Published on International Journal of Food & Nutrition
Publication Date: June 18, 2019
Ekeocha, A. H., Aganga, A. A., Odumboni, A. A. & Olaleye, O. J.
Federal University Oye Ekiti
Ekiti State, Nigeria
Reduction of protein malnutrition in many areas requires evaluation of simple, affordable, cheap but effective processing and preservation methods that ensure protein requirements. There is increase in the consumption of meat in the modern world. There is need to process raw meat to other forms to serve as alternatives to the consumers. The study was designed to check the acceptability of the processed meat product alternatives to boiled meat within the community. This research study also focused at evaluating the consumption pattern of different meat products within a community and the levels of their preference and acceptability within the environment. Beef processed into different meat by-product like suya, kilichi, balangu and later subjected to sensory evaluation to check for acceptability by individuals within the community. The study was carried out at Ikole local government, Ekiti state, Nigeria. The result showed that factors affecting meat purchase majorly were quality with about 21.5% of the population choosing the factor, then taste with about 19.75% and freshness with about 18.9%.The result also showed that factors determining the type of meat product purchased were taste and flavour with about 23.4%, affordability 20.7% and availability 15.3%. The result showed that the most preferred meat product was the suya with 50.8% of the population ranking it as first, followed by kilichi which has a percentage of 32.8% and finally balangu with 15.2%. The Chi square test of association showed that there are no association between factors and attributes (p>0.05) for meat by-product suya and kilichi and there were association between factor and attributes (p<0.05) for meat product balangu.
Keywords: Acceptability, consumption & determinants.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication
of animals such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle, and eventually their use in meat production
on an industrial scale (Womack, 2010). The meat industry is concerned with turning an animal
carcass into many different end-products. These end-products are derived from all parts of the
animal (muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, skin, fluids and glands) and are produced through a range
of physical, chemical and biological process (Bala, 2010). Meat has been defined as the flesh of animals which is suitable as food. Meat makes a valuable contribution to diets because of its high biological value and an excellent source of amino acids, vitamins and minerals (Cashman et al., 2012). A daily intake of 100 g of meat can supply up to50% of the recommended daily allowance for Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and 100% of vitamin A (Biesalski and Nohr, 2009).
Humans began domesticating animals more than 10,000 years ago beginning with dogs. Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) were the first food animals to be domesticated followed by pigs, possibly to dispose of table scraps and waste products. Horses and cattle were domesticated primarily for transportation and draft work purposes. Early people found animals that form large herds or flocks and eat a wide variety of feeds are easier to domesticate. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of even the earliest humans. The domestication of animals dates back to 10,000 BC (Lawrie and Ledward, 2006), allowing the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production. The breeding of beef cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animal best suited for draught or dairy purposes began in the mid-18th century (Barendse et al., 2008).
Increase in population have been occurring in recent years and will still occur mainly in the developing countries and in urban areas and this will have major effects on patterns of food production, marketing and consumption. Strategies are needed to ensure food security for the growing population, to increase income, to support economic development, and to protect the environment. Livestock animals have served as a source of food and in many processed forms. The primary aim of livestock apart from provision of services is also to help meet the demand of meat supply all over the world. The increase in population and the increasing demand for protein has pushed production of livestock forward to meet this huge and great demand for protein sources such as meat, milk etc.
In Nigeria there is a preferential consumption of different types of meat by communities due to
a combination of factors bordering on religious belief, culture, food habits, sex of animal, age
at slaughter, socio-economic factors and individual variation (Ajiboye et al., 2011).
Meat being nutritious with high moisture content and nearly neutral pH is a good culture
medium for many micro-organisms (bacteria, yeasts and moulds) and as such, classified among
perishable foods whose contamination with spoilage organisms are almost unavoidable (Ikeme,
1990). This makes meat preservation more difficult than other types of food as it may result in
oxidative rancidity, discolouration, off flavour, sliminess etc. The kind and amount of spoilage
organisms in meat depends upon the availability of nutrients, presence of oxygen, temperature,
pH at storage and generation interval of the spoilage microorganism under given environment
etc. (Forrest et al., 2001).
It is necessary to minimize deterioration in order to prolong the time during which acceptable levels of quality are maintained. This depends upon the processing and preservative method used and the inherent properties of the meat in question (Forrest et al., 2001).
Meat and meat products are high in nutritive value and because of the high nutritive value, dressed carcass or fresh meat can only remain fresh for a short time before spoilage sets in, and to prevent this, meat are processed into products. All avenues of meat preservation must be exploited to meet the animal protein requirement of the increasing world population. The need for effective, cheap and simple preservative techniques cannot be over emphasized. One of such simple preservative technique is intermediate moisture food processing.
Obanu et al., (1981) observed that intermediate moisture meat (IMM) are shelf stable under the tropical climate without refrigeration and may be eaten directly with or without rehydration. Suya is one of such intermediate moisture product that is easy to prepare and highly relished (Omojola et al., 2004). There are three types of suya namely, tsire, kilishi and balangu. Of the three types, tsire, which is boneless meat pieces that are staked on slender wooden sticks and cooked by roasting, using a glowing fire from charcoal, is the most popular with consumers in Nigeria (Igene and Mohammed, 1993).
Meat processing enables the processor to convert low priced meat cuts into high priced processed products (FAO, 1995). Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use expensive cuts of meat, resulting into high prices of the products beyond the reach of the common man in the street. The prime cuts, apart from resulting in products with high prices might not be better than cuts from less choice parts of the carcass in terms of product yield and eating qualities. It is therefore the objective of this study to prepare tsire suya from 3 different muscle types (beef) with a view to assessing their suitability for suya production as regard the product yield and their organoleptic characteristics.
Meats are the most perishable of all important foods and this is as a result of their chemical composition. Meats contain an abundance of all nutrients required for the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds and an adequate quantity of these constituents exist in fresh meats in available form. Meat which refers to meat flesh, Skeletal muscles, connective tissue or fat and others than meat flesh, including brain, heart, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus tongue and tripe that is used as food, excluding the bone and bone marrow and it contains high biological value protein and important micronutrients that are needed for good health throughout life (lkema,1990).
Meat as a source of animal protein is consumed heavily in Nigeria and is also recommended by nutritionists as a major source of protein for growing children, the convalescent, the expectant mothers and the aged. In general, mycotoxin exposure is a critical problem in the hot and humid low income countries where poor methods of food handling and storage are common. Inspite of occasional high profile incidents of acute poisoning outbreak, mycotoxins have not been widely prioritized from a public health perspective (Azziz et al., 2004). Raw meats, as well as final meat products are exposed to a high risk of microbial contamination at the time of their production, processing, storage and distribution.
Meat smoking as a method of red meat preservation dates back to prehistoric time. Smoking
involves the use of wood fuel which in turn affects product quality. Smoking improves flavor
and appearance of meat (Bala, 2010), making them a delicacy in many communities.
Smoking is normally used in combination with salting. The moisture content drops to 10-40 %
depending on the smoking process. Preservation by smoking is achieved by dehydration and
antibacterial effect of the smoke. During the smoking process, smoke components penetrate the
meat to produce a stable and sensory acceptable product. Smoked meat has good shelf life
unless rehydrated. Handling and storage methods are primarily concerned with minimizing
microbial contamination and retarding microbial growth and activity (Benjakul and
The first phase is in accessing the perception of individuals towards the three meat products through the application of questionnaire.The second phase is using a sensory evaluation to access the perception of individuals towards the three meat products and the final stage is in analyzing the results from the questionnaires already given to test for preference, assessment and perception.
The consumption of meat by products such as suya, kilichi and balangu as compared with some other areas varies and this is as a result of cultural influences, enlightenment and personal taste and desires. This proposal is aimed at checking the acceptability of the aforementioned meat products, the quality assessment and nutritive values and also to introduce the meat products into the environment to increase the level of consumption among the population.
2. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
There are variations in consumption of processed meat product like tsire which is commonly known as suya, kilichi and balangu in various parts of Nigeria due to various reasons like religion background, cultural beliefs and different perceptions about the processed meat products. To check the level of acceptability of the three meats products and also check which one is the most preferred among the three and also the various reasons responsible for the level of preference is the scope of this study.
The broad objectives are to: To check the level of acceptability of the three meat product within the specified environment and to access the quality of the meat products based on the perception of individuals within the community.
The specific objectives are: to check and determine the various reasons of why this meat products are preferred to one another; to determine the level of preference to each other of the meat; and to know the one most preferred and the least preferred and to check the importance of these meat within the specified area and also to know factors leading to non-consumption of the meat products.
4. MATERIALS AND METHOD
4.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this section of the research work, attempt was made to describe the methodology and framework used in attaining the stated objectives of the study, how the research hypothesis was empirically determined, the research design adopted, the study population/sample frame and its characteristics, and the types of sampling techniques used in the study. Also types and sources of data were identified, procedure in testing the hypothesis and accomplishing the study objectives were defined. Concise efforts were made too to describe the choice of research instrument, questionnaire design, method of data measurement, data collection techniques, tabulation analysis and presentation of data.
4.2 STUDY LOCATION
The study was carried out in Ikole Ekiti, Ekiti state Nigeria which lies between latitude 7.79830N and longitude 5.51450E. The tropical climate of Ikole is composed of two distinct seasons; these are rainy seasons (April-October) and dry season (November- March). Temperature ranges between 210 and 280 C with high humidity. Ikole Ekiti is made up of few other towns to make up the Ikole local government. The Ikole local government is made up of Ikole Ijesha Isu Oke Ayedun; Ootunja; OdoOro; Ipao Itapaji; Ara Isaba; Usin; Orin Odo; Odo Ayedun; Ayebode Oke; Ako Irele; Iyemero; Ikosi; Igbona; Asin Esun; Temidire; Ikunri and Ijebu-Agege Ilamo. The people of Ikoole in Ikole local government Ekiti state are predominantly farmers and traders. In addition, we have some people who are carpenters, blacksmith, shoemakers, tailors, civil servants and hunters by profession.
4.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
In this research study, the primary data was used to obtain data from the field by the use of a questionnaire designed in a simple format which was administered to the respondents in the study area to get their views of the effects of this recession and the strategies they adopted. A structured questionnaire was adopted sought out information on the personal features of the respondents such as gender, age, marital status, size of household and many more.
4.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
Random sampling techniques was used to identify the target respondents was used to identify the target respondents, where in the first stage 220 questionnaires were used in collecting data and the second stage involved setting up a sensory evaluation panel where 30 participants were selected to participate in sensory evaluation of the meat products. The target population was male and female of all classes and from different background and to ascertain randomness.
4.5 SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION FOR SMOKED BEEF
Six kilogram of beef-round from a freshly slaughtered 3 year old bull was obtained from the abattoir and used for this study. After excising muscle from carcass, meat was trimmed of all extra muscular fat and cleaned thoroughly with water. The meat was then separated for its different purposes, the raw beef meat for Suya was separated, and portions were separated for the balangu and also the tsire.
4.6 SMOKING OF MEAT
4.6.1 CONSTRUCTION OF SMOKING DRUMS
An upright drum smoke/roasting house was constructed, allowing opening at the top, the top was covered with a wire mesh, and the upright drum had a tripod stand to which it stands few centimeters above the ground. There is a large empty space within the drum to which the lower part was filled with stones and the upper part was filled with charcoal gotten from destructive distillation of wood. The top of the smoking drum was covered with a wire mesh so flat that the meat products can be placed on the drum.
4.6.2 USE OF ELECTRIC OVEN
The electric oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for heating, baking or drying of a substance. The electric oven was used to dry the kilichi artificially by setting it to a temperature of about 2500C-2700C. This is to ensure quick drying of the kilichi instead of using the natural method of solar drying the meat.
4.7 MEAT DISTRIBUTION IN SMOKE OVENS AND ELECTRIC OVEN
4.7.1 APPLICATION OF SMOKING DRUM
The tsire meat was sprinkled with vegetable oil after the meat has been garnished with ingredients and was arranged flatly on the wire mesh which has been placed on the roasting drum to bring about the smoking and roasting of the tsire to its final desired texture and shape.
The balangu also sprinkled with oil was prepared almost in the same way like the tsire meat; the sprinkling of the oil is to avoid sticking of the meat on the wire mesh which might disfigured the shape of the meat when removed forcefully. The kilichi was placed after drying has almost been achieved in the electric oven and this does not need sprinkling of oil unlike the other two meat products.
4.7.2 APPLICATION OF ELECTRIC OVEN
The sliced thin and lean meat of kilichi was placed on the wire mesh within the oven without sprinkling of oil, there was no sticking as it was only raw meat without ingredient and this lasted for about 45 minutes. The second stage of placing kilichi meat in the oven was done with the aid of a tray; the kilichi has been soaked in a paste containing the ingredients soaked in water forming the paste. The kilichi was first placed on the tray and then placed into the oven, the kilichi meat was turned from side to side to ensure evenly distributed drying and after about 1 hour the kilichi meat was removed from the tray and laid flat on the wire mesh within the oven.
4.7.3 INGREDIENT PREPARATIONS
The spices used were purchased individually from specialized spice sellers in the market area within the ikole community. The spices include; Curry, Red pepper, Maggi seasoning, kulikuli, salt and dried ginger, onions.
4.7.4 TSIRE (SUYA) INGREDIENTS PREPARATION
The ingredients for were composed curry, maggi, kulikuli, dried red pepper, dried ginger. This was all grinded together to make a powder. The powder was then used to sprinkled and garnished on the stacked meat before roasting. The vegetable oil was sprinkled on the tsire meat while on fire to bring about flavour, sweetening and sticking of the ingredients more to the meat.
4.7.5 BALANGU INGREDIENTS PREPARATION
Unlike the other two meat products (suya, kilichi) the balangu meat does not contain spices, the ingredients is made up of only maggi and salt and curry. This are all mixed together in desired proportion to ensure optimal taste of the meat. The maggi is crushed, the salt is added and also the curry, this is mixed until even mixture has been achieved. The vegetable is used when the thick raw meat has been placed on the fire, sprinkled with the salt, maggi curry mixture and then the vegetable oil is added to bring about sticking of the ingredients to the meat.
4.7.6 KILICHI INGREDIENTS PREPARATION
The kilichi ingredients is composed of the same ingredients with that of the suya but prepared differently. After the ingredients have been mixed into the form of a powder, the mixed ingredients are then poured into little bowl and then mixed with clean drinkable water until a paste like form is achieved. The use of groundnut oil is of none effect here whether used or not. The effect of the oil is little or has none at all.