The Prevalence of Sheep Production and Marketing System

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: April 7, 2019

Kindalem Bayew
Animal Health Department Head in Janamora Wereda Livestock Development Office
Janamora, Ethiopia

Journal Full Text PDF: The Prevalence of Sheep Production and Marketing System (Study in Janamora Wereda).

Abstract
The study was conducted in Gondar town from February to May, 2018 with the objective to Assess sheep production and marketing system in Gondar town. Four representative kebeles (Enchet Kab, Deresgie, Rob Gebeya and Denkolako) were selected by simple random sampling technique out of the selected Keble 55 sheep producers were selected purposively. The study was carried out through informal and formal surveys. From the total of (N=55) respondents majority of the sheep owning households were male headed (83.6%) while only small proportions (16.4%) were headed by females. The educational level of the respondents in the study area was also different those include illiterate (3.6%), read and write level (7.3%), elementary school (30.9%), secondary school (38.2%), above secondary (12.7%), spiritual level (5.5%) and others no response (1.8%). The purpose of sheep production by producer in the study area was for cash income (49.1%), home slaughter (16.4%), cash income and meat (29.1%) and manure (5.4%). Producers on average had 4 heads of sheep (n = 55) per household. The main feed sources for sheep in the area were natural pasture (63.6%) and crop residue (36.4%). Natural pasture and crop residue was the main feed resource during the rainy season; natural pasture, crop stubble grazing and crop residue in the dry season. The sheep producers in the study area were used supplementary feeds specially multiple feed which were contribute 12.7%, food left over and nug cake 47.2%, brewery by product and attela (34.7%), and supplement 20% minerals sources of salt. The main sheep production constraints were grazing land and feed shortage (40%), sheep disease (26.67), labor shortage (16.67), market problem (10%) and lack of extension service (6.67%). Therefore, from the present study it can be conclude that grazing land and feed shortage is the main constraints of sheep production and small traders, butchers, restaurants, and consumers are the main stakeholders of sheep market in the area.

Keywords: Janamora, Enchet Kab, Deresgie, Sheep & Market.

1. INTRODUCTION
Ethiopia has a large livestock resource than most countries in Africa and more than 80% of the human population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods [1] and usually keep livestock as pastoralists and in mixed crop livestock systems. The agricultural sector contributes 41.4% of the Gross Domestic Product of the country [2]. There are about 26.1 million and 21.7 million sheep and goats population heads in the Ethiopia respectively [3]. Sheep are important components of the livestock subsector and are sources of cash income and play a vital role as sources of meat, milk and wool for smallholder keepers in different farming systems and agro-ecologcal zones of the country [4]. They are also sources of foreign currency [5].
Moreover, due to their high fertility, short generation interval, adaptation in harsh environment and their ability to produce in limited feed resource they are considered as investment and insurance [6]. Efforts geared towards improving sheep production in Ethiopia have to be made through developing situation specific development interventions. The feasibility of cropping and the type of crops to be produced depend on climatic and biotic factors. The extent of cropping and the type of crop, in turn, determine the quantity, quality and distribution of animal feed resources throughout the year. On the other hand, the feed resource base and disease challenge determine the animal production system of the area [7].
Unlike the large potential of small ruminants in the country their productivity is low. There are various factors that contribute for low productivity: health constraints, feed shortage both in Quality and quantity, poor feeding and health management [6, 8].
Other contributing factors also include low genetic potential; policy issues [9] market and institutional problems and problem of credit facilities and others [5]. Although various research and development activities have been carried out in the past, no significant increase in productivity was achieved. Therefore, this study was conducted with the following objectives;
a. To assess sheep production and marketing system in Janamora Wereda.
b. To asses sheep feed source in the study area.
c. To identify sheep production system and constraints.
d. To asses sheep marketing in Janamora Wereda.

2. Material and Methods
2.1. Description of the Study Area
The study was conducted in Janamora Wereda Janamora Wereda is located in North Gondar Zone of Amhara region, at the latitude and longitude of 12o59’N 38o07’E at a distance of about 180km from Gondar town. Janamora Wereda is well-known with Semien mountain National Park, Ras Dashen i.e the highest point in Ethiopia and it is a home to a number of endangered species including the Ethiopian Wolf, waliya ibex, and a wild goat which no found in elsewhere in the world. The area has an altitude range of 2900 meters above sea level. The region is marked by numerous mountains, hilly, and sloppy areas, plateaus, rivers, and many streams. Livestock population of the area comprises 100,386 cattle, 32,975 sheep, 131,041 goats, 2,540 horses, 634 mules, 7758 donkeys, 119,347 poultry. The farming system of the study area is characterized by a mixed crop-livestock production system. Transhumance, from the highlands to western lowlands, is practiced as an important strategy to secure grazing resources for the highland livestock during the dry season of the year. In the case of the lowlands, crop farming is not as intensive as high and mid-highland areas and livestock has larger contributions to the farmer’s livelihoods [10].

2.2 Sampling Methods and Data Collection
2.2.1. Sampling techniques
Based on geographical placement of Janamora wereda the study was conducted using formal as well as informal survey methods and kebeles was selected by using simple random sampling technique. On the next stage, house holders were selected by using purposive sampling technique.

2.2.2 Sampling Procedure and Data Collection
The study was conducted by using the primary and secondary source of data collection. Method of relevant information was collected by preparing questionnaire and conduct with randomly select 55 sheep owner producer from Janaomra Wereda. The questionnaire was designed, pre-tested and modified before the commencement of the actual administration to check its clarity to respondents and appropriateness of the question.

2.2.3. Statistical Analysis
The data on Feeding sources, Marketing, sheep production system and constraints were organized, summarized and analyzed using Excel.

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Characteristics’ of the respondent
General information of the sheep producers in Janamora wereda are indicated on Table 3.1. From the total of (N=55) respondents majority of the sheep owning households were male headed (83.6%) while only small proportions (16.4%) were headed by females. The educational level of the respondents in the study area was also different those include illiterate (3.6%), read and write level (7.3%), elementary school (30.9%), secondary school (38.2%), above secondary (12.7%), spiritual level (5.5%) and others no response (1.8%) look the table below.

3.2. Sheep production system and purpose of rearing in the study area
Purposes of keeping sheep in study area are indicated on Table 3.2.The sheep production systems in the study area were peri urban system. On average sheep keeping per house hold were 4 heads. In this system feed resource were usually house hold wastes, market area wastes, food left over, by product, road and river side grazing. From the total of respondantes the purpose of sheep production on the study area were sale (cash income) (49.1%), meat (16.4%), sale and meat (29.1%) and for manure (5.4%). Easter, Meskel, New Year and Christmas were the main period on which producers slaughter sheep in the order of importance. Based on the informal survey result, male sheep at young age (from 4 to 12 months of age) were mostly slaughtered for home consumption.
This study was in line with that of [11] urban and peri-urban production system was practiced in town and cities by wage earners who invest cash (sale) on sheep production for short-term profit. Sheep producers in the study area rear sheep for four main purposes: for Cash income, home slaughter, sale and meat and manure during festivals.

3.3. Feed resources
Sources of sheep feeds in the study area are indicated on Table 3.3. The main feed resources for sheep production in the study area were natural pasture which is contributing (63.6%) and crop residue (36.4%). Natural pasture and crop residue was the main feed resource during the rainy season; natural pasture, crop stubble grazing and crop residue in the dry season. The sheep producers in the study area were used supplementary feeds specially multiple feed which were contribute 12.7%, food left over and nug cake 47.2%, brewery by product and attela (34.7%), and supplement 20% minerals sources of salt
The main feed resource in the study area was natural pasture and crop residue. This result was agreed with that of the report of [12] the major available feed resource for sheep were natural pasture, crop residue, agro-industrial by-product and cultivated improved forage crops.

3.4. Marketing system in study Area
In the study area the marketing system were provide information flows from consumer to producer and vice –versa. There were three types of sheep market. i.e. primary, secondary and terminal market depends on the purpose of buyer. In the two selected market areas Mekane Birhan and Enchet Kab were sold and purchased in every market days. At Mekane Birhan, the medium market area was predominant sold sheep, cattle and goat species. The second market place located in Enchet Kab in that market place the predominant animals were sold sheep and goat.
During festivals the demand were very high and the animals sold by better prices. The minimum and maximum price of sheep in Janamora Wereda was 1400-3700 ETB per sheep. Marketing of sheep and goats was fluctuated on the bases of seasonality. This report was in line with that of the report of [13] demand and price increased during festival periods. Factors affecting market supply, as measured by the number offered, include high demand during religious festivals, quality and quantity of grazing.