Service Quality in Marketing Competition: Multi-Dimensional Scaling for Positioning Strategies

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Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: April, 2019

Lingga Kencana
Research Consultants for Data Research and Analysis
East Java, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Service Quality in Marketing Competition: Multi-Dimensional Scaling for Positioning Strategies.

Abstract
Many companies offer relatively similar products and services, service quality in marketing competition is important. Companies must rely on positioning strategies that will help the company’s success in keeping customers from using and getting new customers. Competition in marketing with all the same and different offers will provide its own advantages in attracting consumers. The researcher chose the six cafes in Jember Regency because they had the same concept offered to their customers, namely Grand Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, and Wang Cafe. Descriptive research design uses survey methods. The population is consumers in the six selected cafes. Sampling is used; 1) Non probability sampling for selected respondents; 2) Mutistage sampling for the selection of objects that have similar concepts, products and services; 3) Purposive sampling for determining respondents in the same criteria once used services at the six cafes. The determinant variables in the research are product, price, promotion, place, process, people, physical evidence. Measuring data using a Likert scale with a direct approach, respondents must consider the similarity or inequality of certain criteria in the object of research. The analysis used is Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is a statistical technique that measures objects in a multidimensional room based on respondents’ assessment of the similarity of these objects. Another function is for the procedure of mapping respondents’ perceptions visually in a geometry map. The results of the study are 1) on product attributes. Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe are perceived as having similarities or similarities by their customers, while at Brothers Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe are considered different among other competitors; 2) At price attributes. The Grand Cafe is perceived as having no similarity or similarity to its competing Cafe customers, while the Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are known to have similarities; 3) On promotion attributes. The Grand Cafe, Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe are perceived as having similarities or similarities by their customers, while at 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe it is known that it is perceived differently by its customers; 4) On location attributes. Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived differently from 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers; 5) On process attributes. Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities or similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived as having a difference with 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers; 6) On people’s attributes. The Grand Cafe is perceived as having no similarity or resemblance to its Competitive Cafe, while Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe are perceived to have similarities and 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe are also perceived differently by their customers, and; 7) On the attributes of physical evidence. Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities or similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe, and is considered different from 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers.

Keywords: Service Quality, Determinants, Competition, Marketing, Strategy, Positioning, Perception and Similarity Perceptions.

1. Introduction
The more companies offering goods and services products, the more consumers have choices, thus increasing bargaining power (Supranto, 2007:4). Positioning is a way for a product or brand to design an image of a company in achieving a special and unique place in consumer perception so that the products offered are superior to those of competitors. The purpose of the first positioning is to place or position the product in the market so that the product is separate or different from competing brands, the second is to position the product so that it can convey some basic things to the customers (Tjiptono, 2008:225). According to Schewe (1994), How to build positioning there are seven main ways, namely to first determine the relevant product or market. Secondly identify competitors. All three determine ways and standards that consumers use in evaluating choices to meet their needs. The fourth is to know consumer perceptions of the position of competitors (by making perceptual maps). The fifth identifies the gap or gap in the position occupied. Sixth plan and implement a positioning strategy. Seventh monitors the actual position of a product or brand that needs to be monitored at all times to make adjustments to any possible changes in the environment.
The business of products and services is currently profitable, namely the Cafe business. Cafe business began to emerge, especially in the city of Jember which is of course the City of Education where students in Jember often look for places to relax like Cafe to spare their time as well as community associations, places to rest to relieve student fatigue between individual and communal lectures. Cafe business certainly provides its own advantages in providing offers to attract consumer interest. An important part of managing a cafe business is to attract consumer interest, so Cafe entrepreneurs must strive to improve the quality of service, besides that food and beverages offered to consumers by Cafe entrepreneurs must have distinctive features, advantages and variety of products.
The five cafes were chosen in Jember Regency because of the similarity of concepts offered, food and beverage products, attributes in cafes, facilities for consumers. Grand Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, and Wang Cafe are cafes that are relatively similar in concept. Kotler (2007:8), Product-oriented concepts, states that consumers will prefer products that offer the most quality features, achievement or innovation. Competition in marketing with all its offers provides its own advantages in attracting consumers and of course this is a positioning strategy of a product or brand. The problem in this study is “What is the positioning of the Grand Cafe to win the marketing competition in Jember City?”.

2. Literature Review
Marketing is one of the functions of an organization and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and submitting value to customers and managing relationships in ways that benefit the organization and shareholders. This marketing relies on concepts namely needs, desires, requests, products, values, prices and satisfaction, relationships or networks, exchanges and transactions (Kotler, 2007:6). Kotler (2008:179), product attributes are an additional series that accompanies the core uses of a product in the market. It is expected to be able to complement consumer desires that have not been fulfilled by the existence of the main functions of a product. Product attributes are divided into two, namely physically and non-physically. Kotler (2002:83), service is any action or performance offered by one of the other parties which is in principle intangible and does not cause any transfer of ownership. Zeithaml (in Tjiptono, 2004:14), service quality includes five dimensions:tangiable, realibility, responsiveness, assurance, & empathy.
Hasan (2008:129), consumer behavior is a complex psychological response, which appears in the form of behaviors or actions that are directly involved in trying to obtain and use products and regulate the decision-making process when purchasing products including repurchasing. Kotler (2007:228), perception is a process used by individuals to choose, organize, and interpret information input to create a picture of the world that has meaning. Perception in marketing is more important than reality, because perceptions will affect the actual behavior of consumers. Kotler (2007:375) positioning is the act of designing bids and images. The company thus occupies a distinctive position (compared to competitors) in the minds of the target customers. The aim is to put the brand in the minds of consumers to maximize the potential benefits of the company.

3. Conceptual Research
The conceptual framework is part of research that contains theoretical concepts and becomes the basis for obtaining scientific perspectives in formulating answers to research questions. Tjiptono (2002:95), a product is a subjective understanding of the producer of something that can be offered as an effort to achieve organizational goals through meeting the needs and desires of consumers, in accordance with the competence and capacity of the organization and the purchasing power of the market. Lupiyoadi (2013:95), prices can influence consumer perceptions because a very significant pricing strategy will also influence the product image offered and consumer decisions in buying. and the most important thing in pricing must be consistent without increasing the price of the product, because if the marketer at any time raises the price of the product it will affect consumer perceptions, because consumers not only see the form of the product but also the affordable price. Lupiyoadi (2013:97), promotion is very important in a business, marketers must choose facilities that are deemed appropriate to promote their services so that consumers understand about the business or product offered.
Lupiyoadi (2013:96), locations can shape consumer perceptions, companies must choose a place that is close to consumers so that it is easy to reach and must be strategic with this consideration, consumers will prefer going to a company that is close and strategic because in the minds of consumers strategic, there will be many visitors. Lupiyoadi (2013:98) process is a combination of all activities, which generally consist of procedures, work schedules, mechanisms, and other routine matters, where services are produced and delivered to consumers. Lupiyoadi (2013:97) people who function as service providers greatly influence the quality of services provided. Lupiyoadi (2013:120), physical evidence is a corporate environment where services are created and where service providers and consumers interact, plus any tangible elements used to consume or support the role of services.
Conceptual framework in research, as follows:

Figure 1. Research Conceptual Framework

4. Research methods
4.1 Research design
The design of this study is descriptive research that uses survey methods. Survey research is research carried out to get benefits from descriptive objectives, help and compare existing conditions with predetermined criteria.
The population in this study were consumers at the Grand Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, and Wang Cafe. Sampling used in this study is; 1) Non probability sampling for populations and does not have a second chance to be repeated samples; 2) Mutistage sampling for the selection of objects that have similar service variants; 3) Purposive sampling for determining respondents in the study, that the respondents are customers of the Grand Cafe who have also felt and enjoyed the service at 14 Mili Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, and Wang Cafe. The purposive sampling criteria is 1-2 times having felt and enjoyed the services in the five selected Cafe in the study. Sampling in the study is following the opinion of Roscoe (in Sekaran, 2006:160), that the sample size of more than 30 and less than 500 is appropriate for most studies. A sample size that is too large (more than 500) can be a problem because it is susceptible to type II errors, that is, when it accepts research findings, in fact we should reject it. Sample sizes that are too large or too small will not help the research project. Minimum sample size of 30 must be taken, then it can be multiplied by 2 to 5 (Sekaran, 2006:159). The number of samples used in this study was 60 respondents. The amount of 60 is difficult because the criteria of all respondents have used services, bought products and services at the five cafes.
The determinant and indicator variables in the study are;
a. Product is something that is offered by the cafe to its customers as a consideration for using it. Indicator: Special menu offered and food menu;
b. Price is the amount of value that must be paid by the customer to buy the product and its requirements. Indicator: Prices of various kinds of coffee and drinks and food are offered;
c. Promotion is information that is published to consumers about the existence of businesses and facilities offered to stimulate consumers to buy their products. Indicators: Banners, advertisements, and social media;
d. Place is related to the real condition of the business outlet of the product provider. Indicator: The location of a cafe that is strategic, easy to reach by consumers, a place that is quite comfortable and provides an interesting cafe concept;
e. Process is the stage of activities carried out in an effort to provide services provided to customers. Indicator: Satisfying service due to the speed of the menu ordering process and consumers do not have to wait long to enjoy the menu provided.
f. People is the ability of employees to be associated with service at a cafe Indicator: Services within 12 hours (close order), servants are polite to consumers;
g. Physical Evidence is a factor that explains the physical evidence of the facilities offered to consumers. Indicator: The design of the room has a unique concept and facilities for consumers are sufficient.
Measuring data in the study using a direct approach, respondents were asked to provide an assessment of the object model under study based on consideration of similarities or inequalities of respondents’ criteria and perceptions. The number of objects compared is based on the provisions of n (n-1) / 2, where n is the number of brands or stimuli. If the research uses the assessment of pairs of objects using a Likert scale 1 to 5 to assess the similarity or inequality of each pair of objects (Suliyanto, 2005:164). Assessment criteria with a Likert scale from each object using the Likert scale 1 to 5 are;
a. Score 1: pair of two objects that are compared very similarly;
b. Score 2: pair two objects that are compared more in common;
c. Score 3: pair of two objects that are compared has equal equations and differences;
d. Score 4: pair of two objects being compared has many differences;
e. Score 5: pair of two objects being compared is very different.

4.2 Data analysis
4.2.1 Assumption Instrument Test for Multi Dimensional Scaling Analysis
4.2.1.1 Lack of Fit
Input data and the consequences of solving MDS are strongly influenced by random variability, so some assessments made regarding reliability are sufficient for solving MDS. The accuracy of a solution to MDS analysis is assessed by measures of stress. Stress is a measure to show lack of fit, the greater the stress value the more improper the perception map represents for data input. The lower the value of stress, the better the MDS model produced, Supranto (2004:190). The recommendation for using stress values is;

Table 1. Stress Value Rate
No Stress (%) Goodness of fit
1 20 Poor
2 10 Fair
3 5 Good
4 2,5 Excellent
5 0 Perfect

4.2.1.2 Goodness of Fit Measure
The precision index R2 (R square) shows the accuracy of the scaling (goodness of fit measure) to represent input data. A high R2 value (1 or 100%) will represent the model perfectly, but R2 ≥ 0.60 (60% or more) can be accepted or can represent input data quite well (Supranto, 2004:190).

4.2.2 Multi Dimensional Scalling Analysis
MDS (Multi Dimensional Scaling) is a statistical technique that measures objects in a multidimensional room based on respondents’ assessment of the similarity (similarity) of these objects. The technique in MDS is to use multivariate techniques in the interdependence technique, namely the position of each variable equally, there is no dependent variable and independent variable. MDS is a procedure used to map respondents’ perceptions visually on geometry maps. The geometry map is called the perceptual map, which in the map shows which objects are very similar and which ones are very similar. Criteria that must be fulfilled in this analysis technique include (Umi, 2008:16):
a. Data can use various measurement scales, for example intervals, ratios, ordinal, and nominal;
b. If data is a form of differentiation, then the data must be quantitative and measured by the same scale of measurement of the matrix. For example, interval measurement scale. If the data is multivariate, the variables can be quantitative, binary or count data. If the data has a difference in scale, for example there are rupiahs, years, meters, etc., then the data must be standardized first by using existing procedures.
c. Steps for activities in carrying out MDS analysis:
1) Formulating problems;
2) Obtain data input;
3) Select the MDS procedure. The factors that influence ownership of a procedure are MDS analysis will be carried out at the individual respondent level (disagreegate level) or at the group level (aggregate level);
4) Determine dimensions. The main objective of MDS analysis is to get a perception that precisely represents the best fit with the least possible dimensions, namely 1, 2 and 3.
5) Give dimension label names and configuration interpretations.

5. Research result
5.1 Characteristics of Respondents
The characteristics of the respondents in this study were based on age, gender, and profession. Respondents in this study were all consumers who had made a purchase or felt service at the Grand Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, and Wang Cafe, amounting to 60 respondents. The age of the majority or the majority of respondents who are Grand Cafe customers is 50% of respondents aged between 17-27 years, while the minority of respondents who are Grand Cafe customers are respondents aged between 28-38 years old at 35% and over 38 years old by 15%. The majority or majority of gender respondents who are Grand Cafe customers are male sex respondents of 91.67%, and the minority of respondents who are Grand Cafe customers are 8.32% female-sex respondents. The respondent profession with the most or the majority of respondents who are Grand Cafe customers is 61.67% as entrepreneurs, while the minority of respondents who are Grand Cafe customers are 20% of employees and 18.33% of students.

5.2 Assumption Instrument for Multi Dimensional Scaling Analysis
5.2.1 Lack of Fit
Input data and the consequences of solving MDS are strongly influenced by random variability, some of the assessments made regarding reliability are sufficient for solving MDS. The accuracy of a solution to MDS analysis is assessed by measures of stress. Stress is a measure to show lack of fit, the greater the stress value the more improper the perception map represents for data input. The lower the stress value, the better the MDS model is produced.

Table 2. Results of Stress Determinant Value
Determinant Attribute Stress Goodness of Fit
Product 0,0218 Excellent
Price 0,0207 Excellent
Promotion 0,0245 Excellent
Location 0,0322 Excellent
Process 0,0324 Excellent
Person 0,0227 Excellent
Physical Evidence 0,0313 Excellent

Table 2 shows that the stress of the two-dimensional model produced is in the Goodness of Fit standard and shows that the scaling model to represent input data is appropriate.

5.2.2 Goodness of Fit Measure
The accuracy index R² (R square) shows the accuracy of the scaling (goodness of fit measure) to represent input data. A high R² value (1 or 100%) model will represent perfectly, but R² ≥ 0.60 (60% or more) can be accepted or can represent input data quite well.

Table 3. Results of the Determinant RSQ Attribute Value
Attribute RSQ Information
Product 0,770 Acceptable
Price 0,782 Acceptable
Promotion 0,600 Acceptable
Location 0,601 Acceptable
Process 0,601 Acceptable
Person 0,605 Acceptable
Physical Evidence 0,615 Acceptable

Table 3 shows that the RSQ value > 0.60 (60% or more), means that the two-dimensional model produced can represent the input data well. Acceptable

5.3 Multidimensional Scaling Analysis
5.3.1 Positioning Map Attribute Deteriminan

Figure 2. Perceptual Map
Table 4. Perceptual Map Coordinates (Image Configuration 2)
Attribute Cafe Dimension I Dimension II
Product Grand Cafe -0,9658 -1,5349
Kolong Cafe -0,7278 -0,3772
Brothers Cafe -0,5880 0,1595
14 Mili Cafe 1,6835 0,1907
Wang Cafe 0,5981 1,5620
Price Grand Cafe 0,8131 1,2214
Kolong Cafe 0,5899 -1,4560
Brothers Cafe 0,8948 -0,3640
14 Mili Cafe -1,6735 -0,4344
Wang Cafe -0,6243 1,0330
Promotion Grand Cafe 0,0144 0,9810
Kolong Cafe 1,4657 0,1117
Brothers Cafe 0,4543 0,9079
14 Mili Cafe -0,3449 -1,7748
Wang Cafe -1,5894 -0,2259
Location Grand Cafe 0,9000 0,4728
Kolong Cafe 0,7327 0,8650
Brothers Cafe 0,4857 0,8941
14 Mili Cafe -1,8252 -0,5083
Wang Cafe -0,2932 -1,7235
Process Grand Cafe 0,6418 0,8217
Kolong Cafe 0,9075 0,5613
Brothers Cafe 0,6654 0,2860
14 Mili Cafe -1,7667 0,2914
Wang Cafe -0,4480 -1,9604
People Grand Cafe -0,4385 -1,6392
Kolong Cafe -1,2461 0,1821
Brothers Cafe -0,6728 0,9588
14 Mili Cafe 1,0698 1,0354
Wang Cafe 1,2876 -0,5371
Physical Evidence Grand Cafe 0,9558 -0,0006
Kolong Cafe 0,4520 0,9424
Brothers Cafe 0,8422 0,5067
14 Mili Cafe -1,6914 0,4603
Wang Cafe -0,5586 -1,9088

Map of INDISCAL process results (Individual Differences (weighted) Euclidean Distance Model) ;
a. The product attribute map image shows that the Grand Cafe and the Under-Cafe are close together. The adjacent position distance from this pair is a result of the respondents’ perception that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other on product attributes. The map image also shows that Brothers Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe are located far apart from the Grand Cafe, so that the cafe has differences from each other on product attributes or there is no resemblance to other cafes. Based on these results it can be stated that the product attributes include the coffee menu offered, the food menu offered, other drinks offered besides coffee, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe is similar to Kolong Cafe and is perceived differently from Brothers Cafe, Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe by its customers.
b. Map images on price attributes, indicating that Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are close together. The proximity of the adjacent positions of this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other on price attributes. The map image also shows that the Grand Cafe, Wang Cafe, and 14 Mili Cafe are located far apart from other cafes, so that the cafe has differences from one another on price attributes or there is no resemblance to other cafes. Based on these results it can be stated that the price attributes include the price of various kinds of coffee, the price of various kinds of food, and the prices of various other drinks besides coffee, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe is perceived differently from other competitors by its customers.
c. Map images on promotional attributes indicate that the Grand Cafe, Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are located close together. The proximity of the adjacent positions of this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other on promotional attributes. The map image also shows that Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe are located close and far from other cafes, so it is perceived that the cafe has similarities and differences with each other on promotional attributes or no resemblance. Based on these results it can be stated that the promotional attributes include the existence of banners, and promotional billboards, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities with Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe and is perceived differently by Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe by its customers.
d. The map image on the location attribute shows that the Brothers Cafe, Kolong Cafe and Grand Cafe are close together. The proximity of the adjacent positions of this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other in the location attribute. The map image also shows that Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe are located close and far from other cafes, so the cafe has similarities and differences to each other on location attributes. Based on these results it can be stated that the location attribute includes the location or business location of a cafe that is strategic and easily accessible by consumers, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities with Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe and is perceived differently from Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe by its customers.
e. The map image on the process attributes shows that the Grand Cafe, Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are close together, and far from Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe. The proximity of the adjacent positions of this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other in the process attribute. The map image also shows that the Grand Cafe is located far apart from Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe, so the cafe is perceived as having differences from one another on people’s attributes or no resemblance. Based on these results it can be stated that the process attributes include the way services are provided to consumers, menu list information (services provided to customers to obtain information about the menu offered), and other important information in the form of promotions, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe perceived as having similarities or similarities with Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe and perceived differently or not having a resemblance to Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe by its customers.
f. Map images on people’s attributes show that the Grand Cafe is located far apart from Brothers Cafe, Kolong Cafe Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe. The distance of the distance from this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has no resemblance to the process attributes or has differences with its competitors. The map image also shows that Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe are nearby and that Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe are located far away from other cafes, so the cafe is perceived to have similarities and also differences with each other on people’s attributes or no resemblance. Based on these results it can be stated that the attributes of people include hospitality in providing service, accuracy and speed in serving customers, and responsiveness in providing services, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe is perceived as having nothing in common or different from Brothers Cafe, Kolong Cafe, Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe or competitors by their customers.
g. The map image on the attributes of physical evidence shows that the Grand Cafe is located adjacent to the Brothers Cafe, and Kolong Cafe. The proximity of the adjacent positions of this pair is a result of consumer perceptions that the comparable cafe has similarities to each other on the attributes of physical evidence. The map image also shows that Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe are located far away from other cafes, so that the cafe is perceived as having no similarities or different from each other on the attributes of physical evidence. Based on these results it can be stated that the attributes of physical evidence which include the design of the room in the business of providing products and facilities intended for consumers that exist in the business of the product provider, this can be perceived that the Grand Cafe, Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are perceived as having similarities or similarities and perceived as having a difference with Wang Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe by its customers.

5.3.2 Consistency of Respondents Similarities in Determinant Attributes

Figure 3. Test of consistency of determinant attribute

Consistency test is used to test and find out the respondent’s judgment in assessing the similarity of attributes, if the answers among respondents to certain attributes are relatively the same, then the respondent’s answer can be called homogeneous (aligned). Consistency test results ;
a. In the product attribute, it indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing cafe similarity based on product attributes.
b. At the price attribute, it indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing cafe similarity based on price attributes.
c. In the promotion attribute, it indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing the similarity of the cafe based on promotional attributes.
d. On the location attribute, indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers between respondents in assessing the similarity of the cafe based on location attributes.
e. In the process attribute, it indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing cafe similarity based on process attributes.
f. On the attribute of the person, indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that leads to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing cafe similarity based on people’s attributes.
g. On the attribute of physical evidence, indicates that the position of the respondent does not form a straight line that goes to the lower right. This proves that there is no consistency of answers among respondents in assessing the similarity of the cafe based on the attributes of physical evidence.

5.4..Discussion
Based on the results of data analysis using Multidimential Scaling Analysis (MDS) in this study, it shows that ;
In product attributes it is known that Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe are perceived to have similarities or similarities by their customers, whereas at Brothers Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe it is known that it is perceived that they do not have similarities and are considered different among other competitors. This can occur because of the similarity of the coffee menu offered at the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe, the coffee menu offered is in the form of arabica coffees from Java, Bali and Sumatra, the taste of relatively sour coffee with flavor strong coffee; the similarity or similarity of the food menu offered at the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe, which is a delicious snack or snack to be eaten with relatives and friends and is very appropriate for leisure activities, and; the presence of drinks offered (other than coffee) at the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe, in the form of soft drinks such as lemon tea, fresh lemon, tea and other soft drinks. The implication is that product attributes are the attributes that distinguish between the Grand Cafe and Brothers Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe and are only perceived to be similar to Kolong Cafe.
In the price attribute, it is known that the Grand Cafe is perceived as having no similarity or similarity to its competing Cafe customers, while the Brothers Cafe and Kolong Cafe are known to have similarities. 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe are also considered different from the Grand Cafe by their customers. This can occur because of differences in the price offer of various kinds of coffee provided at the Grand Cafe with prices that are relatively slightly cheaper or below the average price of coffee at the Cafe; there are differences in prices offered on various kinds of food provided for visitors, the foods that are relatively have a more affordable price with prices that are slightly cheaper than other cafes, and; the existence of different price offers on various kinds of drinks (other than coffee) offered is also relatively cheaper than other competing cafes. The implication is that price attributes are an attribute that distinguishes between the Grand Cafe and Brothers Cafe, Kolong Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.
In the promotion attribute it is known that the Grand Cafe, Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe are perceived to have similarities or similarities by their customers, while at 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe it is known that it is perceived as not having the same or perceived differently by its customers. This can happen because there is a pamphlet that introduces the cafe business which is considered the same as introducing coffee products as the Cafe logo; the existence of advertising banners at the Grand Cafe which are also considered to have similarities with the Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe by giving the truth that reads good and delicious coffee and the coffee logo as the logo of a Cafe, and the existence of a promotional billboard in a cafe which provides a variety of product and beverage variants and prices offered. The implication of promotional attributes is a perceived attribute that has similarities or similarities between the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and the promotion attributes are the distinguishing attributes between the Grand Cafe and 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.
In the location attribute it is known that the Grand Cafe also has similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived differently from 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers. This can occur because of the location or location of a business or cafe that is considered strategic and easily accessible to customers and locations that are comfortable to relax with relatives or friends, and; the location of the Grand Cafe business that is felt to have easy access and has a parking space that is felt comfortable and spacious by its customers. The implication of location attributes is a perceived attribute that has similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived as having a difference with 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.
In the process attribute, it is known that Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities or similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived as having a difference with 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers. This can occur because of the similarity in the process of the way or service provided by the Cafe waiter to its customers; there is a similarity of information in the menu list (services provided to customers to obtain information about the menu offered), and; the presence of other important information in the form of promotions in the cafe which are usually informed by a brochure placed on the menu list seen by the customer. The implication of process attributes is a perceived attribute that has similarities between the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe and is perceived as having a difference with 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.
In people’s attributes it is known that the Grand Cafe is perceived as having no similarity or resemblance to its Competitor Cafe, while Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe are perceived to have similarities and 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe are also perceived differently by their customers. This can occur because of differences in servants in serving their customers by giving friendliness and kinship in providing services to their customers; there is a difference in service by providing accuracy and speed in serving customers which is considered superior to other competing cafes, and; the existence of responsiveness in providing services that are considered good enough by providing services, namely in the form of a call or calling service by turning on a lighter that is addressed to the cafe waiter. The implication of people’s attributes is a perceived attribute that has no resemblance or is different between the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe, Brothers Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.
The attributes of physical evidence are known that Grand Cafe is perceived as having similarities or similarities with Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe, and is considered different from 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe by its customers. This can occur because of the similarity or similarity in the design of the room to the business or cafe between Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe which both give the impression or design of the past or classic; there are similarities or similarities in the supply of products, and; there are similarities or similarities to the facilities intended for customers at the café, such as the presence of seats that were designed in the past or classic. The implication of the attributes of physical evidence is a perceived attribute that has similarities between the Grand Cafe and Kolong Cafe and Brothers Cafe, and is perceived as having a difference with 14 Mili Cafe and Wang Cafe.

6. Conclusions and recommendations
Conclusion of the analysis results can be concluded that the positioning map of the Grand Cafe shows price attributes and people are perceived attributes that are different or do not have similarities with other competing cafes, while product, promotion, location, process and physical evidence attributes are the same perceived attributes. or have similarities between the Grand Cafe and its competitors.

Recommendations based on the results of the study are;
a. Grand Cafe Entrepreneurs need to be more evaluated and more developed for differences that support competitive advantage in product attributes, promotions, locations, processes and physical evidence, so that the excellence in differences in attributes is expected, so that Grand Cafe can still compete, excel and be in demand by its customers;
b. Grand Cafe Entrepreneurs need to develop more and give more differences that can support competitive advantage in price attributes and people, so that with the expectation of superiority in the different attributes, the Grand Cafe is expected to remain the top choice for its customers.

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