Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
Publication Date: June 14, 2019
Hadi Nugroho, Samsul Arifin, Nadia Sulastri & Deni Suparlan
STKIP PGRI Nganjuk, Nganjuk
STKIP PGRI Tulungagung, Tulungagung
One result of human behavior as being cultured is a form of cultural heritage of human society is the ritual tradition. Because society has an inherent cultural traditions of their daily lives. This ritual has been cultivated by the villagers of Ngliman as an expression of gratitude to the ancestors on the blessing received to date. This study aims to determine the meaning of the ritual tradition Sedudo waterfall in the village Ngliman, Sawahan, Nganjuk. Researchers used a qualitative methodology that produces the data findings in the form of descriptive narrative. Selection of informants by purposive and data collection was done by in-depth interviews (depth interview) and documentation. The focus of this research is how the process of social construction of ceremonial ritual tradition Sedudo waterfall. Analyzed using the theoretical framework of social construction Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann. This research resulted in the finding that the process of social construction of ceremonial ritual tradition Sedudo waterfall occurs in three stages, namely stimultan externalization, objectivation, and internalization. Internalization formed when socialized recognition through social relationship with the family environment and the surrounding environment. This process continues as the perpetrator of this ritual began to believe and study the history of ritual waterfall Sedudo understood as subjective reality of the individual. The way in which actors to follow the rituals ritual. Externalization occurs when individuals begin to adjust to the culture in the society, which follow the rituals there. Objectivation visible when making efforts to preserve the cultural traditions of ritual Sedudo waterfall.
Keywords: Ritual, Tradition & The Social Construction.
In connection with the sociology of culture, the study of the culture of society is an important study because it is necessary to understand the notion of culture and society itself. especially in villages that still cultivate Ritual Ngliman waterfall Sedudo every month shura. This ritual is performed by the local community since the time of Majapahit Empire until today. As the day – the usual tourist traffic was not too crowded, in contrast to the level of tourists in the Shura (the first month of the Javanese calendar). Because of that month, the Java community has a certain confidence confidence to run around the waterfall riual Sedudo.
Communities around the region also have confidence that the waterfall Sedudo have supernatural powers. According to the myth that developed, this month Sedudo waterfall ageless believed to bring fortune to those who bathe in the waterfall
Almost every day Sedudo waterfall visited by the visitors and there is a regular travel and there is also a ritual. Routine ritual Sedudo waterfall in the ritual performed every month the Shura (1 Muharram or New Year AH) for months shura is the new year for Java and 15th which coincides with the full moon.
Every 1st shura, waterfalls sedudo Parna Prahista used for ceremonies, the ritual bathing the statue and then the remaining water is sprinkled to family members in order to receive the blessing of salvation and eternal youth. Up until the present time, the government routinely Nganjuk carry out rituals “Bath Sedudo” every new year Javanese.
When the Shura month a full month Sedudo waterfall usually very crowded by pilgrims who will perform the ritual for months shura considered a good month for the Javanese. In addition to the Shura month, every day there are some visitors who will perform the ritual in the Sedudo waterfall and selected a good day and the efficacy of the water will be able to cure some diseases over from the faith of the individual
2. Research focus
Social Construction Theory owned Berger and Luckman used in analyzing research problems. The focus of this study are:
• How does the process of social construction of rituals in Sedudo waterfall?
3. Social construction
In the book Margaret M. Poloma, there are three stages of social construction Berger, Namely:
a. externalization: adjustment with socio-cultural world as a product of the human world ( “Society is a human product”);
b. obyektivasi: social interaction in the world intersubjective institutionalized or undergoing a process of institutionalization, ( “society is an objective reality”);
c. internalization: individual identifies with social institutions or social organizations, where the individual is a member ( “man is a social product”).
The ritual in traditional societies may be embodied in an art as a means to express all the feelings associated with daily human life – today. All the behavior of the people in conducting and organizing art can not be separated from the cultural influences that contain mystical elements. Then the ritual actors inevitably participate in an atmosphere filled with supernatural powers.
Because every culture is a guideline, criterion, or the overall design for the life of the community in question, then the traditional culture (that tends to be a tradition – a tradition that can not be easily changed). The tendency of the traditional nature of this culture due to its usefulness as a guide to life thoroughly, because if the culture change at any time it is also a guide for the lives of the citizens will also change over time, and akhibatnya community life itself would be screwed as a guide of life was not fixed. Culture has a tendency to change dynamically follow changes – changes that occur in the elements – elements of the environment (natural / physical, social, cultural).
Various findings have also provided a clue why these rituals can last for hundreds of years. Among them for the ritual function turns against society as a whole because in accordance with the basic assumptions of the functionalist when a structure in society is not functional then the structure will disappear by itself. Moreover, the existence of social solidarity among individuals who are in the group can provide a very significant contribution to the permanence of the existence of ritual as a collective consciousness (collective consiousness) is the principal basis of social integration which is a bond to unite people in the group.
The internalisation or dissemination of the ritual is performed by the parents to their children or the next generation, then of externalization that extend rules – social rules binding for the members of the group eventually formed the objective reality. In addition, the role of government that promotes the ritual activities related to the development of the tourism sector has contributed significantly to the persistence of the ritual.
4. Origin legend – proposal Niagara Sedudo
At the time of the Kediri kingdom, the king had a daughter who has a strange disease such as smallpox, but very disgusted to see it, finally by the king’s own father is none other than the daughter told to seek treatment to a hermitage located in the area of Pace. The owner hermitage and friend of the king is told to heal and hide the identity of the princess of the people around, eventually every morning daughter bathed in waterfalls Roro Kuning to cure the disease once in the morning waterfall Yellow Roro has not been used by the people around.
Day by day, daughter’s illness gradually – gradually recovered, looks pretty increasingly looks back, the son of the owner of the hermitage began to find out who this young man that the princess was the son of the king of Kediri being treated at his father’s hermitage. Finally, the two sons of the owner of the hermitage pursue Kediri heart of a royal princess.
At the end of the three beings are knit in love, but the story then Startlingly when the daughter is cured of the disease, finally king of the kingdom of Kediri match princess with candidate selection father is none other than the king of the kingdom of Kediri, and the two sons of the owner hermitage tesebut gutted weight, eventually up to many – in both children shut themselves in a room, until one when they were out of the room with the attitude changed completely. This used to be so friendly with people around now both children have no manners at all for others since the events of proficiency level.
Attitude held by his two children, eventually making the owner of the hermitage which is none other than his own father sent both boys meditation to forget the tangle of love with the princess of Kediri, but before doing meditation sisters say a pledge her sister would never manners again to others, while his brother will always live single.
The brother meditated in a highest waterfall hence waterfall is the highest in the call Sedudo waterfall meaning “Sing mendudo” or in Indonesian means “single”, while his brother imprisoned in waterfall Singo Kromo layout of waterfall Singo Kromo sedudo are under water. The name of the waterfall is taken from their promise when will do meditation first.
5. Ritual History Niagara Sedudo
The existence of a waterfall at first only as a process of nature, but in its development is inseparable from the story of mystery that later become a tradition. As well as coloring story waterfall background born Sedudo then Tirta Amarta Sedudo ritual.
Told that a splash of water taken from the word “Flush” that the Javanese term means showering or spraying water on the whole body. “Tirta” Javanese terms defined by water. The word “Amarta” or Javanese call “Ngamarta” is taken from a famous royal name in the story of Java. And the word “Sedudo” itself is a combination of the words “Se” which means one and the word “Dudo” meaning a man who already had a wife. The word “Sedudo” that too is now used as the name of a waterfall located on the slopes of Mount Wilis, precisely in the Village Ngliman, Sawahan, Nganjuk. According to the trust of the population, the dudo it is the person who opened the forerunner of Ngliman village, the daily bath in the waterfall. The waterfall is often used by the widower, eventually known as the term Sedudo.
Also told that Sedudo waterfall is considered sacred and has a high magical value. Therefore, the water used in the ceremony Prana Prahista, the statue bathing ceremony contained in the temple and temple Candrageni Ngetos. This belief is reinforced by the myth that everyone who bathe in the waterfall Sedudo in the Shura will be ageless.
In the past, the region is a sanctuary Sedudo Ki Ageng Ngaliman, pioneer figures spread of Islam in Nganjuk. In honor of his services, then each month the Shura a ritual ceremony is always held events taking water from the waterfall Sedudo. Sedudo water sampling was highlighted by a convoy of long-haired girl dressed in traditional Javanese, walked slowly to the pool which is right under the waterfall.
People believe that the water that flows ceaselessly flowing in Sedudo sourced from sacred places, the place where the gods dwell. Not surprisingly, when the New Year’s Eve Hijri 1 Muharram, or commonly known as the 1st night of the Shura by the Java community, thousands of visitors are always crowded Sedudo. In the cold waterfall Sedudo, community abuzz bath in the pond.
Another historical aspects, particularly on the use of Sedudo by the kings and clerics at the time of Majapahit kingdom and the glory of Islam, greatly affect the public confidence about the efficacy of the waterfall. In the era of Majapahit, Sedudo often used for washing heirloom weapons belonging to the king and the duke in Pratista Prana. While at the time of the Islamic empire, Sedudo is well known as the Hermitage neighborhood Ki Ageng Ngaliman. From that, the bathing ritual heritage has always held in this Sedudo waterfall area.
6. Ritual Procession Niagara Sedudo
Pemeintah Nganjuk through the Department of Culture and Tourism held a splash in Nganjuk waterfall tourism Sedudo some time ago. In the event, hundreds of visitors came to see first hand the procession spray. It has become an annual event for the Government Nganjuk to keep the appeal Sedudo waterfall can be maintained.
The procession begins with the sowing spray of flowers in the middle of the waterfall tourism conducted Sedudo Vice Regent Nganjuk. After sowing flower, then melarung offerings to the middle of the waterfall area Sedudo. It was a sign that the Government Nganjuk always pay attention to the waterfall Sedudo as a mainstay attractions in Nganjuk.
Meanwhile, the ritual splash Sedudo time was lively and sacred. Tirta Amek packaging Bedhayan dance adds to the sacred procession. Dance itself is a depiction of a sense of an act of gratitude to God Almighty. This dance is performed by five dancers gorgeous. While in tow ready for ten long-haired girl ready to klentingnya and five virgins who are ready to take on water (Amek tirta) of gerojogan Sedudo.
Before the dance begins, a signpost (cucuk lampah) has led the way to the waterfall Sedudo. In the back row of five elders brought incense and offerings followed the princess Domas, five dancers Bedhayan, and the back consists of 10 long-haired girl and 5 handsome virgin. That adds to the atmosphere to be sacred is the fragrance that comes out of the clouds of incense smoke. It’s a sign of the procession actually begins, reciting mantras while burning incense overlooking the waterfall splash Sedudo. Followed ritual float an offering into the water Sedudo by Regent Nganjuk. Once completed, they were together back towards the preparation of a dance performance Amek Tirta.
At the end of the dance, the Regent Nganjuk handed klenthing to ten girls with long hair as a sign of the ritual process Amek Tirta implemented. All must fall under a waterfall splash Sedudo, who is said to have magical powers to make people who bathe ageless. At that time, the ritual carrying ‘klenthing’ simply fill Sedudo the flushed water. Despite the need to get wet, the beautiful girl ideal stature must be willing to have the ‘Tirta Amrita.’
According to myth, the girl who took ‘Tirta Amrita’ must still sacred, to illustrate that the water is taken too literally still sacred. For it was not just any girl can represent in this sacred process. If this myth is violated, according to the trust of local residents can bring sengkala or danger. Typically, Tirta Amrita is believed to have sanctity, is used for various purposes related to ritual activities such as jamasan heritage, ruwatan ceremony, graduation waranggana, and so on.
After the ceremony is completed followed shower with the visitors and invited guests clamoring to get to the waterfall bath Sedudo. Historically, the actual ceremony this spray does not exist. In spite of the confidence the public about bathing water in this Sedudo been passed down through generations – since our ancestors. Only around 1987, filmed dance procession packaged as cultural calendar and lasts until now.
In addition, one ritual that also attract tourists to come to the location of the waterfall Sedudo travel is spray procession during the graduation ceremony of the Sinden. Procession ritual splash in a waterfall Sedudo held once a year before the full moon as a symbol of self-cleaning Shura.
Water taken from Sedudo also used to mewisuda sinden candidate was declared as an artist to Art Tayub. Dozens of teenagers who will graduate, usually entering the waterfall pool in the splash procession. Usually tourists who come and people watch, participating in a pool waterfall shower after spray procession done in the hope come to get the blessing.
Graduation sinden it in Nganjuk better known as istiah digembyang (graduation). Graduation usually take place in Padepokan Langen Tayub, Ngrejek Hamlet, Village Sambirejo, Tanjunganom, Nganjuk. Usually attended also witnessed the procession of members of the officials of the local and surrounding communities. Many of the local and foreign tourists who also came specifically to see the uniqueness of the gorgeous girls digembyang as sinden.
The series of graduation ceremony usually lasts for three days, and the peak has always been on Friday (Pahing) Javanese calendar. Candidates sinden and waranggana it before graduation dikucuri (sprinkling) water ‘sacred’ is taken from the springs of the village Ngliman Sedudo mixed with water wells Mbah Ageng.
Sinden graduation procession was a community tradition Ngrajek Hamlet, Village Sambirejo, Nganjuk. This event is always scheduled by the local Tourism Department as a tourist attraction to attract foreign and domestic tourists visit the city of Nganjuk.
In addition to the ceremonies in the Shura there is also a regular ritual performed every Friday legi Niagara Sedudo ie by tirakatan to get closer to God Almighty at night and the lighting is switched off, a lot of people who believe that the waterfall as there light that can be seen with the naked eye. For routine ritual in its own shura had always been so one month of the 1st and 15th shura shura, but in order to meet the market needs for a month shura always crowded ritual, so it was replaced in syahban / Ruwah. But there will also be a back and no longer separate the ritual performance.