that they have educational administration and planning programme in universities are adequately funded while 89.62% (717) of the respondents disagreed that educational administration and planning programme in universities are adequately funded.
From table five, the result collected showed that 5.23% (41) of the respondents agreed that they adequate of infrastructural facilities while 94.77% (759) of the respondents disagreed that they have adequate of infrastructural facilities. Majorities of observed that their schools have no equipped libraries with facilities like chairs, tables, books and conveniences. This factor has hindered them to effectively use their spare time for reading, even during the time of administering the questionnaire; students were sitting under school trees reading and sometimes receive lectures there, a situation not conducive to effective teaching and learning. Some schools have no functional library and there is thus nothing to equip and maintain.
From table six results revealed that 27.25% (218) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-50, 54% (432) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-100 while 18.75% (218) of the respondents agreed that lecturers-students ratio is 1-200. This result confirmation of the finding of
Result from table seven revealed that 10.87% (87) of the respondents agreed that lecturers are well motivated while 89.13% (713) of the respondents disagreed that lecturers are well motivated. Table eight result showed that 26.62 (213) agreed that they have attended conferences/ workshops/ seminal sponsored by TETFUND while 73.38 (587) disagreed that they have not attended conferences/ workshops/ seminal sponsored by TETFUND. This result is in line with Adeyemi (2018) who discovered in his study that majorities of lecturers have never attended conferences sponsored by TETFUND.

8. Conclusion
The paper conclude;
a. Majorities of the respondents agreed that lecturers at the department of educational administration and planning are not adequate.
b. Their various educational administrations and planning department do not have relevant instruction materials such as map, and the rest.
c. Most libraries in the universities do not have current textbooks and Journals on educational administration and planning.
d. Educational administration and planning programme in universities are not adequately funded.
e. Their universities do not have equipped libraries with facilities like chairs, tables, books and conveniences. This factor has hindered them to effectively use their spare time for reading, even during the time of administering.
f. Lecturers-students ratio is high in the department of educational administration and planning
g. Educational administration and planning lecturers in universities are not motivated.
h. Educational administration and planning lecturers in universities are not enjoyed TETFUND sponsorship

9. Recommendation
a. The universities management should employ more lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning
b. The universities management should provide needed instructional materials for lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning
c. The universities management should supply more current textbooks in the libraries
d. The universities management should provide adequate fund for the running of the department of educational administration and planning
e. The universities management should provide more infrastructural facilities in the universities to enable smooth teaching and learning to take place
f. The universities management should abide by the NUC BMAX in term of lecturers-students ratio
g. The universities management should ensure lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning are well motivate through prompt payment of salaries
h. The universities management should ensure that lecturers in the department of educational administration and planning are given opportunities for TETFUND sponsorship and training.

10. References
Adeyemi, F.G,. (2018). Problem facing the teaching of Educational Administration and planning in Nigeria. Lagos.
Jennifer O, Nick C, and Caroline A,.(2017). Education in Nigeria.
Ogunode N, J. (2019) Challenges facing the Teaching of Educational Administration and Planning in Nigerian Universities.