Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: Importance Performance and Cartesian for Marketing Strategies

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Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: March 20, 2019

Lingga Kencana
Research Consultants for Data Research and Analysis
East Java, Indonesia

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Abstract
Competition is getting tougher between travel service companies because many aspects support accelerated change, but consumers are getting smarter. Tour and Travel Managers on Bali Island must be oriented to service quality and customer satisfaction in improving marketing strategies. Survey research was conducted to obtain benefits for descriptive purposes and compare existing conditions. The population is consumers who use travel and tourism services on the island of Bali. Sampling used in this study is 1) Non probability; 2) Mutistage sampling; 3) Proportional Sampling; 4) Accidental sampling. The research sample was 100 people using 7 travel and tourism companies which were relatively widely used on the island of Bali. The measurement in this study uses a Likert scale and modification. The data analysis used is Importance Performance Analysis. An assessment of the level of importance and the results of a performance evaluation will produce a calculation regarding the level of conformity. The level of conformity is the result of a comparison between importance and performance scores. Another analysis used is the Cartesian diagram. The Cartesian diagram is a coordinate divided into four parts which are limited by two lines that intersect perpendicular to the points X and Y. The results of the study are; 1) Quadrant A, consumers strongly demand an increase in service quality from employee competency and responsibility, good service, willingness of employees to help consumers difficulties, and employees can look after consumers while traveling. The four elements are considered important by consumers, but in their implementation and performance they are still not in accordance with the wishes of consumers; 2) Quadrant B, consumers demand that the company continue to maintain the dimensions of service quality from existing elements. These twelve elements are considered important by consumers and in performance or implementation are in accordance with the wishes and expectations of consumers; 3) Quadrant C, consumers demand the company to be able to provide an important value from the performance or implementation carried out. These three elements, are considered less important by consumers and in performance or implementation are also not in accordance with the wishes and expectations of consumers; 4) Quadrant D, consumers demand that the company not be too excessive in services intended for consumers, because consumers can actually feel satisfaction from the simple performance of the element. These three elements are indeed less important for consumers, even though in performance or implementation they can provide satisfaction to their customers.

Keywords: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Descriptive, Importance Performance, Cartesian Diagram, Marketing Strategies, Bali Island, Tour & Travel.

1. Introduction
Companies generally want their customers to be maintained forever. This requires marketers to develop a strategy that is capable of achieving sales growth targets, increasing the portion of the company’s market, and achieving capabilities as the basis for sustainable growth (Ferdinand, 2000:3). Determine the right strategy so that it can survive amid competition and can increase its profitability. But in carrying out its strategy, the company will experience failure without being supported by both internal parties and outside parties. Choosing a target market and serving it well, the company must determine the target market because it really helps the company in determining its marketing opportunities. Kotler (2002:292), target marketing requires marketers to take three steps; (1) market segmentation that is identifying and forming different customer groups that might request products; (2) the application of the target market, namely choosing one or more market segments to enter and; (3) the determination of market position, namely differentiating, communicating the main benefits that distinguish products in the market.
Increasingly intense competition between companies that provide travel and transportation services is caused by aspects that support accelerated change, but consumers are increasingly smart, aware of prices, many requests, and more alternatives. In a situation of increasingly fierce competition, causing competition in tour and travel services on the island of Bali is getting tougher because there are many new companies popping up and old companies must still exist in improving their services so that customers do not move to other tour and travel services on the island of Bali. The tour and travel provider company on the island of Bali which is widely used by tourists is H.I.S. Travel Indonesia, Bali Purnama Tour, Bali Pandu Tour, Dikta Bali Tour, RR Bali Tour, Bayu Buana Travel & Bali Wisata Travel. Tour and Travel Managers on Bali Island must be oriented to customer satisfaction in improving marketing strategies. The company’s survival is important to be able to create customer satisfaction.
Problems in research;
a. What is the level of customer satisfaction with the quality of service based on Importance Performance Analysis on several tour and travel services in Bali?
b. What is the position of quadrant service attributes based on the evaluation of Importance Performance Analysis service quality on some tour and travel services in Bali?

2. Literature Review
Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong relationships with customers in order to capture the value of customers in return (Kotler, 2008:5).
According to Zeithaml in Tjiptono (2004:14), service quality includes five dimensions, namely;
a. Physical evidence. Associated with physical facilities, employee appearance, equipment and technology used in member services, equipment and technology used in providing services will contribute to the speed and accuracy of services.
b. Reliability. The ability to produce promised service performance accurately and surely. This means that the service must be on time and in the same specifications, without errors, whenever the service is given.
c. Responsiveness. The ability of employees to help customers and provide responsive services. This is reflected in the speed, accuracy of services provided to customers.
d. Guarantee. Associated with the ability of employees to instill trust in customers, and knowledge and courtesy of employees in providing services to consumers, knowledge, knowledge, politeness, and ability of employees will lead to trust and confidence in the company.
e. Empathy. Ease in making relationships, good communication, personal attention and understanding customer needs. This is related to the attention or concern of employees to customers.
In general, satisfaction is feeling happy or disappointed someone who comes from a comparison between his impression of the performance (or results) of a product and its expectations (Kotler, 2003:36). Day in Tjiptono (2000:146), satisfaction or customer dissatisfaction is the customer’s response to the evaluation of the perceived incompatibility between the previous expectations and the actual performance of the product felt by the wearer.

3. Conceptual Framework
The quality of a service product will affect consumer satisfaction, namely how the company can develop and make use of any changes. Determining the position of the company aims to maximize the capabilities possessed, is very important for success in the future.
The five dimensions of service quality consisting of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and physical evidence are used as determinants of the quality of services provided by H.I.S. Travel Indonesia, Bali Purnama Tour, Bali Pandu Tour, Dikta Bali Tour, RR Bali Tour, Bayu Buana Travel & Bali Wisata Travel in handling tours on the trip. Importance performance analysis is the result of evaluation of importance (level of importance) and the results of the assessment of performance (performance) then a calculation will be made regarding the level of conformity. The level of conformity is the result of a comparison between importance and performance scores. An important performance analysis tool for the five dimensions of service quality, can be expected to know the ratio between the level of consumer interest (importance) and company performance (performance) provided by the Travel and Tour company on Bali Island, the results of the comparison will be known. Then, the performance score and importance score will be included in the Cartesian diagram, so that the position of service attributes can be known. The position of service attributes on the Cartesian diagram, can be seen what must be maintained and what should be improved in order to be able to retain customers and be able to attract new consumers. The conceptual framework in this study is as follows :

4. Research Methods
4.1 Research Design
Descriptive research using survey methods. Survey research is research conducted to obtain benefits for descriptive purposes, comparing existing conditions with predetermined criteria. Primary data is data derived from questionnaires distributed to respondents and the results of interviews conducted with respondents. Primary data includes respondents’ answers through questionnaires and data obtained from interviews with consumers using several tour and travel services in Bali.
The population in this study are consumers of tour and travel service users on the island of Bali and consist of 7 companies managing tour and travel services in Bali, namely H.I.S. Travel Indonesia, Bali Purnama Tour, Bali Pandu Tour, Dikta Bali Tour, RR Bali Tour, Bayu Buana Travel & Bali Wisata Travel.
The sampling used in this study is to use; 1) Non probability sampling for one time selected respondents; 2) Mutistage sampling for objects used; 3) Proportional sample for the distribution of the number of respondents in the object; and; 4) Accidental sampling for selected respondents because it is very difficult to find respondents who often use tour and travel services.
Sampling uses the opinion of Roscoe (in Sekaran, 2006: 160), that the sample size of more than 30 and less than 500 is appropriate for most studies. A sample size that is too large (more than 500) can be a problem because it is susceptible to Type II errors, that is, when you accept the research findings, in fact we should reject it. Sample sizes that are too large or too small will not help the research project. The samples taken in this study were 100 respondents.
Measurements in this study, using a Likert scale and modification. Criteria in the Likert scale used are ordinal, that is in the form of numbers that contain levels 1 – 5, which are very insignificant – very important and very dissatisfied – very satisfied.
Variables and indicators are used;
a. Physical evidence. Indicators: 1) Condition of the vehicle; 2) Vehicle facilities; 3) Neatness of employees; 4) Consumption.
b. Reliability. Indicators: 1) Competent employees; 2) Service of employees; 3) Professional employees.
c. Responsiveness. Indicators: 1) Information needed; 2) Employee assistance; 3) Friendliness of employees.
d. Guarantee. Indicators: 1) Comfort; 2) Mastery of travel routes; 3) Safety.
e. Empathy. Indicators: 1) Employees are on good terms; 2) Employees understand consumer desires; 3) Employees respond to consumer complaints.